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California State Mining Bureau 

Occupies the two upper floors of the New Pioneer Building, No. 24 Fourth 
Street, Sau Francisco. 

■:i ' a; • • • >,' W $5 

^ $ ■ . - u. % I 



CALIFORNIA STATE MINING BUREAU. 

J. J. CRAWFORD, State Mineralogist. 



TWELFTH REPORT 



STATE MINERALOGIST 



(SECOND biennial; 



TWO YEARS ENDING SEPTEMBER 15, 1894. 




U.CD. LIBRARY 

SACRAMENTO: 

state office, : : : : : a. j. Johnston, supt. state printing. 

1894. 



LIBRARY 

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 
DAVIS 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



[Note. — As the arrangement of this Report is such that the subjects are placed in 
separate chapters in alphabetical order, and under the subject titles the counties and 
mines follow, each also in alphabetical order, a detailed index is considered unnecessary.] 



Pages. 

Letter of Transmittal 1 

Report of Board of Trustees 3-7 

Report of State Mineralogist 8-20 

Antimony 21-23 

Argentiferous Galena . 23-26 

Asphaltum and Bituminous Rock ._ 26-33 

Borax 34-35 

Chromic Iron 35-38 

Coal 38-65 

Copper 66-70 

Gold— Amador County _ _ 70-80 

Butte County _ 80-89 

Calaveras County _ 89-100 

Colusa County _ 100 

Del Norte County 100-101 

El Dorado County. _ 101-127 

Fresno County 127-131 

Glenn County 131-132 

Humboldt County 132-134 

Inyo County 135-141 

Kern County (See also Red Rock and Goler Districts) 141-148 

Lassen County _ ._ 148-151 

Los Angeles County ._ 151-153 

Madera County 153-167 

Mariposa County... 167-176 

Mendocino County 176-177 

Mono County 177-184 

Monterey County _ 184 

Nevada County 185-203 

Orange County 203 

Placer County ._ 203-213 

Plumas County 213-220 

Riverside County 220-225 

Sacramento County 225-227 

San Benito County.... 227-228 

San Bernardino County 228-237 

San Diego County 237-243 

San Luis Obispo County 243 

San Mateo County 243 

Santa Cruz County 243-244 

Shasta County 244-260 

Sierra County —- -- 266-275 

Siskiyou County - - -— 275-294 

Stanislau?. County --- 294 



IV CONTENTS. 

Page. 

Gold— Tehama County _ 295 

Tulare County 295-298 

Tuolumne County L_ 298-307 

Trinity County 307-314 

Ventura County . 314-316 

Yolo County . 316 

Yuba County _ 316-322 

Gypsum.. 323-325 

Iron. .. . 325-327 

Magnesite 1 328 

Manganese 329-330 

Mineral Springs 331-347 

Natural Gas.... 348-352 

Petroleum _ 352-358 

Quicksilver.. . 358-372 

Silver 372-378 

Structural Materials 379-380 

Cement.. _ 380-381 

Clay, Bricks, Pottery, etc. 381-384 

Granite . 384-387 

Macadam ._ 388-390 

Marble, Limestone, and Lime 391-396 

Paving-Blocks ._ 396-398 

Sandstone 398-400 

Slate 400-402 

Steatite and Serpentine 402 

Travertine and Onyx 403 

Trachyte, etc. . 404-405 

Miscellaneous— Asbestos... . 406 

Baryta 406 

Diatomaceous Earth 406 

Emery 406 

Mineral Paint 406 

Natural Carbonic Gas . 407 

Pectolite 408 

Platinum. 408 

Salt 408-409 

Soda 409 

Sulphur 410 

Water 410-411 

Zinc... ....: 411 

Determining Value of Gold Specimens 412 

Electric Transmission in Mining Operations 413-455 

Red Rock and Goler Districts, Kern County 456-458 

Auriferous Conglomerate in California 459-471 

Geology of Inyo, Mono, and Alpine Counties 472-478 

Geology of El Dorado County 479-481 

Geology of Madera and Mariposa Counties 165-167 

Ancient Channels in Calaveras County 482-492 

Geology of Ventura, Santa Barbara, etc 493-526 

Appendix — 

Act Creating Mining Bureau 529-532 

Bell Signal Law. : 532-533 

Hydraulic Mining Defined 534 

Debris Commissioner Act .--. 534-535 

Caminetti Law -.-- 535-541 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Page. 

Arrastra, Horse-Power ._ 128 

Arrastra, Steam-Power 128 

Arrastra, Water-Power 128 

Armature Section 437 

Basaltic Columns, Kern River . 142 

Black Mountain, Kern County ... 456 

Borax Seam, San Bernardino County 34 

Borax Works, Searles, San Bernardino County ... 34 

Central Hill Channel (Section) 483 

Cerro Gordo, Inyo County 374 

Channel System, Harmony Ridge, Nevada County 203 

Cherokee Mine, Placer County (Plan) 206 

Columnar Basalt near Head of Kern River 142 

Coal Cars 50 

Coal Dumping Cars 43 

Coal, Manner of Mining at lone 41 

Coal Measures, Corral Hollow, Alameda County . 39 

Coal Workings, Underground, Somersville.. 45 

Coal Workings, Underground, Star Mine 47 

Coal Workings, Underground, Stewart's Mine 49 

Corral Flat Channel, Calaveras County 487 

Crystal Mine, El Dorado County 107 

Death Valley _ 472 

Electric Power Line, Bodie 420 

Electric Pumps, Cover Mine ._ 452 

Empire Mine, Sierra County (Section) _ 265 

Evans Hills, Mariposa County 169 

Flat Ravine Mine, Placer County... 208 

Generator Switch-Board in Power House 424 

Generator and Motor at Telluride, Colorado 440 

Generator and Water Wheels in Operation, Mono County 420 

Geological Section, Chalone Peaks 523 

Geological Section, Cuy ama and San Rafael Ranges . . 497 

Geological Section, East from Gavilan Range.. 521 

Geological Section, Madera County 169 

Geological Section, Port Harford to Salinas River 511 

Geological Section, Northern Ventura County 497 

Geological Section. Santa Barbara Canon 498 

Geological Section, Santa Ynez Range 502 

Geological Section, Santa Lucia Range . _ 508, 509, 511-516 

Geological Section, Santa Lucia, San Juan, and Mt. Diablo Ranges _. 507 

Geological Section, through Pine Mountain _. _. 516 

Geological Section, Santa Maria to Cuy ama Valley --- 502 

Gold Note and Philadelphia Mines _ 120 

Gover Mine, Amador County _. -- 73 

Grizzly at Champion Mine.. 187 

Hite Mine, Mariposa County ._. 170 

Inyo White Marble Quarry --• 392 

Kennedy Mine, Amador County ... 75 

Lightning Arresters ■- 443, 444, 446 



VI ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Page. 

Lighting Plant, Portland, Oregon _ 436 

Line Details of Electric Power Line 427 

Louisa Mine, Mariposa County _. 172 

Map of Ancient Channel System of Calaveras County 432 

Map of Channel System of San Andreas and Mokelumne Hill 486 

Map of Auriferous Conglomerate Deposit', Siskiyou County 464 

Map of Gravel Mines near Placerville, El Dorado County _. 100 

Metam orphic Cliff on Eel River 58 

Milton Mine (Section) 117 

Mining Bureau Building Frontispiece 

Mokelumne Hill Region, Calaveras County 491 

Motor in Operation, Standard Consolidated Mill _ 422 

Motor Plant at Telluride, Colorado 439 

Motor at Telluride .... 440 

Motor Switch-Board, Mono County 421 

Mountains between Panoche and San Benito 521 

Non-conformity in Sisquoc Canon 499 

Odin Channel, Nevada County _. 197 

Pack Train in Panamint Valley 472 

Penstock and Flume, Mono County... _ 421 

Pine City, Mono County... 374 

Pine Tree and Josephine Mines, Mariposa County 174 

Pipe-Line and Bridge in Trinity County _- 308 

Pipe-Line and Bridge, Brown's Valley Irrigation District _. 316 

Pole for Electric Power Line in Winter . _ 428 

Power House of Standard Consolidated Mining Company 422 

Power House at Green Creek, Mono County _ 426 

Raymond Granite Quarry, Madera County 384 

Riffle used at Linden Mine, El Dorado County 115 

Rocky Point Marble Quarry, Tulare County 386 

Rocky Point Granite Quarry, Tulare County 386 

Sandstone Cliff, Red Rock District, Kern County 458 

Soda Evaporating Basins, Owens Lake _ 410 

Summer Views on Pole Line, Mono County.. 427 

Summit Camp, Kern County 456 

Thistle Mine, Sierra County 265 

Travertine Deposit, Mono County 402 

Travertine Deposit, Main Fissure of 402 

Tunnel Ridge Channel, Calaveras County ._. 487 

Vanderbilt District Vein System 237 

Volcanic Tufa, Red Rock, Kern County 458 

Water Wheels for Electric Power Plants 423 

West Harmony Channel, Nevada County.. 202 



To his Excellency H. H. Markham, Governor of California: 

Sir: The Trustees of the State Mining Bureau herewith submit their 
report, in pursuance of the Act of the Legislature approved March 23, 
1893, entitled "An Act to provide for the establishment, maintenance, 
and support of a bureau, to be known as the State Mining Bureau, and 
for the appointment and duties of a Board of Trustees, to be known as 
the Board of Trustees of the State Mining Bureau, who shall have the 
direction, management, and control of said State Mining Bureau, and 
to provide for the appointment, duties, and compensation of a State 
Mineralogist, who shall perform the duties of his office, under the con- 
trol, direction, and supervision of the Board of Trustees of the State 
Mining Bureau." 

J. Z. DAVIS. 

W. SL KEYES. 

THOS. B. BISHOP. 

W. S. LYLE. 

J. E. DOOLITTLE. 
San Francisco, September, 1894. 



REPORT OF TRUSTEES OF STATE MINING BUREAU 



Since the issuance of the last report of the Trustees, J. J. Crawford, 
M.E., has been appointed State Mineralogist, vice Wm. Irelan, Jr., M.E., 
term expired. 

The Board of Trustees, in presenting herewith the report of the State 
Mineralogist, takes pleasure in bearing testimony to the zeal, energy, and 
fitness of Mr. Crawford and his corps of field and resident assistants, 
chief amongst whom is the able and painstaking Secretary and Custo- 
dian of the Museum, Mr. H. S. Durden. 

The Board wishes also to express their approval of the work of the 
scientific assistants in the laboratory, Dr. Wm. D. Johnston and Mr. 
C. G. Schneider, as well as of the minor employes. 

MUSEUM. 

The rooms wherein are exposed the collections of the Bureau are, 
year by year, becoming more and more inadequate to a proper display 
of the valuable exhibits sent in by the field assistants and donated or 
loaned by the well-wishers of the institution. Hence, the Director of 
the museum has been compelled to look more to the improvement of the 
quality than the quantity of new offerings, and has, with the approval 
of the Trustees, returned to the lenders quite a number of exhibits not 
directly and strictly in line with the objects and purposes of the Bureau, 
bearing in mind always that practical utility is what the Legislature 
required and intended. 

The attendance at the rooms, as shown by the register, from the date 
of the last report up to August, 1894, was 65,985. 

There has been added to the exhibits a grand total of 1,038 specimens. 
Amongst the most noteworthy may be mentioned the following: A large 
glass model of the underground workings of the Eureka Consolidated 
mines, Eureka, Nevada, presented by the company and restored gratui- 
tously, where damaged, by Thos. J. Read, M.E. and C.E. 

A large model, showing actual method of timbering stopes, drifts, and 
a three-compartment shaft, by Mr. A. C. Hamilton. 

A model of a sluice, as used in hydraulic mining, together with grizzly, 
undercurrents, etc., by Col. J. E. Doolittle. 

A series of ten views of placer mining in California, taken in 1852, 
and believed to be the only set in existence. 

Also a remarkably fine crystal of sulpho-carbonate of soda (Hank- 
site), presented by Mr. J. W. Searles, of the San Bernardino Borax 
Company. 

LABORATORY. 

Prospectors, miners, and others have availed themselves continually 
of the facilities of the Bureau for determining new and supposedly useful 
rocks, earths, ores, and waters. Since the last report, answers have been 



4 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

sent by letter to 594 inquirers; 2,070 specimens have been examined 
and passed upon, and 660 determinations have been made to parties 
who have presented their specimens in person. In addition, many slides 
have been made for the classification of rock handed in by the field 
assistants, and between 60 and 70 complete analyses of coal and lignites 
have been made and published. 

LIBRARY. 

During the period since the last report of the Board of Trustees, but 
48 volumes have been added to the library by purchase, owing to the 
limited amount of funds in hand available for that purpose. By con- 
tributions, some 50 bound volumes, mostly geological reports of the dif- 
ferent States, and Government publications, have been received, and 
several hundred pamphlets from scientific societies, and many valuable 
statistical reports from abroad. 

During the period above mentioned some 6,000 volumes of the State 
Mineralogist's report have been distributed throughout the State to 
individuals interested in mining enterprises, and about 1,000 to scientific 
societies and exchanges. 

Of Bulletin No. 2, on "Methods of Mine Timbering," recently pub- 
lished, some 4,000 copies have already been distributed and are in active 
demand, and constitute a valuable and greatly appreciated contribution 
to the miners of the State. 

The number of visitors to the Bureau seeking information and refer- 
ence to the library is increasing, the monthly average indicating about 
10,000 per annum. 

The number of letters received seeking information on mining and 
scientific subjects number some 10,000, all of which were promptly 
answered and much useful information given to the general public. 

FACILITIES FOR RECEIVING SPECIMENS. 

The Trustees desire again to repeat their sense of obligation to Wells, 
Fargo & Co., for kindness and public spirit in transporting, free of charge, 
all packages for the use of the Bureau up to twenty pounds in weight. 

LIST OF DONORS TO THE MUSEUM. 



Adams, Herbert C. 
Adams, Frank 
Anderson, H. G. 
Anderson, John N. 
Atwood, Melville 

Bacheller, F. 

Banner Mining Co. of Ne- 
vada City. 
Barker, C. O. 
Bartlett, W. P. 
Bayne, Peter 
Bell, Newton M. 
Bishop, Joseph 
Bitner, C. C. 
Bitter, John 
Blair, James 
Blanc, A. 
Brandt, E. H. 
Braverman, M. 



Brown, Geo. L. 
Browne, Ross E. 
Brown, W. Q. 
Brusie, James 
Bryant, John 
Burbridge, W. E. 
Burdett, W. P. 

Caldwell, E. J. 
Caldwell, Hugh V. 
California Slate Co. 
Camden, Chas. 
Campbell, J. B. 
Campbell, The R. H. Gold 

Mining Co. 
Cartwright & Phillips. 
Champion Mining Co. of 

Nevada City. 
Chapin, W. C. 
Cheney, A. H. 



Chenot, Eugene E. 
Clark, Dr. J. D. 
Classen, Geo. 
Clinton Con. Mining Co. 
Cluff & Dalton. 
Compania del Boleo. 
Conant, J. W. 
Cook, E. N. 
Cook, J. D. 
Cox, Joseph F. 
Crawford, J. J. 

Daggett, Hon. John 
Dannenbrink, C. 
Davidson & Kennedy 
Davis, J. Z. 
Day, Mrs. H. H. 
Derby, Chas. E. 
Diller, Prof. J. S. 
Divelbis Bros. 



REPORT OF TRUSTEES OP STATE MINING BUREAU. 



Donon, Geo. 
Doolittle, Col. J. E. 
Drake, Dr. M. F. 
Drew, W. F. 
Dron, Alex., Jr. 
Duff, C. J. 

Easton, Chas. F. 
Edwins & Davison 
Elgin, Dr. G. D. 
Ella Jane Mining Co. 
Eureka Con. Mining Co. of 
Nevada. 

Faust, H. W. 
Field, A. L. 
Flaherty, Mr. 
Fleming, G. W. 
Ford & Bentley 
Frazer, A. 
Freeman, N. A. 
Friday, Walter 
Fuchs, Chas. 
Fugler, T. 

Gaghenbaugh, Harmon 
Garbutt, Geo. 
Gee, A. M. 
Gilson, C. B. 
Gleichner, Louis 
Goedicke, Theo. F. 
Golden Gate Mining Co. of 

Tuolumne County. 
Gold Run Mining Co. 
Gonzales, Osborn & Boyle 
Gray, Geo. D. 
Greenberg, L. 
Grimmer, C. A. 
Griswold, M. 

Hague, Capt. J. C. 

Hamilton, Chas. 

Hamilton, A. C. 

Hanna, Judge W. K. 

Hardy, E. A. 

Harlan, J. H. 

Harmony Mining Co. of 

Nevada City. 
Harriman, Mr. 
Haskell, D. H. 
Haustein, Alfred 
Haylock, J. 

Healdsburg Min'al Paint Co. 
Hendricks, S. 
Hillyer, Jas. A. 
Hinkle, H. 
Hooper, Edward 
Hosking, Thos. 
Houston, Mr. 
Hunt, Levi 
Hunter, E. 
Hyland, M. H. 

lone Coal and Iron Co. 
Irma Manufacturing Co. 

Jaske, Rev. Herman 
Joerson, John 
Jones, E. W. 
Jones, Thomas 

Kane, William 



Karlson, A. E. 
Keene, F. W. 
Keeney, E. J. 
Keyes, W. S. 
Knapp, H. H. 
Koerdell, Dr. Fred 
Krebs, E. 
Kruft, Joe 
Kunz, Geo. F. 

Lane, Thos. J. 
LaMotte, Prof. H. D. 
Langrehr, Henry C. 
Lockwood, J. L. 
Lombard, L. L. 
Lukens, T. P. 

Macken, Robert 

Maguire, Don 

Martin, Leonard 

Mason, W. Q. 

Matheson, C. A. 

Maxwell, Walter S. 

McArdle, T. H. 

McAuslan, P. 

McCarthy, John 

McCormick, E. 

McKinney, Rogers & O'Keefe 

McMillan, F. 

McNaughten, W. A. 

Mellis, T. N. 

Mercer, J. W. 

Merriman, Dr. A. F. 

Mills, W. F. 

Mills & Stiles 

Mitchell, Geo. M. 

Montanara, P. 

Moraga, J. G. 

Morgan, D. W. C. 

Mosebach, F. C. 

Muller, John 

Munson, J. P. 

Murray, T. A. 

Myers, A. G. 

Neale, John H. 
Neff, Hon. J. H. 
Neuman, P. J. 
Newcomb, B. M. 
Nichols, F. H. 

Odbert, J. P. 
'Gorman, J. F. 

Parker, Judge M. J. 
Parkinson, Jas., M.E. 
Payne, P. 
Posada, J. de la C. 
Pouchet, Prof. P. G. 
Price, Benj.T. 
Prows, Alma 
Punta Gorda Asphalt Co. 

Railton, E. M. 
Rand, Theo. D. 
Ranney, G. C. 
Recknagel, Wm. 
Redfern, J. M. 
Reed, J. L. 
Reed, Thos. J. 
Reno, W. G. 
Reynolds, R. 



Riffe, W. 
Robbs, J. A. 
Roberts, Arthur E. 
Robinson, A. J. 
Roch, Miss Valentine 
Ross, G. McM. 
Russell, Mr. 

Sawtelle, S. A. 

Schacht, Lemche & Steiner 

Schefflin, Ed. 

Schippmann, John 

Schmidt, Walter 

Scott, Jas.,A. 

Seager, A. L. 

Searles, J. W. 

Sharwood, W. 

Sheldon, E. F. 

Shoecraft, B. M. 

Simcox, T. 

Smith, Geo. 

Smith, J. B. 

Smith & Young 

Sociedad Nacional de Mine- 

ria de Chile 
Sprague, Geo. E. 
Sprague, Dr. F. F. 
Staab, H. G. 

Standard Asphalt Company 
Stanley, J. P. 
Stanton, Prof. T. W. 
Stevens & Greer 
Stevenson, Robert 
Stewart, Geo. D. 
Stites, D. B. 
Stockton, Dr. T. C. 
Stone, D. C. 
Storms, W. H. 
Sudweeks, Jas. 
Sumner & Brown 
Swales, G. W. 
Swan, A. B. 
Switzer, John 

Taggart & Hall 
Thaamum, D. 
Thayer, H. P. 
Thrasher, T. T. 
Tregido, Alfred 
Turnbow, H. 
Turner, P. T. 
Tuttle, Mrs. H. 

Uhle, Jno. C. 

Van Bramer, Jas. 
Vanderford, Geo. 
Veatch, J. A. 
Voorheis, Hon E. C. 

Washeim, Chas. T. 
Watts, W. L. 
Webelt & Wilson 
White, F. L. 
Wild, Theo. 

Williamsburgh Scientific So- 
ciety 
Wingate & Symonds 
Wright, J. B. 

Yetter, Chris. 



b REPORT OP STATE MINERALOGIST. 

MECHANICS' PAVILION — COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION — MIDWINTER FAIR. 

A preliminary exhibit of the specimens for the Columbian Exposition 
at Chicago, State of Illinois, was made at the Mechanics' Pavilion in 
the city of San Francisco in December, 1892. Early in 1893 an entire 
carload of specimens was packed, shipped, and delivered to the World's 
Fair Commissioners at Chicago. This collective exhibit of the Bureau 
embraced every known mineral product of the State of California, its 
lignites and rock oils alone excepted. The marble and so-called Mexi- 
can onyxes were particularly noticeable. Much to the regret of the 
Trustees, the specimens were divided between the Mining Building and 
the California State Building, which, in a measure, detracted from the 
impressiveness of the exhibits. 

A small exhibit of seven cases was made at the Midwinter Fair, in 
Golden Gate Park in this city. That it was not more extensive was 
owing not merely to a lack of funds, since the most rigid economy was 
necessary, but chiefly because the exhibit as a whole, in the museum of 
the Bureau, was far more attractive, and besides was open to the public, 
free of charge. 

LIST OF NEWSPAPERS RECEIVED IN EXCHANGE. 



We are greatly obliged to the editors, etc., of the following list of 
papers, which have been forwarded free to the Bureau during the last 
two years: 

Napa Register. 
New Era. 

Nevada State Journal 
Nevada News. 
Nevada Transcript. 
Nevada Evening Herald. 
New North West. 
Newcastle News. 
Northwest Mining Review. 

Oakland Enquirer. 
Oakland Graphic. 
Oakland Tribune. 
Ontario Record. 
Oroville Mercury. 
Oroville Register. 

Pacific Tree and Vine. 
Petaluma Courier. 
Petaluma Argus. 
Placer Argus. 
Placer County Republican. 
Placer County Herald. 
Pleasanton Times. 
Plumas National Bulletin. 
Political Record. 
Porterville Enterprise. 
Press and Horticulturist. 

Redwood City Democrat. 

Salinas Democrat. 

Salt Lake Tribune. 

Santa Cruz Surf. 

Santa Barbara Morning Press. 

Santa Inez Argus. 

Santa Maria Times. 

Santa Clara Journal. 

Santa Rosa Republican. 

San Jose Herald. 



Alameda Encinal. 
Alaska Herald. 
Amador Dispatch. 
Anaheim News. 
Anaheim Gazette. 
Arroyo Grande Herald. 

Bed Rock Democrat. 

Blue Lake Advocate. 

Bullion. 

Burney Valley Bulletin. 

Californian. 
Calaveras Prospect. 
Calaveras Citizen. 
Central Californian. 
Chino Valley Champion. 
Citrograph. 
Cloverdale Reveille. 
Colfax Sentinel. 
Colton Chronicle. 
Colusa Sun. 
Commercial Bulletin. 
Contra Costa Gazette. 
Contra Costa Democrat. 
Corning Observer. 

Daily Tidings. 
Del Norte Record. 
Democratic Banner. 
Dispatch Democrat. 
Dixon Tribune. 
Dunsmuir News. 

Eel River Valley Advance. 
El Dorado County Republi- 
can. 
Escondido Times. 
Eureka Sentinel. 
Evening Herald. 



Ferndale Enterprise. 

Four Corners. 

Free Lance. 

Free Press. 

Fresno County Enterprise. 

Fresno Expositor. 

Fresno Republican. 

Georgetown Gazette. 
Gilroy Gazette. 
Globe Review. 
Gridley Herald. 

Humboldt Standard. 
Humboldt Times. 

Inyo Independent. 

Juneau (Alaska) Record. 

Lassen Advocate. 
Lewiston Journal. 
Livermore Herald. 
Los Bailos Enterprise. 
Loomiston Journal. 
Los Angeles Express. 
Los Gatos Chronicle. 

Madera Mercury. 
Mariposa Gazette. 
Middletown Independent. 
Mining Industry. 
Mining World. 
Mining Standard. 
Mining New Era. 
Mountain Democrat. 
Mountain Messenger. 
Monterey Cypress. 

National City Record. 



REPORT OF TRUSTEES OF STATE MINING BUREAU. 



San Luis Obispo Tribune. 
San Benito Advance. 
Sacramento River News. 
Selma Irrigator. 
Shasta Courier. 
Sonoma County Tribune. 
Sonora Democrat. 
Stockton Record. 
Stockton Mail. 
Stanislaus Weekly News. 
St. Helena Star. 
Sutter Independent. 
Sutter County Farmer. 
Sidney Mining Standard. 



The Architect. 

Town and Country (Sidney) 

Journal. 
Trinity Journal. 
Tulare County Times. 
Tulare Register. 
Twin City News. 

Union Democrat. 

Vacaville Reporter. 
Valley Record. 
Ventura Free Press. 
Virginia Chronicle. 
Visalia Delta. 



Watsonville Transcript. 
Western Watchman. 
Weekly Standard. 
Weekly Palo Alto. 
Weekly Mercury. 
Weekly Trinity Journal. 
Weekly Visalia Delta. 
Weekly Bed Rock Democrat. 
Willows Journal. 
Wood River Times. 

Yreka Journal. 
Yreka Union. 



FINANCIAL ACCOUNTS. 



Feom July 1, 1892, to July 1, 1893. 



Balance on hand July 1, 1892 

Paid into Mining Bureau Fund _. 

Bureau appropriation forty-fourth fiscal year. 
Geological.. ._ 



Contra. 



Salary of State Mineralogist 

Salaries of geological assistants 

Traveling expenses of geological assistants. 

Clerical assistance geological work. _. 

Sundries geological work.. 

Maps 



Rent of Bureau 

Salaries of Bureau 

Library of Bureau _ 

Laboratory of Bureau 

Freight and express of Bureau... 

Minerals and museum of Bureau 

Postage of Bureau 

Sundries : telephone, fuel, water, gas, stationery, etc. 
Clerical assistance of Bureau _ 



$6,803 26 

3,102 00 

10,000 00 

15,000 00 



$3,000 00 

9,403 30 

1,965 50 

679 75 

221 80 

3,371 60 

3,000 00 

7,755 00 

405 27 

106 41 

255 68 

385 68 

219 33 

613 25 

137 00 



Balance 



$34,905 26 



$31,519 57 
3,385 69 

$34,905 26 



From July 1, 1893, to July 1, 1894. 

Balance on hand July 1, 1893 $3,385 69 

Paid into Mining Bureau Fund ._ 2,480 60 

Bureau appropriation forty-fifth fiscal year 10,000 00 

Geological appropriation forty-fifth fiscal year 15,000 00 

$30,866 29 

Contra. 

Salary of State Mineralogist $3,000 00 

Salaries of geological assistants _ 10,645 00 

Travelin g expenses of geological assistants 3,802 05 

Sundries for geological work _ _ 381 45 

Maps for geological work 193 90 

Rentof Bureau _ 3,000 00 

Salaries of Bureau _. _ 6,075 00 

Library of Bureau _ 398 28 

Laboratory of Bureau ._. 105 38 

Freight and express _ . 391 62 

Minerals and museum 97 45 

Postage 245 37 

Sundries: telephone, fuel, water, gas, stationery, etc 509 98 

Clerical assistance 100 00 

$28,945 48 

Balance 1,920 81 



$30,866 29 



REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 



REPORT OF THE STATE MINERALOGIST. 



To the Trustees of the State Mining Bureau: 

Gentlemen: In pursuance of the provisions of "An Act to provide 
for the establishment, maintenance, and support of a bureau to be 
known as the State Mining Bureau," etc., approved March 23, 1893, I 
herewith transmit my report for 1893 and 1894, which is the twelfth 
(or second biennial) report of the State Mineralogist. 

It will be noted that the plan of the report has been somewhat 
changed, and repetitions from the former reports avoided as far as 
possible by reference to page and volume of previous descriptions of the 
same properties. Special technical papers have been issued, and others 
are about ready to be issued, in the form of bulletins, so that only those 
relating to the general features of mines, mining, or geology are incor- 
porated in the main body of this report. By this means a marked 
reduction has resulted in the cost of printing, postage, etc., since many 
desire a copy of the report mainly for some one article specially useful 
to them. By thus segregating the special articles they may be supplied 
without sending the whole report. 

As the general features of the counties of California, relating to their 
climate, topography, location, etc., have been so often described in 
former reports, it has been considered best, in the interest of brevity, 
to omit all references of this character, except to note the features of 
progress and establishment of new industries. 

Instead of grouping all the county mineral products under the gen- 
eral county title, the following plan has been adopted: The descriptions 
of mineral properties, such as gold, silver, borax, coal, copper, chrome, 
lead, magnesite, petroleum, structural materials, etc., are arranged in 
separate chapters by subjects. Then the names of the counties in which 
such economic mineral substance occurs, and the names of the mines in 
such county producing it, follow each in alphabetical order. By this 
means the reader will be enabled to refer to what he seeks with the 
least possible trouble, and it may readily be noted just in what part of 
the State any one mineral substance is being mined. It should be 
stated that all the "mines" enumerated in this volume are "live" 
claims; that is, the assessment work required by law is kept up, even if 
they are not actively worked and producing. It is proper to note, 
however, that the statement of value of yield of the quartz, sulphurets, 
etc., is omitted, except where this has been verified by assay in the 
Bureau. 

Many mines have doubtless escaped the attention of the field assist- 
ants; but, though it was impossible with the time at our disposal to 
visit them, it is hoped that, by the time the next report is issued, to 
obtain a complete list. A lack of funds prevented the assistants from 
taking the field until the latter part of May, 1893; and this year it was 
necessary for them to return early in August for the purpose of writing 
up their notes, and digesting them thoroughly for this report, which is 



REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 9 

required by law to be submitted by September 15th. The field work was 
therefore necessarily curtailed to some extent both in 1893 and 1894. I 
would earnestly recommend that the Legislature amend the general law 
so that our report might be submitted on the 1st day of December. 
This would permit our assistants to take advantage of the best season 
of the year for field work and bring the report nearer up to date. 

It is gratifying to note a very marked increased interest in gold min- 
ing during the past two years. The unexampled depression in silver 
mining, due to the decrease in value and the political vicissitudes of 
that metal, has turned the attention of many miners to the gold mining 
industry. The success attending the investment of capital in gold 
properties has been such as to warrant others following the example. 
The three properties now producing the largest amount of gold per 
annum in this State are all mines which were abandoned some years 
ago when the conditions were different, but, being thoroughly equipped 
and exploited by the investment of capital, were reopened and have 
attained the position noted. 

The principal gold mines are in the northern and central portions of 
the State. Our annual gold product is largely from the quartz mines. 
Within recent years there have been so many improvements in methods 
and systems, that the cost in both the mining and milling of gold-bear- 
ing ores has been greatly reduced. As a consequence, gold mines are 
now worked at a profit which ten years ago could not be operated under 
the conditions then existing. There are, however, some thousands of 
" prospects," or undeveloped claims, which need capital for their proper 
exploitation. Experience has proved that in most instances it needs 
money to place a quartz claim on a paying basis, and the making of 
mines out of these numerous prospects is almost entirely a question of 
the investment of capital. They may prove of value, or valueless, but 
this can only be determined by work upon them. 

The quartz mining industry of California is at present in a better 
condition than it has ever been before. The speculative features have 
been to a very great extent eliminated, and careful business methods 
adopted, resulting in more profitable work and greater confidence of 
investors. The gold mines of California are to-day in great demand, but 
this demand is more for developed properties than for mere " prospects" 
which may or may not become mines. The principal difficulty under 
which the mining community labors is in obtaining financial aid to 
develop these unopened claims. The capitalist will not invest until 
developments warrant an examination; and the prospector is himself 
unable to open the claim properly. It is for these reasons that there 
are so many unproductive "mines" in the various counties of California. 

It is the object of this report not only to describe the condition of the 
older and more completely developed mines, but to refer as well to the 
smaller and less important claims, that attention may be turned to 
them by those desirous of purchasing such properties. Names of the 
owners of the mines, with addresses, are given, so it should be no trouble 
to open correspondence directly with the miners themselves. 

The annual gold product of California has remained for some years 
between twelve and thirteen millions of dollars; but of late there has 
been such a revived interest in this branch of mining that the output 
will be materially enlarged. Many old properties have been reopened, 
and new ones developed among the quartz mines, and, as stated else- 



10 



REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 



where, upwards of forty hydraulic mines, which have been for years 
unproductive, are now being again actively worked, and numerous 
applications for permits to mine by hydraulic method are pending. 
This all tends toward an increased output of gold, and as more capital 
is invested, our annual gold product should be maintained for some 
years at fifteen to sixteen millions. 

The product of silver in California is comparatively small, but the 
ores of the principal camp, Calico, San Bernardino County, can be 
worked cheaper than any silver ores on the Pacific Coast, so that some 
of the principal mines there have continued working, notwithstanding 
the fact that silver recently declined to the lowest point in value ever 
reached. This will account for the fact that during 1893, while silver 
mines all over the country were closing down, California more than 
doubled the silver output of 1892. The extensive silver belt in Shasta 
County is only partly developed. More or less silver is found with the 
gold ores throughout the State, but the entire silver product is now only 
a little over half a million a year. 

The following tables, based on returns to the Director of the United 
States Mint, show the gold and silver product of California, by coun- 
ties, for the past two years: 



Gold and Silver Product of California for 1892. 



County. 



Gold. 



Silver. 



Total. 



Amador .. 

Butte 

Calaveras 

Del Norte 

El Dorado 

Fresno 

Humboldt 

Inyo 

Kern 

Lassen ... 

Los Angeles 

Mariposa 

Merced 

Mono... 

Napa 

Nevada 

Orange 

Placer 

Plumas 

Sacramento 

Santa Barbara... 
San Bernardino . 

San Diego 

San Luis Obispo. 

Sbasta 

Sierra 

Siskiyou... 

Stanislaus 

Trinity 

Tulare 

Tuolumne 

Yuba.. 



$1,210,383 45 

316,998 50 

794,531 31 

4,102 00 

198,321 54 

112,981 00 

87,515 25 

13,930 31 

107,738 92 

15,400 00 

219,204 00 

81,011 94 

445 96 

396,296 85 

795 69 

1,945,406 31 

9,470 00 

1,159,079 60 

432,294 62 

121,900 00 

896 00 

47,037 00 

396,517 98 

1,097 00 

574,832 88 

688,464 30 

1,013,331 78 

14,190 60 

1,466,603 05 

24,355 38 

1,092,549 55 

44,217 80 



Totals $12,571,900 57 



$8,007 99 

610 00 

24,441 32 





6 00 


35,995 34 
72 49 




67 14 


70,006 59 

22,893 47 

8,325 72 


2,119 74 
11,730 84 




67,072 27 
2,050 75 


7,977 29 
26 11 
56 16 


168 33 

11 28 

911 63 



$262,550 46 



$1,218,391 44 

'317,608 50 

818,972 63 

4,102 00 

198,321 54 

112,987 00 

87,515 25 

49,925 65 

107,811 41 

15,400 00 

219.204 00 

81,079 08 

445 96 

466,303 44 

23,689 16 

1,953,732 03 

9,470 00 

1,161,199 34 

444,025 46 

121,900 00 

896 00 

114,109 27 

398,568 73 

1,097 00 

582,810 17 

688,490 41 

1,013,387 94 

14,190 60 

1,446,771 38 

24,366 66 

1,093,461 18 

44,217 80 



$12,834,451 03 



REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

Gold and Silver Product of California for 1893. 



11 



County. 



Gold. 



Silver. 



Total. 



Amador 

Butte 

Calaveras 

Colusa 

Del Norte 

El Dorado 

Fresno _. 

Humboldt 

Inyo -. 

Kern 

Los Angeles 

Madera 

Mariposa 

Mono 

Nevada 

Placer... 

Plumas 

Riverside 

Sacramento 

San Bernardino 

San Diego 

San Luis Obispo 

Shasta 

Sierra 

Siskiyou 

Stanislaus.^ 

Trinity 

Tulare 

Tuolumne 

Yuba.... 

Totals 



$1,505,973 

307,350 

1,669,192 

300 

10,352 

294,610 

7,118 

66,353 

25,944 

83,665 

14,200 

150,696 

164,116 

293,637 

2,067,203 

1,351,249 

362,488 

42,412 

90,090 

158,000 

105,860 

600 

500,407 

830,343 

799,108 

150 

1,122.994 

12,818 

354,734 

30,839 



|5,230 56 

5,503 56 

121 80 



1,219 80 



52,474 62 
1,754 00 



314 24 

307 00 

11,401 11 

1,229 27 

616 00 

13 50 



447,020 00 



,577 26 
45 50 



1,392 50 



$1,511,204 54 

312,854 14 

1,669,314 75 

300 00 

10.352 00 
295,830 06 

7,118 79 

66.353 61 
78,419 29 
85,419 72 
14,200 00 

151,010 77 

164,423 17 

305,038 50 

2,068,432 49 

1,351,865 70 

362,501 55 

42,412 41 

90,090 57 

605,020 00 

105,860 33 

600 00 

508,984 27 

830,388 65 

799,108 07 

150 00 

1,122,994 50 

12,818 00 

356,064 22 

30,839 27 



$12,422,811 60 



$537,157 77 



$12,959,969 37 



It is not, however, in gold and silver alone that the mineral wealth of 
California consists. Many other substances are mined here, which even 
now bring the value of the mineral products up to about $19,000,000 or 
$20,000,000 per annum. Many of these are increasing in value year by 
year, as there is more demand and a better market for the product. 

With the results for a single year in view, the great importance of 
the mining industries of California is apparent. As now conducted in 
the State, mining is not only a profitable but a safe industry, and the 
variety of products shows that it is a diversified one. Many thousands 
of men are directly employed and an immense amount of money put in 
circulation by the operations of our mines, quarries, etc. The mineral 
industry is one especially deserving the encouragement of the people of 
California, not only because it continues to be a source of great profit, 
but because, through it, the settlement of the State was originally 
brought about. 

While only a part of the great number of mines in this State have 
been visited by our field assistants during the period under review, it 
is found that those mines, quarries, etc., referred to in this report give 
direct employment to 13,107 men, and doubtless, indirectly, to as many 
more. With a complete list of all the mines of the State, and an 
enumeration of their employes, such as it is the intention to make, this 
number will be largely increased. 



12 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

The following statement shows the amount and value of all the min- 
eral products of the State for the year 1893, this being based on direct 
returns from producers: 

Mineral Products of California in 1893. 

Antimony _ 50 tons _ $2,250 00 

Asbestos _..50tons._ 2,500 00 

Asphaltum ... 9,150 tons 161,250 00 

Bituminous rock ._ .32,006 tons 192,036 00 

Borax 7,910,563 pounds 593,292 00 

Chrome _ 3,319 tons 49,785 00 

Clays- 
Bricks... 103,900 M $801,750 00 

Pottery uses 24,856 tons 67,284 00 



869,034 00 

Coal ..72,603 tons... 167,555 00 

Copper 239,682 pounds 21,571 00 

Gold. 12,422,811 00 

Granite.. _ _ 531,322 00 

Gypsum- 
Plaster of paris 180 tons $3,245 00 

Wall plaster 240tons 2,640 00 

Fertilizer 1,200 tons... 8,400 00 



1,620 tons $14,280 00 14,280 00 

Infusorial earth 2,000 00 

Iron ore 250 tons.. 2,000 00 

Lead 333 tons ... 24,975 00 

Limestone — 

Lime $288,626 00 

Flux 12,650 00 

301,276 00 



Macadam rock ..271,500 cubic yards 256,875 00 

Magnesite 1,093 tons _. 10,930 00 

Manganese _.270tons._ 4,050 00 

Marble 40,000 00 

Mineral paints — 

Iron... ...30 tons... $900 00 

Litharge and red lead 148 tons 17,760 00 

Metallic ...212 tons.. 4,135 00 

Ocher 200 tons. 4,000 00 



590 tons $26,795 00 26,795 00 

Mineral waters 383,179 gallons 190,667 00 

Naturalgas 68,500 00 

Onyx 27,000 00 

Paving blocks (basalt) 2,770 M 96,950 00 

Petroleum 470,179 barrels... 608,092 00 

Platinum.. 75 ounces 517 00 

Quicksilver.... 30,164 flasks — 1,108,527 00 

Bubble rock 99,600 tons 199,200 00 

Salt 50,500tons 213,000 00 

Sandstone _ 26,314 00 

Silver.. 537,157 00 

Slate 3,000 squares ~ 21,000 00 

Steatite 400 tons 17,750 00 



Total - - $18,806,261 00 

Since the preparation of the previous report issued by the Mining 
Bureau, there has been a marked and gratifying change in the condi- 
tions affecting the great hydraulic mining industry of California, some 
of the mines having again become productive. It is now possible to 
mine by the hydraulic method, under certain specified restrictions, in 
any part of the State; whereas, for many years before the passage of 
the so-called " Caminetti law," only those hydraulic mines tailing into 
the tributaries of the Klamath were enabled to carry on operations 
without danger of annoying suits at law. As a result, most of the 
larger and great numbers of the smaller hydraulic mines on streams 



REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 13 

which drain into the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers, or their 
tributaries, were closed by injunction, on the plea that the debris 
resulting from mining by this method was injuring the navigable 
streams or the farming lands along the banks. 

In his inaugural address, in January, 1891, Governor H. H. Markham 
called the attention of the Legislature and the people of the State to 
the subject of the possible rehabilitation of the hydraulic mines, and 
the advantage to be derived by again bringing about an increased gold 
production from that source. He suggested that the long-pending 
controversy between the residents of the mountain and valley counties 
might be amicably adjusted, and that Congress should be memorialized, 
and our Senators and Congressmen asked to lend their aid in rehabili- 
tating the industry. 

In accordance with Governor Markham's suggestion, the Legislature 
adopted a suitable memorial, which was forwarded to Congress. The 
miners themselves, with a revived hope, took concerted action, which 
resulted in a Miners' Convention being held in the city of San Fran- 
cisco and which was largely attended, not only by delegates from the 
mountain or mining counties, but from the valley or farming counties 
as well. An amicable understanding was reached, the miners asking 
only that Congress should devise some means by which the hydraulic 
mining properties could be worked without inflicting any of the injuries 
complained of in the past. A memorial to this effect was sent to Wash- 
ington. A commission of Government engineers, appointed by Con- 
gress, had previously made an investigation of the region affected by 
the hydraulic mining debris, and reported that under certain conditions 
impounding dams for the debris could be constructed which would pre- 
vent most of the damage resulting from this method of mining. 

The Caminetti bill was introduced, and the Legislature of this State, 
by a joint resolution, asked Congress to pass it or some similar measure, 
and it was finally passed, March 3, 1894. The essential feature of the 
new law is that the miners must impound the debris behind works con- 
structed at their own expense, under the supervision of the Government 
Commission. They must obtain a license to do this, which # may be 
revoked at the pleasure of the Commission, should the dams or other 
impounding works be found inadequate to protect the rivers. 

While, under these limitations, the hydraulic mines cannot be made 
so productive as under former conditions, when the amount of gravel 
washed was not restricted, yet many of them which have been idle for 
years may now be worked, and this number will be gradually increased 
as new works are constructed. We should therefore see a material 
increase in our annual gold product from this source. 

Under the provisions of this law (which is given in full in an appen- 
dix to this report) the President of the United States appointed the 
following members of the Corps of Engineers, U. S. A., as the California 
Debris Commission: Col. Geo. H. Mendell, Lieut.-Col. W. H. H. Ben- 
yaurd, and Major W. H. Heuer. The office of the Commission is room 
92, Flood Building, San Francisco, and the Recorder is Lieut. C. E. 
Gillette, Corps of Engineers, U. S. A. Since the organization of the 
Commission, 76 applications for permits to mine by the hydraulic 
method have been received, and 42 permits issued. The mines operat- 
ing under these permits (up to September 20, 1894) are as follows: 



14 



REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 



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16 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

During the past two years every county in the State has been visited 
by one or more of the field assistants, with the single exception of Modoc, 
where there is no mineral production as far as known. 

During 1893 Mr. W. H. Storms visited Amador, Calaveras, Mariposa, 
Tuolumne, and the northern part of Fresno County; and in addition 
made an extensive special investigation of the gravel channel system of 
Calaveras County, the results of which are published in a separate 
article in this report. In 1894 he visited the counties of Alameda, 
Contra Costa, part of Los Angeles, Marin, Orange, Riverside, San Bernar- 
dino, San Diego, San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, 
Solano, and part of Sonoma. 

Mr. W. L. Watts in 1893 made a special investigation of the natural 
gas, asphalt, and petroleum fields of the Central Valley of California and 
neighboring foothills, the results of which are incorporated in Bulletin 
No. 3, recently published by the Bureau. While engaged in this he 
visited all the counties in and bordering upon the San Joaquin and 
Sacramento valleys. In 1894 he completed the field work commenced 
the previous year, and visited the counties of Colusa, Fresno, Glenn, Kern, 
Madera, Merced, Sacramento, San Joaquin, Stanislaus, Tehama, Tulare, 
and Yolo; and also the oil regions of Los Angeles and Ventura counties 
and the gold fields of Siskiyou. 

In 1893 Mr. E. B. Preston pursued investigations in Butte, El Dorado, 
Nevada, Placer, and Sierra counties. During 1894 his work was con- 
tinued in Lassen, Lake, Napa, Plumas, Shasta, Siskiyou, Sutter, Trinity, 
and Yuba counties. 

During 1893 Mr. H. W. Fairbanks, accompanied by Mr. R. P. Heagan, 
made a careful investigation of the geology and economic mineral 
features of part of El Dorado County, and of Monterey, San Benito, San 
Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara, and part of Ventura; and in 1894 the 
same class of work was continued in Alpine, Inyo, Kern (south of 
Tehachapi), Mono, and the northwestern portion of San Bernardino. 
The results of these investigations are published in the special chapters: 
" Geology of a Section of El Dorado County, embracing portions of 
Pekin, Agra, Green Valley, Pilot Knob, and Mud Springs Districts"; 
" Report on the Geology of Northern Ventura, Santa Barbara, San Luis 
Obispo, Monterey, and San Benito Counties" ; and " Preliminary Report 
on the Mineral Deposits of Alpine, Inyo, and Mono Counties." 

In this connection it may be stated that it is to be regretted that the 
appropriations are insufficient to enable the party engaged in purely 
geological explorations to camp and study the features of the districts 
carefully, instead of making what is now necessarily more of a recon- 
noissance. Much of the region investigated by Messrs. Fairbanks and 
Heagan is sparsely settled, and unless equipped with a complete camp- 
ing outfit they are unable to spend the necessary time for study, away 
from the towns. It would be of immeasurable value to the State could 
a party be suitably equipped to follow up the work thus commenced, 
and during the winter pursue the petrographical study of the specimens 
collected. 

Mr. F. C. Mathyas, acting under your special request to look carefully 
into the coal, iron, and platinum resources, visited, during 1893, nearly 
all the counties north of Tehachapi, and in 1894 traversed the rugged 
regions of Del Norte, Humboldt, and Mendocino counties. This report 



REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 17 

on the coal fields of the State is of special interest, several new occur- 
rences being described. 

Mr. Russell L. Dunn has made a very careful study of the extensive 
fields of auriferous gravel in Siskiyou County, which are, as yet, but 
partly developed. The result of this work is printed as a separate 
chapter of this report under the title "Auriferous Conglomerate in Cali- 
fornia." Mr. Dunn finds an auriferous deposit there which he considers 
unique, and which is comprehensively an auriferous gravel bed com- 
pacted into a conglomerate. As it requires much the same methods of 
mining and treatment as the Transvaal (South Africa) conglomerate 
deposits, the name " auriferous conglomerate" is suggested. The chapter 
will be read with interest by the gravel miners of the State, and should 
Mr. Dunn's conclusions be found, through practical operations, to be 
correct, a new source of gold product will be added to the many varieties 
already found in California. 

The chapter contributed to this report by Mr. Thomas H. Leggett, 
President and Manager of the Standard Consolidated Mining Company 
of Bodie, describes not only the electrical power plant at that mine, but 
several others now in operation. It will be found of great value to the 
mining community, giving as it does the results of practical experience 
in generating, transmitting, and applying electricity as a motive power 
for quartz mining, milling, etc. 

In the preparation of this report, the assistants were all instructed 
to be as concise as possible in their statements. The manuscript was 
carefully scrutinized, revised, corrected, and condensed, and upon being 
properly edited was copied in typewriting. 

It is to be regretted that in a few instances mine owners and others 
were indifferent to the objects and labors of the Bureau, and refused to 
give our field assistants any information concerning their mines or 
kindred industries. As it is the object of these investigations to ascer- 
tain the condition of the mineral industry of the State, with a view to 
disseminating information for its benefit, it seems strange that any one 
engaged in mining and the allied industries should refuse to put the 
Bureau in possession of such general facts as are asked for. It is not 
desired to make public any private business affairs, but simply to ascer- 
tain the general condition of the mines, etc. 

The Goler and adjoining districts in Kern County have been dis- 
covered since the last report was prepared, and many mines are being 
worked, the production of gold being considerable. 

Petroleum has been discovered within the city limits of Los Angeles, 
and many wells sunk and brought to a producing point. Field work 
has already been commenced on the study of the formation there by 
special request of the Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce, and it is 
hoped that in the course of eight or ten months the Bureau will be in a 
position to issue a bulletin on this field, and show by maps and text not 
only the relation of the Los Angeles oil fields to those of Ventura and 
Kern counties, but determine the formation beyond where oil is likely 
to be developed. 

Bulletin No. 1 of the State Mining Bureau was published in 1888, 
being the description of certain " Desiccated Human Remains," in the 
Bureau museum, by Dr. Winslow Anderson. Three bulletins have been 
issued by the Mining Bureau during 1894, as follows: Bulletin No. 2, on 
•"Methods of Mine Timbering," by W. H. Storms, Assistant in the Field; 
2m 



18 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

Bulletin No. 3, " Gas and Petroleum Yielding Formations of the Central 
Valley of California," by W. L. Watts, Assistant in the Field; Bulletin 
No. 4, " Catalogue of Californian Fossils," by Dr. J. G. Cooper. There 
are prepared, but not yet printed, two more bulletins, viz. : " The Cyanide 
Process," by Dr. A. Scheidel, M.E., and " Notes on Gold Milling Practice 
in California," by E. B. Preston, M.E. 

It is the intention of the Bureau to publish each year a " Mineral 
Statistics Bulletin" giving the yield and value of all the mineral 
products of the State for the preceding year. The addresses of all 
producers have been or are being obtained with this object in view. 
The only detailed statistics now available are those obtained by the 
U. S. Mint and the U. S. Geological Survey, but they are generally pub- 
lished many months after they are collected. The Bureau will endeavor 
to publish this bulletin as soon after the close of each year as it is 
possible to get returns from the mines. It will cover the statistics of all 
mineral substances worked in California. 

It is intended also to issue special bulletins on Mine Drainage, Mine 
Ventilation, Mine Pumps, Methods of Quarrying and Preparing Slate 
for Market, Electricity for Power for Hoists, Mills, Drills, etc. The 
bulletins issued thus far in 1894 have met with marked favor, and are 
in such great demand that already a second edition of that on " Methods 
of Mine Timbering " is necessary. 

It is suggested that it might be well to follow the precedent established 
by the U. S. Geological Survey, and charge all people outside of the 
State (except public institutions, such as libraries, colleges, etc.) for the 
publications of the Bureau. The demand for the reports, bulletins, 
maps, etc., is so great that the item of postage alone is considerable. A 
small charge for the publications would assist in defraying the expenses 
of the Bureau. People who do not contribute to the support of the State 
government can hardly expect its publications free, yet demands are 
constantly being made for our reports and bulletins from Nevada, Idaho, 
Utah, Montana, Oregon, and other mining sections, as well as from the 
Eastern States and foreign countries. 

The edition of 10,000 copies of the Xth Report is exhausted, and as it 
is frequently referred to in this report, descriptions of mines, etc., men- 
tioned therein, will be copied and mailed to those making application 
for such detailed information. 

It is not generally known that packages of minerals not exceeding 20 
lbs. in weight, may be sent to this Bureau free from any railroad office 
of Wells, Fargo & Co. within this State. By this means miners may 
send specimens of their ores for donation or examination; the former 
being duly classified, appropriately labeled with the names of the donors, 
and remaining on permanent exhibition in our museum. A special 
feature of the Bureau is the determination of minerals. This is done 
free of charge, but no quantitative analyses nor assays are made. In order 
to accommodate those who have confidence only in an official analysis 
or assay, I would recommend that the Legislature enact a law permit- 
ting the Bureau to make check analyses and assays. Those who desire 
them should send the substance to be analyzed to the Bureau, where it 
would be thoroughly intermixed and three samples taken — one to be 
kept in the Bureau, one to be analyzed or assayed in the Bureau, and 
the third to be sent to whatsoever chemist or assayer the party sending 
the substance may designate. The charge, therefore, should be double 



REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 19 

that usually paid here — one half to go to the Bureau and one half to the 
private chemist or assayer. 

The mineral exhibit at the recent Midwinter Fair in this city, arranged 
by a committee of the California Miners' Association, was in every way 
creditable. The Mining Bureau contributed seven cases containing every 
economic mineral found in the State, and I would have recommended 
that a much larger exhibit be made had we a fund to draw upon for the 
necessary expenses; but having the largest and finest mineral collection 
west of the Missouri River, in the very heart of the city, and free to the 
public, the State Board of Examiners would hardly consent to pay the 
State's money to maintain the State's property in an exhibition where 
an admission fee was charged under the foregoing conditions. The mine 
owners and counties of the State sent many and fine specimens of ores 
and minerals, so that the collection as a whole was well calculated to 
attract attention to the mining industry of California. 

Forming an appendix to this report are the full texts of several laws 
which have been passed during the period covered by our twelfth report. 
These are the following: 

(1) "An Act to provide for the establishment, maintenance, and sup- 
port of a bureau, to be known as the State Mining Bureau, and for the 
appointment and duties of a Board of Trustees, to be known as the 
Board of Trustees of the State Mining Bureau, who shall have the direc- 
tion, management, and control of said State Mining Bureau, and to 
provide for the appointment, duties, and. compensation of a State Miner- 
alogist, who shall perform the duties of his office under the control, 
direction, and supervision of the Board of Trustees of the State Mining 
Bureau," approved March 23, 1893. This is the new Organic Act under 
which the State Mining Bureau is now conducted. 

(2) "An Act to establish a uniform system of mine-bell signals to be 
used in all mines operated in the State of California, and for the pro- 
tection of miners," approved March 8, 1893. 

(3) "An Act to amend an Act entitled 'An Act to establish a Civil 
Code/ approved March 21, 1872, by adding thereto two sections, to be 
known as Sections 1424 and 1425, being title nine, part four, division 
two, of said code, concerning the manner of conducting the business of 
hydraulic mining," approved March 24, 1893. 

(4) "An Act to provide for the appointment, duties, and compensa- 
tion of a Debris Commissioner, and to make an appropriation to be 
expended under his directions in the discharge of his duties as such 
Commissioner," approved March 24, 1893. Under the provisions of this 
Act, Mr. John F. Kidder, of Grass Valley, has been appointed Debris 
Commissioner. 

(5) "An Act to create the California Debris Commission and regu- 
late hydraulic mining in the State of California," approved March 3, 
1894. This is the so-called "Caminetti law," reference to which has 
been previously made. 

There is an almost constant demand upon the Bureau for copies of 
the United States mining laws, and had not this report been already 
sufficiently voluminous, with a prospect also that at its next session 
Congress may make important changes, they would have been prepared 
for publication. 

An important mining suit between the Champion and Wyoming 
mines, Nevada County, has been decided in the United States District 



20 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

Court, but as it has been appealed, it is deemed best to defer giving an 
abstract of the decision until the Supreme Court passes upon the ques- 
tions involved. 

I take pleasure in acknowledging the valuable cooperation of Gov- 
ernor H. H. Markham in all matters appertaining to this office. He 
has always been ready with cheerful advice and assistance, has person- 
ally inspected the Bureau and its workings, and shown great interest in 
its advancement and success. 

I desire to express my thanks also to your Board for its hearty coop- 
eration in the work of conducting the business affairs of the Bureau, 
and assistance in carrying out the various suggestions connected with 
the general work. 

The daily presence and assistance of your President, Mr. J. Z. Davis, 
is very highly appreciated by the State Mineralogist and all the em- 
ployes of the Bureau. No man could be more disinterestedly zealous in 
furthering the advancement of this institution. The active personal 
interest taken by him in all the details of its administration is of the 
highest value to the Bureau and the State. His accustomed generosity 
continues moreover, and the museum has been greatly enriched by his 
numerous and constantly added donations. 

I am gratified to be able to say, also, that each and every one of 
the field assistants and office employes has displayed ability, diligence, 
and zeal in his duties, and to each I tender my thanks for their hearty 
cooperation in the work of the Bureau. 

The members of the mining engineering profession, and many other 
friends of the Bureau throughout the State, deserve the thanks of the 
Trustees and Mineralogist for assistance rendered in various ways. 

Respectfully submitted. 

J. J. CRAWFORD, 

State Mineralogist. 



ANTIMONY — INYO AND KERN COUNTIES. 21 



MINES AND MINING PRODUCTS OF CALIFORNIA. 



ANTIMONY. 

The only works in the United States for the production of metallic 
antimony from ores are in San Francisco. The ores are obtained both 
from California and Nevada, the latter State producing the major por- 
tion. The total output of metallic antimony in 1893 was 200 tons, 
valued at $36,000. This was from 400 tons of ore, of which the Califor- 
nia production was 50 tons of 50 per cent ore. 

INYO COUNTY. 

Panamint Range. — Deposits of stibnite occur on the western slope of 
this range, 3 miles S. of Wild Rose Springs. They outcrop along the 
side of the mountains at an altitude of 5,000 to 6,000 feet. Eleven claims 
have been located on these veins, which extend E. and W. in a body of 
mica schist. The dip is S., but at a very small angle. The surface open- 
ings show the deposits to vary in thickness from a few inches to 5 ft. 
Not enough work has yet been done to demonstrate their real extent. In 
many places the stibnite is quite pure, in others it has with it a gangue 
of quartz. On some of the claims the oxide of antimony is in excess of 
the sulphide, and evidently has resulted from the oxidation of the latter. 
The main vein can be traced for a distance of over 4,000 ft. On the 
north side of Wild Rose Valley another vein, 18 in. in thickness, 
has been opened. There are probably 100 tons of ore on the various 
dumps. J. Danielson, C. Anthony et al., of Darwin, owners. 

KERN COUNTY. 

The antimony-bearing formations of Kern County have been worked 
on Erskine Creek, in the Sierra, and in the San Emidio Mountain, in 
the Coast Range. 

Boushy Mines. — They are on Antimony Mountain, near the head of 
the San Emidio Canon. See our Xth Report, p. 225. These mines have 
been worked intermittently since 1890, and ore has been reduced. 

Erskine Creek. — There are several small mines on this creek which 
have yielded sulphide of antimony, and, in some of them, native anti- 
mony. See our Xlth Report, p. 237. A few years ago a furnace was 
erected for the reduction of antimony ore, but in 1893 it was standing 
idle. 

Grace Darling Mine. — This is near Erskine Creek, and was discovered 
at an early day, but was not worked until 1891. Ten tons of ore were 
shipped from this mine in 1893. 

Padre Mine. — It was discovered in 1892. It is situated on the east 
side of Tail-hold Canon, which leads into Pleyto Canon. The lode 
appears to have the same general strike as that on which the Boushy 



22 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

mines are situated. The workings consist of a 25 ft. long tunnel, which 
cuts a body of antimony-bearing matter 15 ft. in width. The wall rock 
is granitic. In 1893 there were about 3 tons of high-grade antimony 
ore (stibnite) on the dump. The mine is reached by a rough trail, but a 
road could be made without great difficulty to the Pleyto Ranch. Haul- 
ing from the Pleyto Ranch to Bakersfield costs from $4 to $5 per ton. 

Standard Mine. — This is on the East Fork of Erskine Creek, at the 
contact of the slate and limestone formations. At this mine a pocket was 
taken out which yielded about 15 tons of high-grade ore (stibnite), 
which showed 60 per cent of metallic antimony by assay, and was sold 
in 1893 for $45 a ton f. o. b. the cars at Caliente, 40 miles distant. This 
price was not remunerative. 

San Emidio Mines. — These mines are located in San Emidio Canon, 
in the southern part of Kern County. The veins outcrop on the sides 
and over the summit of a rugged granite peak rising over 6,000 ft. It 
is almost perpendicular on its eastern side, where the position and char- 
acter of the deposits are well shown. The ore appears in places over a 
vertical distance of 1,000 ft. or more. Where the ore is not found the 
line of the fissure is marked by a red stain and the decomposed condi- 
tion of the granite. The deposits have a N.W. course and vertical dip. 
The ore appears as discontinuous, bunch-like bodies along a fissure sys- 
tem, occasionally reaching a thickness of 10 ft. On the summit of the 
mountain the ore bodies are not confined to a single fissure, but occur 
over an area 2,000 ft. wide. The property consists of five patented and 
four unpatented claims. The ore averages 40 per cent antimony. In 
places it is rich in silver, with the occasional appearance of iron and 
arsenical pyrites. A tunnel from the San Emidio Canon 1,300 ft. long 
would cut the veins at a depth of 2,000 ft. At present the mines are 
reached only by a steep and narrow trail, down which all the ore has to 
be packed to the reduction works. Nothing but assessment work has 
been done for some time. See our VHIth and Xth Reports, pp. 680 
and 225. 

Undeveloped Deposits. — In the mountains east of the San Emidio 
mines are a number of antimony deposits, as yet undeveloped. The 
deposits are also in granite and have a nearly E. course. The ore is 
found in places for a distance of 4 miles. 

SAN BENITO COUNTY. 

Ambrose Mine. — This mine is in the McLeod District, in the N.E. corner 
of the county. The ore occurs in the form of a somewhat bunchy 
vein, varying in width from a mere streak to 2 ft., and is inclosed in 
quartz trachyte. The walls proper are 5 ft. apart, with crushed trachyte 
between them. The antimony is found next to the hanging-wall seam 
and crystallized from that seam. Two tunnels have been run, one 365 
ft. long and the other 320 ft. At present an upraise is being made to 
connect the two. The deposit is remarkable for the beautifully crystal- 
lized masses of which it is largely composed. In 1893, 10 tons of ore, 
which yielded 50 per cent of metallic antimony, were shipped from this 
mine. See our Xth Report, p. 517. Joseph Bishop, of Hollister, 
owner. 

Appeal Mine. — At this mine a body of antimony-bearing silicious 
rock is exposed, which appears to be an extension of the ledge on which 



ARGENTIFEROUS GALENA — INYO COUNTY. 23 

the Shriver is situated. The owner states that 1^ tons of high-grade 
antimony ore (stibnite) were shipped from this mine in 1893. 

Gleason Mine. — This mine was opened in 1893. It is in Sec. 6, T. 12 
S., R. 7 E. A ledge of antimony-bearing silicious rock is here exposed, 
which has a width of more than 20 ft. The strike of the ledge is about 
N. 22° W. The workings consist of an open cut 20 ft. long and 12 ft. 
in depth. The owner states that 8 tons of high-grade ore (sulphide of 
antimony) were shipped from this mine in 1893. 

Shriver's Mines. — This group of claims is situated in Sec. 31, T. 11 S., 
R. 7 E., and consists of the Shriver, Eureka, Star, and other claims. 

Shriver Mine. — It is about 2 miles S.W. of the Ambrose Mine. The 
deposit occurs in a dark volcanic rock. The dip is 70° to the N.E. The 
vein is irregular, along a crushed zone. See our Vlllth and Xth 
Reports, pp. 485 and 516. G. Shriver, of Hollister, owner. 

Eureka (Buckeye) Mine. — The principal workings on this claim are 
about a quarter of a mile S.E. from the Shriver. They consist of a 
tunnel about 100 ft. in length, from which short drifts lead off to the 
N.E. and S.W. The lode is a silicious antimony-bearing rock, similar 
to that seen in the Shriver. 

Star Mine. — A ledge of silicious antimony-bearing rock is exposed on 
this claim. The owner states that he struck a good* "prospect" of cin- 
nabar while doing assessment work on this claim in 1893. 

SAN LUIS OBISPO COUNTY. 

San Simeon Creek. — No work has been done on the antimony deposit 
on the head of this creek for two years. Several tons of good ore were 
taken out, and then the work stopped. The deposit appears as a short, 
bunchy vein in sandstone of apparently Tertiary age. The vein has 
been opened for a distance of 40 ft., and shows a greatest width of 3 ft., 
thinning out toward either end. The quantity cannot be great unless 
it increases with depth. See our Xth Report, p. 579. 



ARGENTIFEROUS GALENA. 

INYO COUNTY. 

Baltic Mine. — This mine is situated on the eastern slope of the mount- 
ain range in the northern part of the county. It has been worked much 
of the time for the past fifteen years. The vein is said to average 3 ft. 
wide. At present nothing is being done. L. P. Roberts, of Big Pine, 
owner. 

Belmont Mines. — These are situated near the summit of the Inyo 
range, 3 miles S.E. of Cerro Gordo. Nothing has been done here recently, 
and the properties are for the most part abandoned. They were thor- 
oughly described by Mr. Goodyear in our Vlllth Report, p. 252. W. S. 
Hunter, of Independence, owner. 

Black Warrior, Fitz, and Antelope Mines. — These mines are situated on 
Lookout Hill, and belong to the same group of mines as those of the 
Modock Mining Company. They are developed by both tunnels and 
shafts. About 30 per cent of the value of the product of these mines is 
lead and 5 per cent gold. Frank Fitzgerald, of Modock, owner. 



24 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

Defiance, Independence, Burnon, and other Mines. — These mines are- 
situated 1 mile N. of Darwin, on Mt. Ophir. The Defiance is the most 
noted of this group and has been worked for many years. The Burnon 
and Independence have been idle for the past year. The ore is silver- 
bearing galena in the form of chamber deposits in a calciferous quartzite, 
which quartzite lies between limestone and a granitic rock. A rich 
body of ore has recently been struck in the Defiance. These mines were 
described in our Vlllth and Xth Reports, pp. 226 and 211. P. Reddy, 
Crocker Building, San Francisco, owner. 

Lucky Jim and Christmas Gift Mines. — They are 3 miles N. of Darwin,, 
on a continuation of the same mineral belt on which the Defiance Mine 
is situated. The Lucky Jim is now being reopened and the material left 
in the old stopes sorted and jigged. The ore is a silver-bearing galena. 
The mine was described in our Vlllth and Xth Reports, pp. 226 and 211. 
J. A. McKenzie, of Darwin, owner. 

Modock Consolidated Mining Company' 's Mines. — They are as follows: 
Confidence, Lookout, Modock, Keys, and Hearst. They are situated on 
the eastern slope of the Argus range, 15 miles S.E. of Darwin. At pres- 
ent they are being worked under a lease. The deposits are chiefly silver- 
bearing galena with a little gold, the inclosing rock being limestone. 
The deposits are generally in chamber form, though sometimes approxi- 
mating the form of veins. A tunnel 1,950 ft. long has been run to tap 
the deposits, the greatest depth reached below the surface being 1,150 ft. 
The best ore has been taken from this tunnel. It is said the ore carries 
101 to 293 ozs. silver, 52 per cent lead, and less than \ oz. gold per ton. 
Hornsilver and carbonates occur in limited extent. Lookout Hill, on 
which the mines are situated, seems fairly filled with chamber-like depos- 
its of galena; many not showing on the surface. These mines were 
located in 1875, since which time it is said $1,900,000 has been taken out. 
Frank Fitzgerald, of Modock, lessee. 

Sorba Mine. — It is 2 miles E. of Darwin. The vein runs E. and W., 
and is inclosed in limestone, and was discovered in the early days of 
mining in this section, but the present systematic development dates 
from the last few months. Three shafts, respectively, 30, 80, and 250 
ft., have been sunk. The latter follows the ore body on the incline. 
The ore consists of galena, carrying silver, hornsilver, carbonates, and a 
decomposed ferruginous matter containing gold. The ore carries 90 to 
200 ozs. silver, 36 to 60 per cent lead, $3 to $18 gold per ton. On the 
surface the vein dips northerly; in the bottom of the incline, easterly. 
The vein is traceable on the surface nearly the whole length of the 
claim. Its position bears no relation to the dip and strike of the country 
rock. Inyo Mining and Development Company, of Darwin, owners. 

St. John and St. Arthur Mines. — They are situated on the S. side of 
Lookout Hill, in the section formerly known as the Minnietta. They 
lie 1,000 ft. lower than the mines of the Modock Consolidated Mining 
Company. The deposits are a continuation of those of that company, 
and are of the same character. The side of the mountain is very steep, 
and the developments consist almost wholly of tunnels. J. J. Gunn, of 
Modock, owner. 

Union Mines. — They are near Cerro Gordo, and not far from the 
summit of the Inyo range, and are at present being worked under a 
lease. No underground work is going on; all that is being done con- 
sists in "sorting" and working over the old dumps. Described in our 



ARGENTIFEROUS GALENA LOS ANGELES, ORANGE, SAN BERNARDINO. 25 

VHIth and Xth Reports, pp. 250 and 213. No new developments have 
been made since these reports. Thomas Boland, of Keeler, owner. 

LOS ANGELES COUNTY. 

Several veins of argentiferous lead ores are found on Santa Catalina 
Island, which have been worked from time to time since 1859. During 
1893, mines near the isthmus yielded 30 tons of selected ore, which 
returned, at the Selby Smelting Works, over $100 per ton. The ore is 
usually high grade, but occurs in small shoots, and as no systematic 
development has ever been undertaken, the output has never been large. 

Argentiferous lead ores occur on the south slope of the Sierra Madre 
range, 8 miles N. of Pasadena, in small quantity. Only superficial work 
has been expended upon them. 

ORANGE COUNTY. 

At several points between Trabuco and Santiago canons, considerable 
prospecting has been done for lead and silver ores. The formation in 
which these ores occur is a heavily mineralized rock, which in its alter- 
ation and general appearance resembles felsite, or rhyolite. Decomposi- 
tion has progressed so far that it is impossible to more than guess the 
original character of the rock. The sulphides of lead, zinc, and iron, 
with gold and silver, have infiltrated the fissures and formed accumulated 
veins. The baseness of these ores and the low price of silver render the 
mines almost valueless. These mines are similar to the Old Dominion 
Mine, in this county. Considerable money and work have been expended 
on the Silverado Group, but all of these properties are now idle. 

Acme Mine. — This location is 7 miles W. of Elsinore, and adjoins the 
Old Dominion. The developments consist of an open cut on the vein, 
and a tunnel 100 ft. below the croppings, which had not yet, to all 
appearances, cut the vein. This region is full of mineral and justifies 
intelligent prospecting. 

Old Dominion Mine. — It is 7 miles W. from Elsinore. The workings 
consist of several surface cuts, a shaft connected with a cross-cut tunnel, 
and some small stopes. The strike of the fissures is N.W. and the dip 
W. The surface ores are oxidized, but soon give way to a mass of inti- 
mately mixed, fine-grained sulphides of lead, iron, copper, and zinc. 
All these ores contain gold and silver, and in some places the grade is 
quite high. It would appear that by far the most practical way to 
handle ores of this grade and class would be to sack and ship them to 
the smelting works. The total cost of mining, transportation, and 
reduction should be less than the reported yield, and a profit should 
result. 

SAN BERNARDINO COUNTY. 

There are numerous veins and deposits of argentiferous lead ores 
(galena and carbonate) in the Silver Mountain District, which comprises 
that section lying E. and N.E. of Oro Grande, on the Mojave River. 
These deposits are scattered promiscuously over an area of 6 miles 
square. The deposits occur in limestone, or at contact of limestone and 
eruptive rocks, dikes, and intruded masses, which are numerous in the 
region. The geology is rather complex, owing to the folding and faulting 



26 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

of the rocks, and the intrusion of the eruptive masses of the many 
mining locations in this district, some showing encouraging prospects. 
The following are the most prominent: 

Carbonate Mine. — This is the largest mine in the district. See our 
Xlth Report, p. 361. Since that report the shaft has been sunk 50 ft. 
additional, and a winze 30 ft. on the 150 ft. level. A large amount of 
ore is -exposed in these workings, and indications are that the mine will 
make a good record of production as soon as a market for the ore is 
opened. The ore contains from 10 to 50 per cent lead, considerable 
iron and manganese oxide, lime, silica, gold, and silver, and is a very- 
desirable ore for smelters. In the west or Gold shaft, some develop- 
ments have been made, and the gold seam persistently followed, as small 
pockets of rich gold rock are occasionally found. Cross-cutting would 
perhaps result in the discovery of other veins, particularly on the foot- 
wall side. 

Galoot Mine. — This claim is 5 miles E. of Oro Grande. It shows a 
shoot of lead and copper ore 200 ft. long. Several prospect holes on the 
vein have exposed some high-grade lead ore. It is one of the most 
promising claims of the district. 

Harrison Mine. — It is 6 miles E. of Oro Grande. The vein varies 
from a few inches to 2 ft. of lead and zinc blende. The oxidized ore is 
said to contain upwards of $100 in gold per ton. 

Galena, Lookout, Northern Cross, Santa Fe, and Unfortunate Sam 
Mines. — Each of these small claims shows small veins or bunches of 
lead ore. On some of them considerable work has been done, but the 
result is not encouraging. 

The claims at Galena Camp, North Camp, and West Camp, 12 miles 
W. and N.W. of Oro Grande, show more or less lead and silver ore in 
small bunches; none are working at present. 



ASPHALTUM AND BITUMINOUS ROCK. 

California is the principal producer of asphaltum and allied bitumens 
in the United States. Deposits of asphalt of all the varieties are widely 
scattered over the United States, but are only worked to any extent in 
California, Utah, and Kentucky. Two deposits of rock asphalt are 
worked in this State: one in Kern and the other in Santa Barbara 
County. There is also one of " liquid asphalt " in the latter county, and in 
Kern County are numerous superficial deposits of asphaltum. Bitumin- 
ous rock deposits are found and worked in many counties of California, 
and some years the product has reached 60,000 tons. Its use as a paving 
material is constantly on the increase, the bulk of the product coming 
from the counties of Santa Barbara, Santa Cruz, and San Luis Obispo. 

KERN COUNTY. 

The principal asphaltum-bearing formations are in the foothills of the 
Coast 'Range, on the western side of the San Joaquin Valley, and in 
localities known, respectively, as the Buena Vista District and the Sunset 
Oil District. 

Buena Vista Oil and Asphaltum District. — The principal production 
of asphaltum in Kern County is in this district, which is distant about 



ASPHALTUM AND BITUMINOUS ROCK — KERN COUNTY. 



27 



• 30 miles N.W from the Sunset Oil District. The asphaltum industry in 
Kern County has been greatly stimulated by the extension of a branch 
line of the S. P. R. R. from Bakersfield to Asphalto, where a refinery, 
which is furnished with twenty-one kettles, has been erected by the 
Standard Asphalt Company to work its own claims and lands leased 
from the Buena Vista Oil Company and others. 

The asphaltum deposits at Asphalto are found under two conditions: 
First, as superficial beds of impure asphaltum similar to those found in 
the Sunset Oil District. Secondly, as veins of high-grade asphaltum in 
the country rock. Of these deposits the veins of asphaltum are the 
most important, for although the superficial beds contain a large 
amount of crude asphaltum, only a small portion of it is sufficiently 
pure to pay for mining and refining by the methods now employed. 

The asphaltum occurs in deposits with the same strike and dip as the 
inclosing rock, as well as in fissures that cross the course of the country 
rock, which appears to be of late Tertiary formation. 

The refinery at Asphalto was completed March 1, 1893. The first run 
was made on 300 tons of crude asphaltum from the superficial asphaltum 
beds before described. In this run about 100 tons of refined asphaltum 
were produced. During 1893 the market price for refined asphaltum 
lias averaged $25 a ton f. o. b. at Asphalto. 

In the following table analyses (made by G. O. Simmons, of Sedalia, 
Mo.) of asphaltum from the Trinidad Pitch Lake are compared with 
analyses (made by Clifford Richardson, of Washington, D. C.) of 
asphaltum from the Buena Vista District, California: 



California. 
Sample H, 
From Mine. 



California. 

Sample H, 

Refined. 



Pitch Lake- 
Average. 



Pitch Lake- 
Best. 



■Specific gravity _. 

Softening temperature, Fahr... 

Flowing 

Inorganic matter _. 

Bitumen soluble in CS 2 

Bitumen soluble in ether 

Percentage of total bitumen sol 
uble in ether 



1.132 

180 degrees. 

220 degrees. 

9.57 per ct. 

85.49 per ct. 

69.98 per ct. 

81.85 per ct. 



1.240 

150 degrees. 

180 degrees. 

9.77 per ct. 

90.16 per ct. 

86.45 per ct. 

95.88 per ct. 



1.3857 
190 degrees. 
205 degrees. 

35.66 per ct. 

56.29 per ct. 

41.43 per ct. 

73.60 per ct. 



1.3771 
183 degrees. 
198 degrees. 

35.48 per ct. 

57.47 per ct. 

41.59 per ct. 

72.37 per ct. 



The following tests of asphaltum were made by H. Stillman, Engineer 
of Tests to Motive Power and Machine Company at Sacramento (S. P. 
Co.): 



Locality. 


Ash. 


Soluble. 


Insoluble. 


Trinidad 


1.5 per ct. 
2.8 per ct. 
6.5 per ct. 


46.30 per ct. 
44.25 per ct. 
59.55 per ct. 


52.20 per ct. 
52.85 per ct. 
33.95 per ct. 


Cuban _ 


Asphalto . 









Combustion Tests. 






Locality. 


Volatile 
Hydrocarbon. 


Fixed Carbon. 


Ash. 


Trinidad 

Cuban 

Asphalto 


75.15 per ct. 

70.20 per ct. 
81.40 per ct. 


22.7 per ct. 

27.0 per ct. 

12.1 per ct. 


0.15 per ct. 
2.80 per ct. 
6.50 per ct. 





28 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

Two samples of asphaltum from Asphalto were examined by W. B. 
Potter (of the St. Louis Sampling and Testing Works), and yielded 88.9 
per cent from No. 1, and 85.32 per cent from No. 2. 

Mr. W. E. Youle, manager of the Standard Asphalt Company, states 
that the crude material, as it is mined from the veins now being worked 
at Asphalto, averages 75 per cent of asphaltum. 

Buena Vista Oil Company. — The property of this company consists of 
about 720 acres in addition to the territory leased from them by the 
Standard Asphalt Company. On their land are extensive superficial 
beds of impure asphaltum, and what appear to be outcropping veins of 
asphaltum have been found. 

Sunset District. — Asphaltum is found in superficial beds: these beds 
appear to have been formed by the exudation of heavy petroleum, which, 
by partial oxidation and the evaporation of its most volatile constitu- 
ents, becomes a pitch-like bitumen, varying from solid to viscous at 
ordinary temperatures. During 1892 this crude asphaltum was refined 
in works established by Messrs. Jewett & Blodget, at the Sunset Oil 
District, and about 1,200 tons of refined asphaltum were produced and 
shipped. The cost of producing refined asphaltum at the Sunset works 
was about $10 a ton, not including wear and tear of plant. The cost of 
transportation by wagon from the Sunset Oil Wells to Bakersfield was 
$6 a ton. The best quality of raw .material in these asphaltum beds 
has been worked up, and the refining of crude asphaltum was discon- 
tinued at the Sunset Oil District when the S. P. R. R. extended its branch 
line to Asphalto, where there are deposits of asphaltum nearer to the 
railroad. 

More details concerning the occurrence of asphaltum in this county 
will be found in Bulletin No. 3 of this Bureau, on " The Gas and Petro- 
leum Yielding Formations of the Central Valley of California." 

SANTA CRUZ COUNTY. 

Baldwin Mine. — This is on the Baldwin ranch, 95 miles from Santa 
Cruz in a N.W. direction. During 1893, it produced 1,500 tons of bitu- 
minous rock. The rock taken from this mine is soft, and is said to 
contain 14 per cent of bitumen. Three men were employed in the mine 
and five in hauling the product. 

Cowell Mine. — This is half a mile E. of the Walrath, and consists of 40 
acres, having 20 ft. of bituminous rock in two strata similar to the 
Walrath. All of the mines of this group produce both hard and soft 
rock. The bituminous deposits appear to extend over a considerable 
area not opened at all. This area is not less than 8 square miles in 
extent, though probably not more than 3 square miles remain of the 
original strata, the balance having been eroded. Of that which remains 
a large amount — in fact, the greater portion — is commercially valueless, 
because of its low percentage in bitumen, but there are immense quan- 
tities of good material which will in time be mined. The usual method 
of mining is to bore holes 10 to 20 ft. in depth in series extending for 
some distance along the face. Two or three sticks of giant powder No. 2: 
are exploded in the bottom of each of these holes with water tamping. 
Into the chambers thus created large quantities of black powder and 
some giant are poured. The blasts are fired simultaneously by elec- 






ASPHALTUM, ETC. — SANTA CRUZ, MONTEREY, SAN LUIS OBISPO. 29 

tricity. It is a common occurrence to break 500 tons at a single series 
of shots. 

Enright Mine. — This is on the Enright ranch, 9 miles up the coast 
from Santa Cruz. During 1893 it produced 5,000 tons of bituminous 
sandrock, employing 5 men at the mine and 7 to 12 men in teaming. 
The mine was not in operation in March, 1894, but expected to be during 
the summer months. The rock from this mine is hard and contains 16 
per cent bitumen. The strata in which the bitumen is found underlie 
600 acres, but as far as developed only a portion of this is valuable, 
though more or less bitumen occurs in this region, covering several square 
miles. These deposits are exposed in the sides of the numerous canons 
and ravines which have been eroded through the soft sediments. The 
rock of the several quarries has different densities, ranging from 14 to 
22 cu. ft. to the ton, the average being about 15 cu. ft. In the Enright 
deposit fragments of large bones of an extinct animal, presumably 
mammoth, have been found from time to time. They are found saturated 
with bitumen. Vein-like masses of bitumen are not uncommon in these 
deposits. The veins occur in the form of accumulated or segregated 
deposits. Movements of the earth crust have resulted in fracturing the 
sandstones in which the bitumen occurs, and in some instances also the 
strata both above and below the deposits. Into these crevices the 
bituminous matter has oozed or distilled, forming veins of nearly pure 
bitumen. It is these occurrences which have given the impression that 
the bituminous matter came up from below. On the ranch close to the 
beach an oily matter is oozing from the rocks. A bore-hole was sunk 
on the plateau or marine terrace on the Sacroni place for oil, but none 
was developed. 

Thurber Mine. — The mine lies immediately N. of and adjoining the 
Walrath, and employs 10 men in the mine and 20 teaming, etc. 

Walrath Mines.' — These are the largest operating in this county at 
present, though there are more extensive deposits adjacent. The Wal- 
rath group consists of 500 acres of land, of which about 75 acres is 
underlaid by the bituminous strata, of which there are two — the upper 
15, and the lower 10 ft. in thickness. The average thickness of both is 
about 20 feet. The two layers are separated by a stratum of sandstone 
8 to 10 ft. thick, which also contains bitumen, but in too small quantity 
to be valuable. If the deposits maintain their present thickness through- 
out, the output will be enormous. The mine employs 20 men in the 
mine and about 50 more in teaming. 

MONTEREY COUNTY. 

Undeveloped Deposits. — Bituminous rock occurs on the San Antonio 
River, 7 miles S.W. of Bradley Station. The deposit is quite extensive, 
but no work has been done on it. See our Vllth Report, p. 85. 

A bituminous rock deposit, 11 miles E. of Kings City, was described 
in our Xlth Report, p. 259. 

SAN LUIS OBISPO COUNTY. 

Bituminous Rock on the Pismo Grant. — See our Xth report, p. 574. No 
recent developments. 

Jordan Mine. — This is situated in the Corral de Piedra, 7 miles S.E. 
of San Luis Obispo. The company owning this property has begun 



30 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

shipping rock from a deposit north of the road leading from San Lui& 
Obispo to Arroyo Grande. At the time of our visit (July, 1893) it was 
being crushed, sacked, and hauled to the new Pismo wharf. 

Oregon Company's Mine. — This was formerly known as the California 
Bituminous Rock Company's Mine, and the deposit was described in our 
Vllth and Xth Reports, pp. 98 and 574. Here is an immense body of 
bituminous sandrock exposed in high and precipitous cliffs facing the 
N.E. The ore croppings are exposed for half a mile and have a thickness 
of 90 ft. in places. No work was being done at the time of our visit. 
The deposit is on the Corral de Piedra grant, 7 miles S.E. of San Luis 
Obispo. Oregon Bituminous Rock Company, of Portland, Or., owners. 

San Luis Obispo Company's Mine is in the Corral de Piedra grant, 7 
miles S.E. of San Luis Obispo. At the time of our visit no work was 
going on, owing to the small demand for paving material. See our 
VHIth and Xth Reports, pp. 97 and 572. 

Suey Creek. — A small deposit of asphaltum or brea is found on Suey 
Creek, 7 miles from Santa Maria. It is in the form of shallow seepages 
from the bituminous slate series, which has been much disturbed. 

Tar Springs Asphalt Mine. — It is on Tar Spring Creek, 9 miles E. of 
the town of Arroyo Grande. Here numerous tar springs issue from the 
underlying bituminous slate series. They cover about 10 acres, much 
of which it is profitable to work. Some of the springs are very large 
and many barrels of pure tar have been taken from them. The tar is 
nearly 10 feet deep in places. The greater part of the material is mixed 
with rocks and soil, and is melted in huge vats from which the pure 
product is drawn off. Some solid asphaltum of excellent quality has 
been taken out. Tar together with water is constantly running into the 
holes which have been dug. Of the refined tar 800 barrels have been 
shipped. Tar Springs Asphalt Company, owners; C. F. Hunter, 111 
South Broadway, Los Angeles, Secretary. 

SANTA BARBARA COUNTY. 

Gaviota Landing. — A deposit of bituminous rock occurs here exposed 
in the high cliffs. The formation is the bituminous slate series, which 
dips S. at a high angle. There is evidently a considerable body here, 
but the quality is rather poor. It occurs impregnating irregularly a 
sandstone stratum inclosed in the shales, and extends out underneath 
the ocean. 

Harris Asphalt Mining Company. — This deposit is 4-J miles N. of 
Harris Station, on the Los Alamos grant. An excellent quality of 
asphaltum occurs here, being about 50 per cent. It is of sufficient 
hardness to break with a conchoidal fracture. The mine is developed 
by surface workings, which have uncovered a large body of rnaterial. 
It is overlaid by sand, while underneath is a bed of clay. There is no 
regular deposit; simply large bunches more or less connected. Hewitt 
& Haskins, of Oakland, owners. 

About half a mile W. of the Harris Mine is a body of bituminous rock. 
A soft horizontally-bedded sandstone has been impregnated with bitu- 
men. The beds outcrop over a considerable area, but never have been 
opened. 

La Patera Mine. — This claim is on the Den ranch, near the ocean,, 
10 miles W. of Santa Barbara. The property was developed first by an 






ASPHALTUM AND BITUMINOUS ROCK SANTA BARBARA COUNTY. 31 

open cut following the course of the deposit, which is N.E. and S.W. 
The walls are formed of but slightly solidified clays, the stratification 
of which is very indistinct. In the cut the deposit is seen to consist of 
bunchy veins lying along an irregular fissure, from which stringers 
extend out into the country rock in various directions. This is one of 
the purest deposits of asphaltum examined, being 65 per cent bitumen. 
Four shafts have been sunk, being respectively 60, 65, 70, and 100 ft. 
deep, showing the asphaltum to be 3 to 12 ft. thick. Much heat is 
developed as the clay is exposed, so that the asphaltum partly liquefies and 
runs down the shaft in great masses. In one drift 27 ft. of asphaltum 
has been taken out, due to the swelling both from top and bottom. 
Other deposits appear along the ocean both E. and W. of the mine, and 
much is probably covered by the ocean. The asphaltum in all the 
deposits from Punta Gorda to and beyond the La Patera Mine has come 
from the same geological horizon. California Petroleum and Asphalt 
Company, owners; W. N. Cowles, President, Crocker Building, San 
Francisco. 

Las Conchas Mine. — This is on the shore of the ocean near Carpen- 
teria. The liquid tar found here has impregnated a clean beach sand of 
Quaternary age, overlying the bituminous shales and sandstones of the 
Miocene. It extends nearly half a mile along the beach, where the 
bitumen may be seen oozing out of the underlying rocks. The latter 
strike nearly E. and W., dipping at a high angle. At the point where 
most of the tar oozes out they are crushed and broken in a remarkable 
degree. This old beach deposit dips inland slightly, and near the 
bottom, especially toward the S., where the elevation is greater, large 
pebbles are mixed with the sand. There is evidently a basin-like 
depression extending east from Carpenteria partly inland, and the 
bituminous sands represent the southern and eastern borders. At some 
distance from the present shore the stratum of sand is nearly level. It 
extends at least three fourths of a mile inland, where it is often covered 
by 30 to 50 ft. of sand and soil. The company is working on land 
between the railroad and the ocean, but bitumen also crops out or 
oozes to the surface on many other parts of the ranch N. of the railroad. 
Near Mr. Higgins' house a drill struck the bituminous sand at 30 ft., 
and passed through it for 30 ft. The sand averages about 20 per cent 
asphaltum. The thickness of the beds where opened is 20 ft. One 
cavity was found 12 ft. in diameter, filled with pure liquid asphaltum. 
Near the ocean the covering of barren sand to be stripped is often less 
than 12 ft. This is the most remarkable deposit of its kind on the coast, 
the sand being so pure that it is separated from the asphaltum by the 
gravity process. The machine was invented for the particular kind of 
rock found here, and is said to work well; the refined product of liquid 
asphaltum contains 95 per cent of bitumen. At present none of the 
crude bituminous rock is shipped. The deposit is apparently inex- 
haustible and one of the most important in the State. This deposit was 
briefly described in our Vllth Report, p. 89. California Petroleum and 
Asphalt Company, owners; W. N. Cowles, President, Crocker Building, 
San Francisco. 

Purissima Ranch. — About 2 miles N.E. of the old mission there are 
several deposits of asphaltum. On one a tunnel has been run, cutting 
a vein of unknown extent. These are on the same range as the deposits 
on the Rancho San Carlos de Jonata. 



32 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

San Carlos de Jonata Ranch. — Large beds of asphaltum and bitumin- 
ous rock occur on this ranch. The most important of these are in the 
center of the ranch. Two appear in vein form, 40 ft. thick, dipping 
into a hill from opposite directions, while the third forms a low knoll 
300 ft. in diameter. All these deposits are dark in character and 
apparently of good quality. One of the vein-like deposits has been 
opened and a small amount shipped. The formation has the usual 
character of the Miocene in this section, consisting of chalky and banded 
shales. On the hill and in near conjunction with two of the deposits 
is another burnt chimney showing red colors and slag-like products. 
Portions of this rock are silicified, and contain in the cavities small 
masses of pure bitumen. 

Santa Maria Mines. — The mines of the Santa Maria Asphalt Company 
are in the Pine Grove District, 10 miles S.E. of Santa Maria. Asphaltum 
and bituminous rock both occur here. The asphaltum is reported to be 
from 46 to 70 per cent. It outcrops over a considerable area along the 
N. slope of the hills bordering the Santa Maria Valley. The formation 
is a soft, sandy clay, probably of Pliocene age. The whole hillside seems 
to be cut up by irregular veins of asphaltum, varying in size from mere 
stringers to several feet in thickness. The developments are mainly in 
the form of open cuts. One tunnel has been run 40 ft., all the distance 
being through asphaltum. Masses 25 ft. across and of unknown length 
also occur. The deposit of bituminous sandrock belonging to this com- 
pany lies to the W. of the asphaltum. It occurs covering an area one 
third of a mile long by 350 ft. wide. The deposit has never been opened, 
but is apparently very extensive. It shows a depth of 200 ft. as exposed 
on the side of the hill. Santa Maria Asphalt Company, of Santa Barbara, 
owners. 

Tar and Tar Springs. — Tar is found seeping out of the bituminous 
slate series in the canon of the Sisquoc, about in the center of the Sisquoc 
grant. The largest deposits are, however, to be seen along La Brea Creek, 
a tributary of the Sisquoc on the N. and emptying opposite the ranch 
house. At the mouth of this creek are heavy beds forming cliffs of a 
soft, friable sandrock thoroughly impregnated with bitumen over a con- 
siderable extent. It is so dried out on the surface that the quality could 
not be ascertained. For a distance of 2 miles up the creek there are 
many tar springs, both on the main creek and on its tributaries. The 
rock from which it exudes is a banded, silicious argillite, weathering 
light-colored. The dip is to the N.E. at varying angles. Deposits of 
apparently commercial value appear in several places. The tar is quite 
thick, and is generally accompanied by water more or less mineralized. 

A deposit of thick tar appears in a canon on the western end of the 
Tinaquaic grant and about a mile north of the road. The formation is 
a hard, light-colored slate, belonging to the Miocene. The tar oozes up 
through the debris in the bottom of the canon, firmly cementing it in a 
solid mass. It appears on the surface for several hundred feet. A 
number of trenches have been dug showing the tar to be so mixed with 
the coarse rock material that it would be difficult to mine it profitably. 
Springs of considerable size issue from the trenches and are strongly 
mineralized. 

Other Deposits. — Extensive asphaltum deposits occur in the range of 
hills lying between the Los Alamos and the Santa Ynez River. On the 
southern slope a vein-like deposit can be traced for miles in a direction 



ASPHALTUM AND BITUMINOUS ROCK — VENTURA COUNTY. 33 

a little N. of W. They are in Sec. .17, T. 7 N., R. 32 E., in the quarter 
adjoining on the N.E. The highest and most prominent croppings have 
an elevation of 800 feet above those in the canon, which seem to belong 
to the same vein. The deposit has a vertical position in argillaceous 
rocks, which are but slightly hardened and contain over 40 per cent of 
bitumen. The asphaltum is so hard that it softens but slightly in the 
sun. It has been opened by a cut and by a large, deep excavation, from 
which a few hundred tons have been shipped. The amount of material 
here is, from all that can be learned, apparently very great, and must 
become valuable when facilities for shipping are better. 

The highest portion of the hills north of the asphaltum beds is formed 
of a hard, silicious rock, varying from different tints of yellow to bright 
red in color and often scoriaceous. The center of one of the occurrences, 
where the metamorphism has been greatest, has been opened by a shaft 
in search of quicksilver. The rock is porcelain-like in character, and 
gives a ringing sound when struck. These areas shade off on every side 
into the soft Tertiary rocks. The porous portions appear in the center 
of the greatest metamorphism, and closely resemble furnace slag, or a 
bituminous rock out of which the bitumen has been burned. Whether 
the intense heat which caused these effects preceded the deposit of the 
asphaltum, and was the cause of its formation, or occurred later, is not 
certain. It is certain, however, that they bear some relation to the 
asphaltum, for in quite a number of places in the county both were 
found together. There is no eruptive rock here as was supposed by 
Antisell, one of the geologists of the Pacific Railroad Survey. 

Unopened Deposits. — At Point Arguello, near the mouth of the Arroyo 
Honda, and at other points toward Lompoc Landing, are deposits of 
bituminous matter of unknown value, never having been opened. These 
are interbedded in the bituminous shales at Point Arguello, while at the 
mouth of the Arroyo Honda they are associated with soft clays. 

VENTURA COUNTY. 

Punta Gorda Mine. — It is situated at Punta Gorda, in the extreme 
western part of the county. Work has been commenced in a canon just 
above the railroad. The bituminous shales and clays strike about E. 
and W., dipping to the N. at a high angle. The asphaltum occurs in 
the form of bunch-like veins, well defined but very irregular. It has evi- 
dently been squeezed into an irregular fissure, which was formed without 
any reference to the stratification of the country rock. The veins, as far 
as developed, vary in thickness from a few inches to 4 ft. A tunnel had 
been run in 125 ft., and a shaft sunk at the end to a depth of 65 ft. The 
material taken out carries about 35 per cent bitumen. Punta Gorda 
Asphalt Mining and Paving Company, of Santa Barbara, owners. 

Undeveloped Deposits. — An asphaltum deposit has recently been dis- 
covered on the western slope of the Rincon, about 2 miles from the Punta 
Gorda Mine. It is 1| miles from the ocean, and has an elevation of 1,200 
ft. It occurs impregnating a loose and crumbling sandrock and sandy 
clays of Miocene age. No developments had been made at the time of 
the visit, but the quantity exposed is considerable. A road is being 
graded so as to make it accessible. 

3m 



34 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

BORAX. 

Borax is produced in only two States of the Union — California and 
Nevada. • Extensive deposits are found within the borders of these States 
which have been worked since 1873. For some years the bulk of the 
supply was from the Nevada side of the line, but for the past three years 
California has produced much the larger proportion. In 1892, out of the 
total yield of 12,538,196 pounds, the California yield was 11,050,495 
pounds. In 1893, of a total of 8,699,000 pounds, California produced 
7,499,562 pounds. The yield has been reduced of late, owing to decreased 
demand, which may be attributed to the prevailing depression in all 
branches of industry. Most of the product is obtained from the " borax 
marshes"; but in one instance, at Calico, San Bernardino County, where 
the borate bed has been tilted up with the inclosing sedimentaries, it is 
mined as a " vein " by means of shafts. 

INYO COUNTY. 

Salt Wells Borax Company. — The borax deposits of this company are 
situated in Salt Wells Valley, in the extreme southern portion of Inyo 
County. About 1,700 acres of borax land has been taken up. This is a 
recently organized company, and work is just being commenced. The 
deposits consist of borates of lime and soda. Salt Wells Borax Com- 
pany, of Independence, owners. 

LAKE COUNTY. 

Borax Lake. — The extensive plant erected here has been idle for a 
number of years. 

Another locality where borax has been found is at Little Borax Lake, 
near the shores of Clear Lake. 

SAN BERNARDINO COUNTY. 

The borax industry in the Calico region has received an impetus 
within the past two years, by the discovery of new deposits 6 miles N.E* 
of Daggett, of an entirely different nature from those of the Pacific Coast 
Borax Company. The new deposits are in the sedimentary strata 
which lie along the southern flanks of the Calico range at its eastern 
end. The intrusion of the eruptive rocks has folded, crushed, and dis- 
placed these sedimentary beds in a most perplexing manner. It is in 
the numerous canons and gulches intersecting these upturned beds that 
the borate deposits are found. The new field extends from the imme- 
diate vicinity of Calico eastward a distance of 5 miles. These deposits 
present much the appearance of stratified masses of indurated mud; red, 
green, and gray in color. A white efflorescence occurs in places, giving 
the rocks a mottled appearance. Some of the rock is bluish-black, and 
resembles fine-grained, blue limestone. These beds have a generally 
southerly dip under the desert plain. 

Since the above discovery other deposits of similar character have 
been found 5 miles N.W. of Daggett, on the opposite side of the (Calico) 
valley. These beds have a northerly dip. This fact suggests the possi- 
bility that these deposits are on the same strata. Should this be proven 



^^HMBjIJi'f^^'-' -*L*- 





Searles' Borax Works, Inyo County 




Searles' Borax Team. 



borax; chromic iron. 35 

to be a fact, the borate deposits will be found to underlie 60 square miles 
of territory. 

These sedimentary deposits do not appear at the western end of the 
Calico range, and the probability is that if they ever existed at all, they 
lie buried beneath the later accumulation of debris from the adjacent 
hills. 

Pacific Coast Borax Company's Mine is 5 miles E. of Calico. The 
deposit is described in our Illd, IVth, IXth, and Xlth Reports, pp. 28, 
91, 225, and 345. Since then the developments have been extensive and 
carried on over a considerable area, though chiefly confined to the same 
vein-like mass. These workings have now extended eastward a distance 
of 2 miles. The operations of this company are confined almost exclu- 
sively to the mining of " colemanite." 

Stevens & Greer Mines are located along the southern side of the 
range at various points for a distance of 5 miles. The development on 
these various claims is small, consisting of open cuts and short drifts. 
The deposit in Garfield Canon is exposed 40 ft. wide and 1,000 ft. long. 
The deposits farther east are quite irregular, much disturbed, and often 
folded in a synclinal fold, though these basins are found covering an 
acre or more of territory. The owners of these deposits have manu- 
factured considerable quantities of borax and boracic acid. They 
pulverize the borate material and carefully add it to a boiling solution 
of sodium sulphate until brisk effervescence ceases, when the compound 
solution is allowed to cool and settle; the liquor is drawn off and the 
borax crystallized on wires by evaporation. An experiment was also 
made with the " mud-like" borate material. It was subjected to a low 
heat and then treated with sulphuric acid, which, uniting with the 
calcium, formed calcium sulphate, liberating the boracic acid; this 
being soluble, is dissolved out with water and crystallized from the 
solution by evaporation. 

The Owens Mines are 5 miles N. W. of Daggett. They occur in sediment- 
ary beds similar to those on the S. side of the Calico range, and have 
been exposed by the uplift of a mass of eruptive rock, the axis of which 
is nearly parallel with the Calico range. There is reason to believe that 
the upturned edges of this formation can be found in many places other 
than have thus far been discovered. A shaft has been sunk to a depth 
of 200 feet, vertically, cutting the strata at an angle of 70°. The deposit 
appears to be not less than 40 or 50 feet in thickness. 



CHROMIC IRON. 

For a number of years the only product of chromic iron ore in the 
United States has been from California. Its occurrence is noted in a 
number of counties, but it is now mainly produced in Alameda, Glenn, 
San Luis Obispo, Shasta, and Tehama. The industry of mining and 
shipping this substance is not very flourishing, owing to the facility 
with which it can be imported from Asia Minor. Our local product is 
only about one fourth the total consumption at Baltimore and Phila- 
delphia. Ores producing less than 50 per cent cannot be handled and 
shipped to compete with those from the Mediterranean. Owing to the 
" pockety " nature of the deposits, it is difficult to determine anything 
about their extent except by actual work, and the deposits or pockets 



36 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

are usually soon exhausted. The substance is generally mined on a 
royalty to the owner of the land where it occurs. The necessity of build- 
ing roads to new deposits, when possibly only a few hundred tons may 
be taken out, prevents many known ones from being worked. Cost of 
transportation to the only markets, Baltimore and Philadelphia, by sea 
or rail, is the main reason which prevents California supplying the entire 
demand of the United States. 

ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

Douglas Mine. — It is in Cedar Mountain District, 12 miles S.E. of 
Livermore. In 1893 the product was about 50 tons of chromic iron, 
which is still on the dump. It is not as high grade as that of the Men- 
denhall Mine, and being a harder ore, will require crushing and concen- 
trating to materially raise the grade. D. Mendenhall, of Livermore, 
owner. 

Mendenhall Mine. — This is on the S.W. side of Cedar Mountain, 13 
miles S.E. of Livermore. The mine produced in 1893 about 55 tons of 
high-grade ore, and there now lies sacked on the dump several hundred 
tons of ore, most of which is soft and has been mixed in mining with a 
great amount of waste. The soft, friable character of the ore, however, 
will render it an easy matter to wash it. Simply raking the ore in a 
puddling-box similar to that used by placer miners, and placing two or 
three lengths of sluice-boxes, provided with rimes, below, should result 
in raising this ore to an average of at least 50 per cent, and may do even 
better. The deposits are exceedingly variable in thickness and in dip. 
The ore bodies appear to lie in rolls and to occupy portions of the ser- 
pentine that are much crushed and broken. Some of the ore has a 
structure similar to decomposing serpentine, and. appears to be a replace- 
ment of the serpentine itself by chromic iron. A. Mendenhall, of Liver- 
more, owner. 

DEL NORTE COUNTY. 

Tyson Mine. — See our Xth Report, p. 169. No shipments are made 
at present, the demand being small. Tyson Mining Company, of Balti- 
more, Md., owners. 

GLENN COUNTY. 

Whitlock & Oakes Mine. — It is situated on a ridge of serpentine 
which rises to an altitude of about 3,000 ft., and forms the W. side of 
Milsap Valley. It is reached by a steep mountain road 3 miles in length 
from the mine to the Newville and Fruto county road. The workings 
consist of an open cut about 70 ft. long and 30 ft. deep, and a chamber 
about 20 ft. wide and 50 ft. in length. The deposit shows a mass of 
chrome more than 10 ft. in thickness, which in places is somewhat 
mixed with serpentine. During 1893 the mine was worked on a royalty, 
15 men being employed ; 3,319 tons of chromic iron were shipped. 
J. R. Whitlock, of Paskenta, Tehama County, and F. Oakes, of New- 
ville, Glenn County, owners. 



CHROMIC IRON — MARIN, NAPA, SAN LUIS OBISPO, ETC. 37 



MARIN COUNTY. 



On the Mailliard Ranch, 7-§ miles W. of San Rafael, are several small 
deposits of chromic iron, none of which have been opened. As usual 
these bunch-like masses of ore occur in serpentine, and are very irregular. 
Analyses determined the ore to contain over 50 per cent chromium 
sesquioxide. A. Mailliard, of San Rafael, owner. 

NAPA COUNTY. 

Adjacent to the Snowflake Mine is an outcrop of chromic iron of good 
grade. 

SAN LUIS OBISPO COUNTY. 

Pick and Shovel Mine. — This mine is located 4 miles N. of San Luis 
Obispo, and about half way to the summit on the western slope of the 
Santa Lucia range. Work has been carried on here irregularly for sev- 
enteen years. There are 2,500 ft. of tunnel; the longest is 900 ft. The 
chromite occurs in bunches and stringers in a crushed zone. One bunch 
of 1,000 tons has been taken out. The chromite is found impregnating 
the serpentine as well as in almost pure masses. The bunches and con- 
necting stringers are arranged in such an exceedingly irregular manner 
that no rule can be laid down for tracing the ore bodies. 

The manner of occurrence of chrome ores is perhaps better shown 
here than in any other mine on the Pacific Coast, on account of the 
extensive workings. The fact that the chromite is confined to this 
crushed zone, and the serpentine gangue more or less silicified in places, 
seems to indicate a manner of deposition for this mineral similar to that 
of quicksilver. The chromite would thus not be an original constituent 
of the serpentine in the form or position in which it is found, but because 
of its invariable association with serpentine it was undoubtedly an 
original constituent in some form, perhaps disseminated through the 
mass and afterwards collected by means of mineral solutions. See -our 
Xth Report, p. 583. 

San Carpojoro Creek and the Arroyo La Cruz. — On the divide between 
them chromite is found. It is reported to be one of the largest deposits 
ever found in the county. It is almost inaccessible, and owing to the 
great expense of constructing a wagon road, has never been opened. 

San Luis Obispo Deposits. — The chromite deposits 4 miles W. of San 
Luis Obispo have been worked to a small extent the past year, and 
something less than 100 tons taken out. No large bodies seem to have 
been found recently in the serpentine, but the greater portion was 
obtained from the gulches and hill slopes below the mines, by collecting 
the surface debris and sluicing it. The chromite appears disseminated 
through the serpentine in small stringers and bunches which can hardly 
pay for working. See our Xth report, p. 583. 

SANTA BARBARA COUNTY. 

A few tons of chromic iron have been mined 10 miles N. of Santa 
Ynez, but it is so far to market that it is not available. 



38 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

SANTA CLARA COUNTY. 

Halm's Ranch. — There is a deposit of chromic iron of limited extent 
here. Some years ago a small prospect hole was sunk on it, but since 
that time nothing has been done. 

SIERRA COUNTY. 

Brandy City. — Chromic iron, in small quantities, is found here on 
Sec. 1, T. 19 N., R. 8 E., but is not being mined. 

SONOMA COUNTY. 

Sonoma, Switch. — Several large detached bodies of chromic iron are to 
be found half a mile from this station, with some little prospect work 
expended on them. 

TEHAMA COUNTY. 

Tehama Consolidated Chrome Deposit Company. — The chrome deposits 
which are being worked by this company are situated on the North Fork 
of Elder Creek, and in Sec. 1 6, T. 25 N., R. 7 W., M. D. M. In this 
section chrome ore is exposed in five or six different places. The prin- 
cipal development consists of an open cut, where a body of ore more 
than 20 ft. in thickness is exposed. , The wall rock is serpentine. Dur- 
ing 1893, 3,200 long tons of ore were shipped from this mine; and in 
August, 1894, a new contract was being executed, which called for 1,500 
long tons of chrome to be delivered f. o. b. at Red Bluff for $9 a ton. 
Twenty men are employed. See also our Xth Report, p. 692. Tehama 
Consolidated Chrome Company, of Red Bluff, owners. 



COAL. 

The coal product of California comes from the counties of Amador, 
Contra Costa, Fresno, Monterey, Riverside, and San Diego. The largest 
yield is from the mines of Amador and Contra Costa, the latter being 
first in importance. The entire product of the State is now only about 
75,000 tons per annum, an annual decrease of output being shown since 
1889. The coals of the State are generally of an inferior character 
as compared with those imported. About 1,500,000 tons of coal are con- 
sumed in California yearly. About one third of this comes from British 
Columbia; one third from England and Wales; and the rest is from the 
East, Japan, Scotland, Oregon, Washington, and the local mines. With 
such a large domestic consumption, and so small a local output, the 
importance of exploiting and developing known coal "prospects" is 
apparent to any one. There are many places in the State where coal is 
known to exist, but where very little if any work has been done. The 
latest field of investigation is in Mendocino and Humboldt counties, 
which is more fully referred to further on in this chapter. Every 
encouragement should be given toward the development of this and 
other localities where there are indications that coal may be found. An 
interesting table of analyses may be found at the end of this chapter. 



COAL ALAMEDA COUNTY. 39 

ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

Corral Hollow Coal Field. — Considerable prospecting for coal has been 
done since 1862 in Corral Hollow Canon and on Richard Creek, in the 
east end of Livermore Valley, and several thousand tons of good coal 
have been taken out and sold in the vicinity. The last description was 
published in our Xth Report, p. 91. At that time the rather shallow 
mines which had produced the coal had been closed down, being rendered 
worthless by excessive faulting. Since then all the mines on the Liver- 
more side of the hill have been shut down for the same reason. 

The coal measures in Corral Hollow are similar to those of Mt. Diablo, 
and are probably a continuation of that field; at least they belong to the 
same geological age. They contain three fair-sized veins of coal, with a 
number of thin seams and irregular streaks between. They are bedded 
on a white or reddish-white sand, which in places coheres enough to be 
called a sandstone. Between the veins lie a bluish clay, interspersed 
with seams of sand. The upper stratum is blue clay about 75 ft. thick. 




FAM.CRETOCEOUS 

PROBABLE STRATIFICATION Of COAL MEASURES SAND STONES AND 

IN CORRAL HOLLOW. LIME STONCS 

The whole coal formation measures perhaps 200 ft., and is covered up by 
a bed of soft-gray and bluish-gray sandstone 800 to 1,000 ft. in thick- 
ness. The lower stratum of this sandstone contains limonite in nodules 
and concretions, and the upper, fossil wood and oyster shells. 

The only attempt at mining in this neighborhood at present is some 
prospecting by Mr. Treadwell. Where the wagon road from Livermore 
enters Corral Hollow Canon, a tunnel is run on a course N. 36° W. with 
a view of striking the coal several thousand feet E. and N. of the old 
workings in Richard Creek, and at a considerable depth underground. 
Entrance to the mine and information of every kind was refused, but to 
judge from the size of the dump there must be a mile or more of drifts. 
The tunnel has a double track and seems to be well timbered. There is an 
air compressor and a fan, and an electrical plant, indicating an under- 
ground hoister. 

Going down Corral Hollow from the tunnel the course of the creek is 
N. 75° E. for about 5 miles, the coal measures crossing it at a small 
angle, the average strike of the veins being N. 80° E. Below the tunnel 
2^ miles, the same party has opened a shaft or incline on the S. side of 
the creek. There is a boarding-house, a shaft-house, and hoisting-plant. 
The " opening " is at the base of the hill, and about 15 ft. above the creek. 
Between the tunnel and the shaft lie the old workings, and some of them 
are still open. They illustrate how very much the strata have been 
twisted and broken. In the first drift entered the dip was 45° N.; at 



40 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

the next one, only a short distance beyond, it was nearly 34° W. About 
a mile below a small gulch comes in from the S., and in it metamorphic 
sandstone and limestone outcrop, standing nearly perpendicular. Oppo- 
site the shaft the strata dip at a high angle to the N., and seem to lie as 
illustrated in the sketch on page 39. 

The coal measures no doubt continue down the creek for several miles, 
but as the hills are covered with soil no exposures were noted. The 
bottom ledges of the gray sandstone will be a sure guide to the pros- 
pector. On the W. side of the divide, on Richard Creek, the gray sand- 
stone overlying the coal is about 500 ft. thick. The hills become lower 
as we go W., the strata dipping to the N.W., until the coal, and even the 
sandstone, disappears below the level of Livermore Valley. There is 
every evidence on the surface that the coal measures have been subjected 
to repeated disturbances, and heavy faulting and crushing of the veins 
may be expected underground. The sand strata, wherever they exist as 
a roof in contact with the coal, render mining a most difficult operation. 
It is to be hoped that the long tunnel has struck ground not so much 
disturbed, so as to reimburse the owners for the great sums of money 
expended. The quality of the coal is similar in all respects to that of Mt. 
Diablo. It has a bright black color, is brittle, and crumbles readily on 
exposure to the air. At the tunnel two varieties are brought to the surface. 
The one said to come from the lower vein is very fragile, and contains an 
excessive amount of gypsum and pyrite. The other, supposed to come 
from the middle vein, looks much better; it is harder and contains less 
impurities. The coal from the lower workings (the shaft) is nearly of 
the same quality as the best from the tunnel. At this place is another 
variety, probably coming from another vein. It is tough, does not 
crumble, and has a dull, brown-black color. It is highly bituminous 
and burns readily with a long flame when heated. It is an excellent 
gas material, and may be called a cannel coal. 

AMADOR COUNTY. 

lone Coal Field. — In the vicinity of lone, some 36 miles S.E. of Sac- 
ramento, a heavy bed of coal has been worked to a small extent for a 
number of years. Behind the first ridge of the lowest foothills of the 
Sierra a series of lakes existed in ancient times, in which depressions 
the coal was formed. These extended from a short distance south of the 
Cosumnes River in the north to Jackson Creek in the south, and possi- 
bly farther. The formation consists of light-colored clays interstratified 
near the surface with carbonaceous matter and sand. It belongs to the 
Tertiary age, and lies non-conformably upon the Cretaceous rock below. 
The surrounding hills are Cretaceous sandstones capped with lava or 
conglomerates. 

The coal is a brown coal. When taken out it is dull black, changing 
to brown and yellow-brown as it dries. It is soft and easily cut with 
the knife, and contains a large amount of ionite (a light, very fragile, 
dirty-yellow, earthy-looking hydrocarbon, found exclusively in this 
field), and also gilsonite and rosin. It carries a great deal of water as it 
leaves the mine, and in that state bears handling well, but as it dries it 
cracks and crumbles, for which reason it is shipped as wet as possible. 
It is used to a small extent for house coal in the vicinity, and is shipped 
to Sacramento, Stockton, and other points. 



COAL AMADOR COUNTY. 



41 



Used under the boiler it must be fed in frequently, in thin layers, 
and must have plenty of air. Furnaces especially constructed are used 
in Sacramento. If the fireman has once learned to handle the coal it 
makes a satisfactory and cheap fire. 

To make this field to yield its full value some means should be found 
to utilize the coal on the spot. A gas plant may be erected and gas 
piped to Stockton or Sacramento, where it would be used in preference 
to any kind of coal; and as there is fuel, sand, and clay of excellent 
quality in abundance, a large pottery might be started, in which all 
kinds of chinaware could be manufactured. The increased demand for 
coal produced by such enterprises would reduce the cost of mining by 
rendering a systematic and economic way of mining feasible. 

There are only two mines in operation — Mine No. 3 of the lone Coal 
and Iron Company, and that of the Sacramento and lone Coal Com- 
pany. Both were described in detail in our VHIth and Xlth Reports, 
pp. 110 and 147. 

lone Coal and Iron Company's Mine No. 3. — The coal here is mined 
through tunnels only. From the base of the hoisting slope a gangway 
is driven as far as it is desired to , . i //A . y ■,,-,„ ,, ■ 

work the coal through that slope, 

then tunnels are run right and left, ~ 5 

6 ft. wide and 50 to 60 ft. long, with | 4 ■■ " 

a pillar left between 50 ft. thick. y . if r , \ Zj j | CZi tj 
The short tunnels are next con- zz~^ ^ — ; -— ^ ^zzzjzzt 1 tL 
nected at their further end, so that ./. ; 
now a pillar stands clear 50 ft. 
square. The next step is to divide 

this pillar by a tunnel 6 ft. wide <—' L ~;> . 

in one direction and afterwards in ^S«^^ ^ A 
another direction, leaving four pil- mamm orMw/ua coal 

lars 22 It. square; these are again 

cut crosswise, until finally sixteen pillars remain, each 8 ft. square. 
Two fifths of the coal in the whole area is left in the mine as pillars and 
probably another half fifth as roof. 

Occasionally the clay above the coal is replaced by sand charged with 
water, and whenever that occurs a cave results, filling the workings for 
several hundred feet in every direction with quicksand. The coal dips 
slightly toward the center of the basin, and averages about 9 ft. in thick- 
ness throughout the mine. The quality varies somewhat, some streaks 
being brighter than others, although in mining it will be impracticable 
to keep them apart. The vein is made up as follows: 

White clay above. 

Coal, Sample No. 4 — left as roof _ 2' 

Gray shale _ _.. 4" 

Coal, Sample No. 3 2' 3" 

White clay 3" 

Coal, Sample No. 2 _. ___. 3' 4" 

Coal, Sample No. 1 10" 

Clay in bottom. 




The seam of white clay varies greatly in thickness, measuring in one 
place more than a foot, although the coal at that point was about as 
thick as elsewhere. Several faults, the largest of which is 2 ft., were 
noticed. 



42 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

Lancha Plana Coal Field. — This deposit is 10 miles S. of lone, and is 
considerably older geologically than that at lone. The Murray and the 
Orr mines are the only openings. 

The coal is a brown coal, which when taken out is black, and resembles 
the lone coal; when dry it crumbles, changing to a light brown, with 
small black particles and thin seams of clay and other impurities 
showing in the mass. It contains a great deal of ash, but as nearly 
half of its weight can be driven off by heat, it may be considered a good 
gas coal. The exploration of this coal field has been very limited; only 
a few openings have been made, and they are close together. How far 
it extends, or whether it crosses the Mokelumne River into Calaveras 
County, is not known, as no shafts or borings of sufficient depth came 
under the observation of the Bureau to determine. 

Murray Mine. — This mine has been idle since it was described in our 
VHIth Report, p. 109. The workings are caved or are full of water. 

Orr Mine. — This is in China Gulch, 1-J miles S. from the Mokelumne 
River, and 2-§ miles E. of Lancha Plana. China Gulch is a small valley, 
varying in width from 500 to 1,500 ft. Some of the land is under culti- 
vation, and fruit of all*kinds seems to do well. The surrounding hills 
are made up of white and yellow Cretaceous sandstones, unaltered and 
little disturbed. They dip slightly to the S. The two-compartment 
shaft, 104 ft. deep, is sunk on the slope of the hill some 30 ft. above the 
creek and is newly timbered. Hoisting is done by direct horse power. 
At the bottom of the shaft a short tunnel starts off in a northerly direc- 
tion, and from it all the coal sold is taken. The vein, which is 4 ft. 
thick, lies practically level. There is no water in the mine. Below 
the coal lies blue clay and above it a very soft white sandstone. But 
two men are at work, and they only occasionally. Little or no attempt 
has been made to introduce the coal in the surrounding villages. Oak 
fire wood can be had at a nominal figure, and is preferred therefore by 
the people. Almost the only demand for the coal at present is at a 
steam plant in a gravel mine a few miles down the river. 

Sacramento and lone Coal Company's Mine. — The coal lies very near 
the surface, and is brought to daylight through an incline having a 
very easy slope, showing the following section: 

Sand and sandy soil at the surface 8' 

White clay ._ 4' 

Brown carbonaceous matter . 7" 

White clay _ 2' 8" 

Fragile and poor coal, with gypsum 2' 

White clay 4" 

Coal 1' 4" 

White clay.. 1" 

Coal - 8' 

White clay in bottom. 

Tunnels are driven at the bottom of the slope in every direction, and 
from them the coal is mined by opening short rooms, 6 by 20 ft., on 
either side, and robbing the pillars afterwards. The lowest white clay 
seam shows throughout the mine immediately below the roof. It comes 
down with the coal in mining, and must be picked out. The next 
streak of coal, which makes a very good roof, is left for that purpose, 
little timbering being required. The rails used are T rails of good 
weight; the cars are arranged to dump at the side, and stand somewhat 
higher than the common end dumper. They measure 6 ft. 3 in. by 3 ft. 



COAL — CONTRA COSTA COUNTY. 



43 



by 1 ft. 3 in. inside, and are made of pine. Mr. Muir, the Superintendent, 
says that the ground owned by the company is nearly mined out, and 
that he expects to take out the rest by January, 1894. 




^^ 



o 



<•> 



SIDE DUMP/A/G CARS 

USED' IN THE Af/NE OF THE SACRAMENTO AND /OA/£ 
CO A L C ON7PA A/ Y. 

Another mine was opened half a mile N. of Carbondale, and hoist- 
ing machinery and buildings were erected. At a depth of 100 ft., 18 ft. 
of good coal was struck, it is said. The shaft is 6 by 12 ft. and is well 
timbered. For some reason, not learned, no coal was ever taken out. 
The mine lies idle and water stands in the shaft. 

About 2^ miles N. of Carbondale another opening was made by Mr. 
Newman, of lone, but nothing has been done there since it was described 
in our Xlth Report, p. 148. 

CONTRA COSTA COUNTY. 



Mount Diablo Coal Field. — A series of mines and croppings are known 
under this name, which encircle Mount Diablo with a radius varying in 
length from 4 to 10 miles. They lie on the N.E., N., and N.W. sides of 
the mountain. The geological formation belongs to the Upper Creta- 
ceous or Lower Tertiary, and the strata dip in every instance away from 
the center of eruption at Mount Diablo. The dip ranges from 16° in the 
Brentwood Mine to 50° in the San Francisco Mine. As far as the field 
has been explored the strata are faulted and broken considerably. Near 
a fault the coal is always crushed and worthless and sometimes absent 
altogether. Below, as well as above the coal measures, lie sandstones of 
great thickness and of white, yellow, or reddish color. The strata imme- 
diately above the coal measures generally contain limonite. 

The coal belongs to the lignites. It has a bright, black luster, is brit- 
tle, and crumbles readily to small fragments and dust on exposure to 
the air. 

The coal measures vary in thickness from 350 to 400 ft., and contain 
three marketable veins of coal. The upper one, known as the Clark 
vein, lies immediately below the sandstone, except where occasionally 
some inches of clay slate intervene. The coal is bright, of good quality, 
and remarkably free from slate and bone. This vein has been a favor- 
ite in the different camps, and nearly all of it has been mined to a level 
where water begins to be troublesome. The next important vein, called 
the Little vein, extends through the whole field like the former, but is of 



44 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

very irregular thickness. In some of the workings it shows a mere 
seam, while elsewhere it becomes a workable vein of 18 to 24 in. thick. 
It is more expensive to mine than the Clark vein, as it does not lie in 
contact with the sandstone, but has a stratum of bone or clay shale 
2 ft. thick below as well as on top. The bone swells when exposed to 
air, and makes a troublesome, if not dangerous, roof and footing. The 
coal is bright and nearly as clean as that of the Clark vein. 

The Black Diamond vein, which comes next in order, is generally the 
thickest of the series, averaging 3^ ft., but, like the other veins, it varies 
greatly, sometimes swelling to nearly 5 ft., and half a mile farther 
pinching down to 24 in., or even 18 in. It is the most expensive vein 
to mine, as there is bone 4 to 6 ft. thick above and below. The timbers 
must be placed very close together, and even then it is merely a question 
of time when they are crushed by the swelling of the bone. This coal 
is not nearly as pure or bright as that of the Clark vein. An inch or 
more of clay or slate is generally found about the middle of the vein. 
Between these three larger veins are a number of veins of carbonaceous 
matter containing coal seams a foot or less thick. The principal one of 
these is called the Belshaw, the Bogus, or the Floyd vein. In isolated 
patches it has been large enough to work, but as a rule it does not pay to 
extract the coal. The most easterly point at which the vein has been 
explored lies in Sec. 27, T. 1 N., R. 2 E., at the Brentwood Mine. The 
veins here proved to be large and the quality fair, but no work has been 
done on them since they were described in our Vllth Report, p. 145. 

Central Mine. — See Stewart's. 

Empire and Hartley Mines. — Farther W. some little work was done 
in Sees. 16, 18, and 7. The coal found here was dirty and crushed by 
faults, and the prospectors soon became discouraged and quit. In the 
next township toward the W. — T. 1 N., R. 1 E. — we find the Empire 
and West Hartley mines, both in Sec. 12. These have furnished con- 
siderable coal, but for the present are shut down. In both the coal has 
been mined to a level about 400 ft. below the surface. See our Vllth 
Report, p. 142. 

Somersville Mines. — The next mines along the croppings of the coal 
vein are in Section 4 in and around the village of Somersville. They 
are the Pittsburg, Union, Manhattan, Eureka, and others. See our Vllth 
Report, pp. 117-140. They are all abandoned. With the exception of 
a small patch in the ground of the Pittsburg Company, and another one 
in the old Manhattan ground, the coal has been extracted down to where 
water interferes seriously. This point, called water level in the camp, 
lies about 350 ft. above the San Joaquin River. The only mine taking 
out coal lies in the ground of. the Pittsburg Company, in a narrow ravine 
S. of the village. The opening is known as Davis slope. In the early 
part of 1892 work was begun in the bottom of the gulch, and this slope 
was driven 705 ft. on an angle of 30° in a southerly direction. The 
Clark vein was struck 100 ft., the Little vein 300 ft., and the Black 
Diamond 418 ft. from the mouth of the slope. Gangways were run on 
all three of the veins and the coal taken out nearly to the surface. The 
Clark and the Little veins were of nearly uniform thickness throughout, 
the former being 3 and the latter 2 ft.; both contained excellent coal. 
The Black Diamond was 3 ft. thick at the east end of the gangways, and 
3^ ft. at the west; the coal was fair. When all the coal was mined on 



N. 



COAL — CONTRA COSTA COUNTY. 45 



s. 



SOMERSVIL^ 




Underground Wor/ting of Davis Si 'ope . 

these levels a tunnel was run from a point 680 ft. down the slope to cut 
the veins again at that level; this left a sump in the bottom of the slope 
25 ft. deep. The tunnel strikes the Black Diamond vein 340 ft. from the 
base of the slope. A gangway 600 ft. was run westerly along the vein. 
Many faults were encountered and the gangway had to swing first this 
way then that, to keep the vein at the proper elevation above the rails. 
The coal in many places is crushed and worthless; in one instance this 
is the case for a length of 300 ft. The coal, where it is solid, is of good 
quality, and shows a thickness of 3 to 3^ ft. The dip ranges from 28° 
to 33° to the N. No work of any kind has been done on this level on 
the east side of the slope or on any of the other veins. 

The slope is about 8 by 6 ft. in the clear and is not timbered, except 
where the old upper gangways are closed or where it crosses the smaller 
veins. The mine makes about 20 cu. ft. of water per hour, which is 
hoisted in tanks. Mules are used in the gangways and tunnel to move 
the cars to and from the slope. The hoisting engine has a cylinder 
12 by 24 in., and a f in. wire rope is used on a 6 ft. drum. All the water 
used in the boilers is hauled by rail from the San Joaquin River. There 
are 9 miners employed whenever there is any demand for coal. The 
total shipments for the first four months in 1893 were only 3,000 tons. 
Ventilation is had by an upraise from the workings to an old tunnel, and 
thence up to the surface. A fire is kept burning in the tunnel where the 
air shaft crosses it, to make a draft. The tunnel just mentioned runs 
into the hills in nearly the same direction as the slope; its mouth is 300 
ft. to the S.W. of the engine-house; it is 800 ft. long, and as it cuts all the 
veins, a section was measured, as follows: 

Starting at the Clark vein, which crops out on the face of the cliff 
outside the tunnel — 

Yellow sandstone, to mouth of tunnel. .. 78' 

Yellow sandstone _ _._ 17' 

Good coal 1' 3" 

Grayish sandstone 130' 

Good coal ( t;++i^ ,^;„ \ - 3' 

Black slate.J Llttle vein j 1' 6" 

White sandstone __ ___ 8' 

Bone 3' 

Dirty white sandstone 56' 

Black slate and clay ...30' 

White sandstone". 46' 



46 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

Black slate 6 

Yellow soft sandstone ...90 

Thin seams of slate, bone, and clay. _. 30 

White sandstone 80 

Good coal 1' 

Black slate 2' 

Gray sandstone with thin seams of clay, slate, and bone 67' 

Goal ~| f 2' 3" 

Biacf shale - [ B °s« s vein ; doubled ^pby a faulty :~^^::VZ^^: l % 6 „ 

Dirty coal.. J [ 3' 6" 

Dirty white sandstone with seams of shale 95' 

Black slate 9" 

Yellow sandstone 91' 

Bone ) ( 6' 

Coal > Black Diamond vein 1 4' 6" 

Bone ) ( ■_ 6' 

Sandstone at face. 

Star Mine. — The Star Mine is in Sec. 11, and as this mine is one of 
the few producing coal at present, a description is herewith given of its 
underground workings. 

An incline was sunk in a S.W. direction on a slope of 28° to a depth 
of 430 ft., cutting the veins at an angle of about 50°. When the Clark 
vein was struck it proved too thin to work; the Little vein, however, 
showed good coal of fair thickness. It was crossed at a depth of about 
200 ft. Gangways were driven on the vein at this place, both E. and W., 
850 and 700 ft., respectively, and the coal extracted between the gang- 
way and the surface. These workings are now closed. At the base of 
the incline water was encountered, and as the Black Diamond vein has 
not been crossed, and as it was not desirable to go any deeper, a sump 30 
ft. deep was left at the bottom of the incline, and a tunnel driven in the 
same direction as the incline. It struck the Black Diamond vein at a 
distance of 112 ft. The coal, however, contained so much bone and slate 
that it was worthless. Altogether the vein looked so different from its 
usual appearance that doubts arose whether it really was that vein or 
another, and to decide the question the tunnel was continued 100 ft. 
farther. No more coal was found and the work ceased. On the same 
level another tunnel was run, in nearly the opposite direction. It lies 
partly under the incline, and is nearly 400 ft. long to where it strikes 
the Little vein, and at its end two gangways are driven on that vein. 
The one to the W. is about 720 ft. long, and as its end lies in a large fault 
of unknown thickness, it is not intended to extend it. The coal is nearly 
all mined from this gangway, and it is expected that by the end of May 
the last of it will be cleaned out. The lift, the distance between this 
gangway and the one above, measured along the coal is 192 ft. The gang- 
way to the E. is about 700 ft. long, and will be extended from time to 
time as new ground is needed, or until it strikes the old workings of the 
West Hartley, whose lowest gangway is about on this level, and probably 
100 ft. from the present face. Should this connection be made it will 
create ventilation in both mines. As mentioned above, the Little vein 
is the only one mined here at present, and the coal is clean and bright. 
Near the E. end of the claim it is 20 in., and at the W. end 30 in. thick. 
The dip is from 20° to 24° N., 10° W. The white sandstone roof some- 
times rests directly on the coal. From 1 to 16 in. of bone and slate 
generally, however, intervene. The bottom is a nearly uniform bed of 
blue slate 4 ft. thick, with white sandstone below. It is not intended to 
deepen the slope when the coal on this level is worked out, as it would 



COAL — CONTRA COSTA COUNTY. 



47 



SECTION of UNDERGROUND WORKINGS 




get too far away from the coal. The locality for a shaft has been selected 
which will strike the coal 400 ft. deeper, and it is intended to work both 
the Hartley and the Star mines through this shaft when sunk. 

No powder is used to mine the coal, the pick being sufficient. In 
driving the gangway, where sandstone is encountered, No. 2 giant pow- 
der is employed, and two men working together drive about 6 ft. per 

day. There is as yet no necessity 
of artificial ventilation in the mine, 
as quite a draft exists through the 
old workings. Several small faults 
were cut through; the largest 
" jump" in the lower workings was 
2 -J ft., while on the upper gangway 
it was 9 ft. The mine makes about 
100 cu. ft. of water per hour, which 
is hoisted out of the sump by a 300- 
gallon wooden tank, set on regular trucks. It is supplied with a valve 
in the bottom, so as to fill it as it sinks into the water of the sump. The 
hoisting engine has a cylinder 10 in. by 12 in., and a winding drum 6-| 
ft. in diameter. Hoisting is done with a velocity of about 8 ft. per 
second. The mine employs about 40 men at present, but the number 
fluctuates constantly. The coal is shipped as it comes out of the mine, 
no screening being attempted. 

In all the mines of this neighborhood the coal is mined in rooms 30 
ft. wide and as long as the distance may be to the next gangway (a lift, 
generally 400 ft.). The gangway is 
driven somewhat below the coal, in 
such a way that the bottom of the 
vein lies about 5 ft. above the floor 
of the gangway. An opening 4 ft. 
wide is made in the coal, which 
gradually widens to the width of the 
room — 30 ft. The coal is run down 
into the gangway through a chute 
made of boards and lined with sheet- 
iron; it is 3 ft. wide and 6 to 8 in. 
deep. As the miner works his way 
up in his room he adds length after 
length to his chute, until he reaches 
the next gangway above. He does 
nearly all work on his knees or lying on his side. As soon as he has 
sufficient coal picked loose to make it inconvenient he shovels it into 
the end of the chute; here it is taken charge of by a boy (called a 
nobber), who works it down the chute. At the lower end a board is 
set across the chute to prevent the coal from wasting until a car is 
pushed under to receive it. The cars are hauled by mules or pushed by 
men along the gangway to the slope, and there hoisted. Whale oil is 
used to keep the chutes slick, and about one gallon is reckoned for that 
purpose per miner per day. 

Props of redwood with a short cap are put in as soon as the coal is 
taken out. An average of one prop for every square yard of space is 
required; in addition to this some extra timbers are put on each side of 
the chute. In bad ground cribs are used, built up of short posts and 




WWMER or JULVlArZ COJL 



48 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

filled with stone (cogs). The gangways and tunnels have a 1 per cent 
grade toward the foot of the hoisting slope in order that the water may 
drain from the whole mine into the sump and the loaded cars run 
easily. 

Stewart (Central) Mine. — The next toward the W. is the Central or 
Stewart Mine at Stewartsville. This mine lies nearly in the center of 
Sec. 10 on the S. slope of a very steep sandstone ridge. It was opened 
many years ago by a tunnel driven N. entirely through the hill; after 
crossing the other veins the Clark vein was struck at a distance of 1,000 
ft. from the mouth. It proved to be the only good coal found. Gang- 
ways were driven at this place and all the coal extracted from above; 
a slope was then sunk 900 ft. on the pitch of the vein, a hoisting engine 
placed at the head of it, and the entire coal extracted. Then from the 
bottom of this 900 ft. slope a tunnel was run S. 218 ft., where it struck 
the Little vein. Coal from this vein was mined here and there, and as 
high up as possible wherever its thickness admitted of doing so at a 
profit. The Black Diamond vein was not prospected at this level, as 
further progress was stopped by insufficient ventilation, caused to some 
extent probably by the underground hoisting engine. Water also came 
in at the rate of 150 cu. ft. per hour, so work was temporarily stopped. 
Later the present workings were opened by driving a slope down 1,200 
ft. near the mouth of the old tunnel, at an angle averaging 20°, and 
sinking an air shaft 312 ft. from top of the ridge to the old tunnel, and 
thence down, at an angle of 55°, until it struck the 1,200 ft. slope at a 
point 900 ft. from the surface. The first tunnel to tap the coal was 
driven at a point on the slope 400 ft. from the surface; it cuts through 
160 ft. of light-grayish sandstone and strikes the Black Diamond vein. 

Section of Formation Penetrated by the IfiO ft. Level. 

Gray sandstone _ _ _ _.160' 

Black shale and bone with 6 in. coal ^ f 6' 

Black clay I | 6' 

Coal of good quality j> Black Diamond vein < 2' 

Clay | | 2" 

Coal not as good as above _j [ 1' 6" 

Dirty white slate 5' 

White sandstone 200' 

Shale and bone 10' 

Coal 10" 

Bone _._ 10" 

Coal V 

Black shale 2' 

White sandstone ..105' 

Black shale ( t>«i„t, „„„„,•„ ( 5' 

Coal f Belshawvem ] 2 , & , 

Yellow sandstone in face of tunnel. 

The upper old tunnel for quite a distance runs along in a fault, and 
no sign of the Belshaw vein was noticed; later, when the air shaft was 
sunk, the vein was crossed in good ground and proved to carry 2-J ft. of 
excellent coal. Up to that time the Black Diamond vein was the only 
one worked from the new slope, as the Clark and Little veins had 
already been mined through the old workings. The result was that the 
tunnel on the 400 ft. level was extended and the Belshaw vein struck 
as shown above. A gangway 800 ft. long is driven on it toward the W., 
and the coal is being extracted there now. The vein has a dip of 25° to 
the N., and as a rule the roof is clean white sandstone, although in 
places a few inches of shale intervenes. The bottom is 5 ft. of shale. 



COAL CONTRA COSTA COUNTY. 



49 




C£Af0£RG/iOl/ND WOff/C/S/GS 

OF 

STEWARTS M/A/£. 



The coal averages 30 in. thick, and is clean and bright. It is intended 
to drive the gangway some 200 ft. farther, to a large fault known to 
exist there. About 15,000 sq. yds. of the vein have been extracted. At 
a point 700 ft. down the slope a tunnel was run to mine the coal of the 
Black Diamond, and another one 940 ft. down is being extended at 
present to cut the Belshaw vein. It is in 320 ft., and it is expected that 
the vein will be struck within the next 40 ft. At the base of the slope, at 
the 1,200 ft. level, there is another tunnel, which cuts the Black Diamond 
vein. But very little coal has thus far been taken from here. 

The hoisting slope cuts through solid yellowish sandstone all the way 
down. It is 6 by 6 ft. in the clear and not timbered. The tunnels are 
timbered wherever they cut the different veins or carbonaceous streaks. 
The sandstone does not require timbering. The gangways are tim- 
bered throughout with 8 by 8 in. timbers. Props are redwood, 3 ft. long, 
and averaging 5 by 5 in. square. Ninety props make a cord, and cost 
$6 25 in Antioch. In tunneling two men make about 7 ft. per day. 
Giant No. 2 is used in 1^ in. cartridges, and boring is done with hand 
drills. The ventilation throughout the mine is good. Water is hoisted 
in self-filling wooden tanks at the rate of 120 cu. ft. per hour from the 
sump on the 1,200 ft. level. The engine has a cylinder 12 by 20 in., 
and a | in. wire rope is used, winding on a drum 7 ft. in diameter. The 
rope is run at a speed of 9 ft. per second. Water for the boilers is 
brought up by rail from Antioch ; about 3,000 gallons are used per week. 
The coal in the different veins, as far as they are mined, was of uniform 
quality, except, of course, where it was crushed by faults. Small faults 
are quite numerous, and large ones exist on the western as well as the 
eastern end of the claim; both are about one fourth of a mile from the 
main slope. It was noticed that the coal was 3 to 4 in. thicker at the 
west than at the east end of the workings. About 30 men are employed 
about the mine, but like the Star Mine the number varies greatly. from 
time to time. The coal is screened into two qualities — a nut coal and 
slack. A narrow gauge railroad carries the coal from the Star and 
Central mines to Antioch, where it is dumped into barges and sold. 
Shipments from these two mines average 3,000 tons per month. 

The next mines farther west lie in Sees. 5, 6, and 7. See our Vllth 
Report, pp. 117-140. Abandoned in 1886. The railroad to the river 
4m 



50 



REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 








was torn up and everything of value taken away. The village of Nor- 
tonville is nearly deserted, and the old shafts and tunnels are full of 
water and are caving. 

DEL NORTE COUNTY. 

The Mount Diablo coal mines, once a center of great activity, are 
passing away, one after another. What little coal is still mined can 
hardly find a market. The consumer objects to the coal on the ground 
that it crumbles rapidly, that it contains too much ash, but principally 
that a better grade of coal can be obtained in the market at nearly the 
same price. 

Hodgkins' Claims lie on the beach about 2 miles N. of Crescent City. 
See our Xlth Report, p. 198. No further development has been made. 
The coal is a true lignite, brown in color and tough in texture. W. H. 
Hodgkins, of Crescent City, owner. 

FRESNO COUNTY. 



California Coal Mine. — (See Coalinga Coal Field.) The present 
workings consist of an 80 ft. tunnel to the "Little" vein, the only one 
worked in this mine, and a gangway 1,320 ft. toward the south along the 
vein. The face of the gangway shows the following section: 

Clay on top. 

Gray sandstone 3' 

Shelly conglomerate, rotten and soft 1' 

Coal— Little vein 2' 

Light-gray clay 3' 6" 

Dark-gray, slick clay in bottom.. 



COAL FRESNO COUNTY. 51 

Although the dip is 33°, sheet-iron was used in the chutes. From the 
gangway a cross-cut was made to the west, and several small streaks 
of coal were found, but before the "Big" vein was reached water came 
in and the work was stopped. The mine is dry, except where the cross- 
cut enters the gangway. About a barrel of water is dipped up at that 
place daily. The manner of mining is the same as in the San Joaquin 
Mine. The clay here, being dry, does not swell, and but little timbering 
is required; 6 by 6 in., and even 4 by 4 in. posts seem to do the work 
required of them. The cars run on strap rails, pushed by men and 
dumped at the bunkers. The coal is hauled by wagon 5 miles to 
Coalinga, on the railroad. In 1893 the average shipment was 100 tons 
per month. The coal looks somewhat brighter that that of the "Big" 
vein, and contains less ash. 

Carey Creek Coal. — On the north side of the metamorphic ridge, where 
the hills are not covered so deeply with soil, coal has been found in many 
places. On Mr. Frame's place, in Sec. 6, T. 22 S., R. 14 E., prospectors are 
at work. They are said to have a vein of good hard coal 6 ft. thick. Their 
cut was rilled up by a landslide, and they are now at work on a tunnel 
to cut the vein in a better place. The locality lies perhaps only 100 ft. 
above the metamorphic rock, and the strata dip 45° N.E. 

Coalinga Coal Field. — In the S.W. corner of Fresno County, at the 
end of the railroad from Goshen to Alcalde, two veins of coal crop out 
along the lowest foothills of the Coast Range. In nearly every one of 
the many little canons for 20 miles N. as well as S. from Coalinga the 
carboniferous strata can be noticed. As a rale they dip away from the 
range at a rather high angle. Very little work has been done in the 
way of prospecting, and except in the vicinity of Coalinga no coal is 
mined because of lack of transportation facilities. Two veins are large 
enough to mine, of which the upper one, containing probably the best 
coal, is called the " Little " vein. It varies in thickness from 6 in. to 
2 ft.; the lower one, called the " Big " vein, is 4^ ft. thick where it is 
now mined. The coal measures are covered with a series of thin beds 
of soft, light-gray sandstones interstratified with argillaceous shales. 
Two mines are being worked on these veins, viz.: The California and 
the San Joaquin Valley mines. 

Drabble Mine. — On the eastern edge of Priest Valley, in Sec. 26, T. 20 
S., R. 12 E., two tunnels were run into the hill by Mr. Drabble. The 
cropping shows two large veins of carbonaceous matter; the lower one 
is probably 100 ft. thick and contains three workable seams of coal; the 
upper one is not nearly so thick. The tunnels are cutting the lower 
cropping only. The first one starts in a little ravine high up on the 
hillside and 25 ft. below the cropping, and runs 71 ft. nearly N. to a gang- 
way on the vein, which was driven 65 ft. to the E. The vein at the face 
of drift shows 3 ft. of clean, bright coal. The tunnel cuts the strata 
below the coal as follows: 

Mouth of tunnel. 

Gray sandstone. 23' 

Blue clay __ 5' 

Thin seams of coal and sand V 4" 

Bone... _ ._ V 

Coal 7" 

Bone... 8" 

Coal 6" 

Blue clay and bone ... 5' 6" 

Gray, soft sandstone... 20' 

Gray clay _ 4' 



52 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

Sand 3' 

Gray clay... 6' 

Coal 3' 1" 

Hard blue slate. 

The second tunnel is only just begun and lies in another gulch, prob- 
ably 1,000 ft. farther down the creek, and starts on the cropping. The 
dip is 61° N., and the strike S. 70° E., and, as is generally the case in 
gulches, there is a fault in this one. No doubt as the tunnel advances 
beyond the influence of the faulting the coal will come in with its proper 
thickness of 3 ft. 

On completion of a wagon road, which is in course of construction, 
Mr. Drabble intends to ship coal to the cities in the San Joaquin Valley 
via Alcalde. The quality of the coal seems to be somewhat better than 
that of the Black Diamond vein at Mount Diablo. A tunnel run into the 
hill at the bottom of the gulch would strike the coal in 800 or 900 ft., 
and have stoping ground above it of perhaps 700 ft., while the mine 
would drain itself should water come in. 

There is a tendency among prospectors and miners to make their 
openings in gulches, and this may be the proper thing to do under certain 
circumstances, but it is decidedly wrong in prospecting or mining for 
coal. In soft sandstone, thrown up from its original level position, a 
gulch is almost always the result of a fault or break in the strata. The 
coal is the most fragile layer in the formation, and in faulting it will be 
the first to be crushed and mixed with the accompanying clays to form 
bone, or it may be burnt by the heat generated and leave nothing but 
ashes. At any rate the prospector does not gain the information he 
desires (i. e., thickness of vein and quality of coal), and has to use two 
sets of timbers where in solid ground he would use but one. 

Priest Valley Coal Field. — By far the most important discoveries of 
coal thus far made in the State are in the neighborhood of Priest Valley 
in the Coast Range. The beds extend through T. 22 S., R. 14, 13, and 12 
E.; T. 21 S., R. 14, 13, and 12 E.; T. 20 S., R. 13 and 12 E.; T. 19 S.. 
R. 12 and 11 E.; and through R. 10 E., T. 18 and 17 S., in San Benito, 
Fresno, and Monterey counties. The coal occurs in a soft, dark bluish- 
gray, Cretaceous sandstone several thousand feet in thickness, lying on 
both sides of a high ridge of metamorphic rocks, which traverses the 
country in a N.W. and S.E. direction. It forms the divide between the 
waters of the San Joaquin and Salinas rivers from the S. line of T. 22 
S., R. 14 E. to about the center of T. 20 S., R. 12 E.; thence it swings 
more to the W. and crosses Lewis Creek about 3 miles above the mouth 
of Oat Canon. It includes the Stone Canon and the Drabble Mine crop- 
pings on Carey and Warthen creeks, and extends through Priest Valley 
into San Benito County. 

San Joaquin Valley Company's Coal Mine. — Since our Xlth Report, 
p. 217, at a depth of 200 ft., a tunnel 150 ft. long has been run in a 
westerly direction from the incline and struck the " Little " vein in a 
fault. The coal in this vein, although of good quality, was only 1 ft. 
thick. Turning to the N. here they drove the tunnel along the vein 200 
ft., but as the thickness did not increase the vein was abandoned. They 
then turned to the W. again and drove 70 ft. and found the " Big " vein. 
A gangway was then run 250 ft. toward the N.W., and coal is being 
mined from there now. The lift is 225 ft. The dip of the coal varies 
from 32° to 40° toward the E. The mine makes about 240 cu. ft. of water 



COAL — FRESNO COUNTY. 53 

per hour, and by far the most of it comes from the streak of soft sand- 
stone below the "Little" vein. At the foot of the slope a stratum of 
hard bituminous sandstone, with shells, was cut through, from which 
black petroleum exudes and flows down into the sump. The blue clay 
above and below the coal causes great trouble and expense in this mine. 
As soon as a gangway is opened and the clay exposed to the air, it 
swells and squeezes the timbers out of shape or crushes or breaks them 
where they cannot give. The timber used is 10 by 10 or 12 in. sawed 
pine, with lagging of 2 in. plank. Old redwood railroad ties are used 
to some extent for props and caps. The coal is mined in rooms 30 ft. 
between chutes, leaving a pillar alongside of the gangway 25 ft. thick. 
There is no pillar left between the rooms, everything being taken out. 
The dip of the vein is sufficient to run the coal in the chute without the 
use of sheet-iron and oil. In the rooms a post and cap is set every 3 ft. 
in all directions. The 7 in. of gray slate comes down with the coal and 
must be picked out. The ventilation is good without artificial draft, 
the air circulating through the old workings above. Much gas was 
expelled soon after the lower tunnels were driven, and some of the men 
were slightly burned, but at present there is none worth mentioning. 
The coal of the " Big " vein is not as bright as that of the Belshaw vein 
at Mount Diablo. It has a reddish-black color and crumbles easily when 
exposed to the air. The following section of the strata was taken with 
difficulty on account of faults and the many windings in the tunnel: 

Starting at the top of the hoisting slope. 

Thin strata of slate, clay, and sandstone 160' 

Blue-gray sandstone __. _ 20' 

Base of slope 3' 

Black sandstone soaked with bitumen 3' 

Hard gray sandstone _ _ 28' 

Very hard gray sandstone 5" 

Poor coal 4" 

Soft blue-gray sandstone _. 20' 

Blue clay _. 5' 6" 

Poor coal. _ 3" 

Blue clay _ 18' 

Soft blue-gray sandstone or sand (emitting gas). _ _■ 10' 

Hard cemented pebbles and shells... 1' 

Good coal (little vein) 1' 

Blue-gray clay ._ _ 27' 

Soft blue-gray sandstone 2' 

Poor coal i 2" 

Blue-black clay 1' 6" 

Soft crumbly coal _ 7" 

Blue-black clay _. 2' 

Gray clay 1 _ _ 5' 6" 

Black shale _ 7" 

Goal (big vein) 4' 6" 

White sand 4' 

Blue clay. 

In the length of the gangway the strata differ considerably in thick- 
ness. At the face, sandstone lies above coal, replacing the clay of the sec- 
tion, and in places the shell cement above the " Little" vein is wanting, 
sandstone forming the roof. Steel " T " rails are used in the mine. The 
cars hold about 1,400 lbs., and are hoisted by a small double steam 
engine. The mine makes about 240 cu. ft. of water per hour, as stated 
above. A Cornish pump running eight hours per day keeps it dry. An 
old steam pump stands at the base of the incline, but it is not in use 
now. The company ships about 300 tons of coal per month, mostly to 
Fresno, where it sells at $5 50 per ton. Freight costs $1 50 per ton. A 



54 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

branch railroad, 2-§ miles long, runs from Coalinga to within one fourth 
of a mile of the mine, and the mine cars run by gravity to the bunkers; 
when empty they are hauled back by horse-power. 

Warthen Creek, Coal on. — All along the south side of Warthen Creek, 
through the whole of T. 21 S., R. 13 E., croppings of coal are found, but 
beyond a little scratching no work has been done. On Hot Springs 
Creek, in Section 12 of the same township, Mr. Crump said he opened a 
coal mine several years ago and found two veins, one 3 and the other 
\\ ft. thick. The sample of coal shown as coming from these veins is 
harder than any California coal that the writer has seen. The loca- 
tion is 9 miles from the end of the railroad at Alcalde, and it might pay 
to ship coal into the San Joaquin Valley. At Mud Springs, on the Old 
Vaughn place, Sec. 36, T. 20 S., R. 12 E., a cropping of carbonaceous 
matter crosses the gulch. The strike here is N.W. and S.E. and the dip 
probably 80°. 

HUMBOLDT COUNTY. 

Alder Point. — Near Eel P. 0.; mentioned in our Xth Report, p. 207, 
but nothing of value exists here. The coal occurs in thin seams in 
much disturbed gray sandstone. 

Buck Mountain Creek. — Two miles from its mouth is the next crop- 
ping, N.W. from the Ray ranch. It is said that an opening was made 
here and some coal taken out which proved to be of good quality. Float 
found in the creek below seems to confirm this statement. The writer 
did not succeed in finding the hole or the cropping, although he went 
far beyond the point where they were said to be. Recent landslides 
must have covered them up. About a mile below Garberville a place 
was shown near the water's edge in the river, where a few years ago coal 
of good luster and hardness cropped out several feet thick, but the river 
has washed in a lot of sand and gravel and covered up everything many 
feet deep. 

Garberville. — In this vicinity the South Fork of Eel River winds its 
way through a heavy bed of unaltered yellow sandstone, intercalated 
with clay shale and beds of gray clay, belonging probably to the 
Tertiary age. The formation lies non-conformably upon the gray 
metamorphic sandstones. It has a dip of 38° N.E. and a strike N.W. 
Throughout the district lumps of bright black coal are found as float in 
the streams, and are collected and used for blacksmithing. The bulk 
of this float comes from pockets and irregular veins in the sandstone, 
and is the result of conversion into coal of a few or even a single tree at 
any one place. It resembles in appearance and composition the coal 
found in Round Valley. 

Harpst Mine. — On Mad River, a short distance above the mouth of 
Boulder Creek, Mr. Harpst found some coal and made an open cut into 
the vein to prospect it. The vein is about 3 ft. thick and is composed of 
a number of thin seams of coal, alternating with serpentine (in this case 
metamorphic shales). The vein lies in serpentine and is twisted and 
warped parallel to the strata of that rock. What little there is of it is a 
soft, bright, greasy-looking coking coal, containing 45 per cent of ash, 
consisting principally of sulphate of lime. The coal is of no commercial 
value, but the occurrence of it in the serpentine is of great interest, in so 
far as it proves the sedimentary origin of the serpentine conclusively 



COAL HUMBOLDT COUNTY. 55 

and may lead to the determination of its age, which at present is still 
an open question. 

Hydesville. — Near here, on the sandbars of Van Duzen River, just 
above the mouth of Yager Creek, is a large amount of float coal. Some- 
where above, a good-sized vein must be exposed to erosion by the river. 
The coal is a young lignite of good quality, resembling that from Poison 
Camp in general structure and appearance. It is darker in color when 
dry and is brighter when broken across the fiber. Although a much 
younger coal than that from Mount Diablo, for steam purposes it is fully 
equal if not superior. It makes a quick hot fire, does not contain much 
ash and does not crumble into dust. The cropping occurs probably not 
more than 4 miles from the end of the railroad at Hydesville, and the 
intervening country is inexpensive to build over. Should the coal vein 
be found to be of sufficient size to mine and the railroad extended to it, 
there is no reason why it would not pay to ship the coal to San Fran- 
cisco. 

Preston Mine. — Proceeding from the coast up Mad River, serpentines 
and metamorphic schists form the mountains on both sides as far as 
the village of Blue Lakes. Here Tertiary sandstone again appears, and 
extends up the river on the north side to a point a few miles beyond 
Boulder Creek, thence swinging to the north and leaving the river. 
Float coal equal in quality to that found in Van Duzen River, near 
Hydesville, can be gathered in many of the creeks flowing into Mad 
River from the north, and in Maple Creek croppings of the veins have 
been discovered and some prospecting done. A shaft in the creek bed 
is said to have been sunk to a depth of 70 ft., but no trace of it can be 
found. A small heap of much decomposed and impure crumbled coal 
lies on the bank of the creek, from which samples were taken. Only 
conflicting statements could be obtained from the men who worked in 
the shaft; they are not practical miners, and their estimates of thickness 
of the coal vary from 2 to 9 ft. Immediately below the shaft a bed of 
soft gray sandstone shows across the creek, with a strike of N. 20° W. 
and a dip nearly perpendicular. Up Maple Creek a distance of 500 ft., 
Crogan Creek comes in from the S.W., where large pieces of tough lignite 
of brown hue were found. Apparently, the vein crosses the creek close 
to its mouth, but the cropping did not show. A short distance beyond 
another small stream runs into Maple Creek from the same direction, 
and in it, 300 ft. from its mouth, a 4 in. vein crops out, lying in gray 
sandstones with a dip of 20° N.N.W. One thousand feet beyond this is 
a vein 6 in. thick, in blue clay, while 300 ft. farther a larger vein crosses 
the stream. It is a tough brown lignite of good quality; its thickness 
could not be determined. The piece forming the cropping extends clear 
across the creek, 10 ft., and is 2 ft. thick. It weighs possibly half a ton, 
and lies with a dip of 20° to the N.N.W. For a distance of 40 ft. above 
this, coal shows in patches in the bottom of the creek, and certainly one 
very large or several smaller veins must exist there. Wall rock is not 
exposed, but judging from the configuration of the surface it is clay or 
at least soft material. 

Two miles down Maple Creek, on Mr. Fale's place, float coal was found 
in a small tributary, and a mile farther down, near the junction of the 
road with the creek on Marshe's ranch, coal shows in the bank of a little 
stream that flows into Mad River 1,000 ft. below the mouth of Maple 
Creek. The vein is 18 in. thick, and lies in blue clay, with a dip of 40° 



56 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

W.S.W. In quality it is a dull, earthy brown coal, and when wet 
resembles somewhat the lone coal. 

Ray Ranch. — It is in T. 5 S., R. 4 E., 7 miles S.E. from Garberville, 
and on it coal crops out in a little creek which empties into the east 
branch of the South Fork of Eel River, about 1,000 ft. E. of Mrs. Ray's 
house. The creek has cut its way into the sandstone nearly at right 
angles to the strike of the strata, and three veins are exposed; another 
is said to exist, but is now covered up. They show a dip of 36° to the 
N.E. Below the coal lies a gray clay shale; 14 in. of coal; 12 ft. of the 
same shale; 3 ft. of coal; 8 ft. of shale; 1^ ft. of coal, and the whole is 
covered with yellowish clay mixed with sand. The coal having been 
exposed to the weather for years, looks very poor. It has weathered into 
thin laminse of a dull slaty black color, which break up readily in the 
hand. Lumps of highly bituminous glistening black coal are found 
scattered through the mass. The value of these mines cannot be 
determined at present, or until opened in solid formation. The sample 
analyzed (see end of this chapter) was taken from the surface and con- 
tained a large percentage of impurities infiltrated from the muddy stream, 
which show in the ash. 

MENDOCINO COUNTY. 

In Mendocino County there are found three beds of lignite, which 
traverse the country in a N.W. direction, nearly parallel with the sea- 
coast and with each other. The most westerly bed crops out in many 
places immediately along the coast and is mentioned in our previous 
reports. It consists of one or more thin seams of excellent coal, varying 
in thickness from an inch to a foot. Nowhere, however, has coal been 
found in sufficient quantities to be of commercial value. 

The second bed exists 12 to 25 miles from the coast. Croppings occur 
at Doolan Canon and on Ackerman Creek, near Ukiah; in Walker 
Valley, 4 miles S. of Willits; at the head of Ten-Mile River, on the road 
to Westport, 2 miles S.W. of Cahto; on Mill Creek near Cole's Station, 
and farther north in Humboldt County on the Upper Mattole, and near 
Camp Grant on Eel River. Like the first bed it generally contains a 
good quality of coal; some of it will coke, but as far as known, the 
seams seldom exceed a few inches in thickness and are too thin to mine. 

The third bed lies 15 to 20 miles still farther inland, and contains a 
vein of great thickness and value. It is exposed in Middle Eel River 
south of Round Valley. The existence of this coal has been known for 
many years, but the locality where it occurs lies in the very heart of 
the Coast Range, in a country cut up in every direction by rocky and 
crooked canons thousands of feet deep and traversed by mountain ridges 
of great height and grandeur. Capital so far has not seen its way clear 
to build a railroad into this region, and communication with the rest of 
the State is limited to the pack mule and wagon. A railroad survey was 
made years ago from Ukiah to Eureka in Humboldt County, following 
the redwood belt on the South Fork of Eel River near the coast, and a 
branch was run down Outlet Creek to Eel River, and thence to the coal 
bed. Construction, however, was never commenced. The Fort Bragg 
Lumber Company is building a railroad from the coast to Willits, and 
it is expected that this line will be extended to the coal field. In the 
summer of 1894 it was engaged in making a survey for a railroad to 
Round Valley, via Eel River. 



COAL MENDOCINO COUNTY. 57 

Many industries might be developed were proper transportation facili- 
ties provided. Yellow and sugar pine grow on the higher mountains, 
while spruce, madrone, and oak cover the hillsides. Tan-bark in inex- 
haustible quantities can be collected. Chromic iron and manganese 
ores of remarkable purity exist in several localities. Mr. Shimmin 
found both near his ranch at the head of Tomki Creek. 

Eel River Mine. — The coal beds can be traced for many miles, but the 
only place where the vein has been prospected extensively is in the 
Middle Eel River, opposite the mouth of Salt Creek, in Sec. 1 or 2, T. 
21 N., R. 13 W. The first discovery was made in the river just below 
where Salt Creek comes in. The vein here crops out across the river 
with a dip of 31° E. It shows a thickness of 14 ft., with a seam of 
whitish slate 3 to 6 in. thick near the middle. A section taken shows: 

Top stratum not exposed. 

Blue clay shale, weathering into small fragments 26' 

Coal of good quality and luster.. _ _ 5' 6" 

Soft white slate, containing sulphate and carbonate of lime 3" 

Coal of dull luster 8' 

Sticky blue clay, containing minute shells ._ 21/ 

Same clay, containing oyster shells V 

Soft gray agglomerate, containing clay and fragments of serpentine and sand- 
stone. _. 5' 6" 

Soft greenish metamorphic sandstone 30' 

Serpentine beneath. 

About 1,000 ft. up the river there is a cliff 60 to 80 ft. high, of a very 
hard greenish metamorphic rock, and the strata seem to lie conformably 
upon the coal. Going north from this cropping half a mile, perhaps 
300 ft. above the bottom of the river, several openings have been made. 
A tunnel, said to be 400 ft. long, is run in on the vein on a course of N. 
10° E. About 50 ft. of this is still open; the rest is caved. The lagging 
prevents any study of the strata. Several tons of coal lie on the dump 
crumbled into fragments. Some 60 ft. above the mouth of the tunnel is 
an incline, 30 ft. deep, driven with the pitch of the vein, showing 7 ft. of 
coal, with coal for bottom and roof. Below the coal, or west of the 
openings, a hard gray metamorphic sandstone covers the ground, but of 
its thickness and position nothing could be seen. A few hundred feet 
east of these openings metamorphic rock occurs again in the shape of a 
perpendicular cliff 400 to 500 ft. high, forming quite a feature in the 
landscape. The rock is very hard, of a greenish color, and contains 
iron pyrite. It has not been satisfactorily determined whether this cliff 
is of sedimentary origin or not; although it seems to be stratified, it 
may prove to be an eruptive dike, in which case it will have cut off 
the coal vein at a point probably 500 ft. below the surface. 

It -is a feature to be noted, that here the coal exists in a heavy seam 
between the beds of rock highly metamorphosed without having under- 
gone any notable change in structure or composition. It is to be 
expected, however, that as greater depth is reached, the result of meta- 
morphism will be apparent, in so far that the coal will contain more 
fixed carbons and less volatile matter. In quality the coal is fair; it 
will crumble to some extent; iron is present in the shape of hematite; 
no pyrite was noticed. Union Lumber Company, of Fort Bragg, lessees. 

Going southeasterly from the cropping in the river, the coal measures 
can be traced up Salt Creek. About a mile from the river the first crop- 
ping occurs. The underlying clay here is substituted in part by a bed 
of broken shells compacted into a rather hard rock of white color. The 



58 



REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 




Metamorphic Cliff on Eel River. 

course of the vein is S. 35° E. Another mile up the creek takes us to 
some prospect holes which were sunk to trace the vein. Several other 
places show coal, and all traces disappear at the road from Carey Post 
Office to Rodeo Valley, where the coal measures are represented on the 
surface by a strong bed of blue clay full of broken oyster shells. 

Going north from Eel River the croppings can be followed to nearly 
the top of the mountain, a distance of about 2 miles; beyond that the 
course of the vein is uncertain. 

Round Valley. — In the hills and gulches of Round Valley coal is 
found as float, and it has been supposed that it came from croppings of 
the big Eel River vein, which must cross here somewhere. The float, 
however, is an entirely different coal in composition as well as occur- 
rence. The Eel River vein is of the same age as the inclosing 
metamorphic rocks, Cretaceous, if not older; while the Round Valley 
coal occurs in a very short, gravelly, unaltered sandstone overlying the 
metamorphic strata non-conformably, and belonging to the middle or 
later Tertiary age. The old prospect holes are caved in and no crop- 
ping couy. be found in place; several residents report that there exists a 
good workable vein. The coal is a very bright, glistening black variety, 
with conchoidal fracture; it contains little ash and a high percentage of 
carbons; it does not crumble and stands transportation well. It is in 
every way a desirable and valuable coal. 

Thomas Mine. — It is 3 miles S. of the mouth of Salt Creek, and is on 
the same vein as the Eel River mines, being the most southerly opening 
upon it. A tunnel, now caved, was run southwesterly 50 ft. entirely in 
coal. No walls are exposed, and it is reported that the vein is 11 ft. wide. 
A new tunnel to the east of the old one is in contemplation. W. P. 
Thomas, of Ukiah, owner. 

MERCED - COUNTY. 



In 1893 a well was bored on the ranch of W. J. Hardwick, about 3 
miles N.W. of Snelling. It is said that a stratum of several feet of coal, 
resembling the lone coal, was passed through. Mr. H. C. Swain, of the 



COAL MERCED AND MONTEREY COUNTIES. 59 

Merced gasworks, states that he examined a sample of this coal, and 
that its physical appearance resembled that of the lone coal; that it 
burned readily in an open fire, and yielded an ash which in quantity 
and general appearance resembled the ash from a sample of lone coal 
of similar size, which he burned for purpose of comparison. 

MONTEREY COUNTY. 

Priest Valley Coal Field (See also Fresno County). — Coal lies under the 
northern half of Priest Valley and the veins extend far into Fresno and 
San Benito counties. Following the croppings west from the Drabble 
Mine in the latter county the veins appear again in the creek bed on 
Sec. 21 on Mr. Clayton's homestead. Here the creek has cut into the 
side of the low bluff, and the carbonaceous strata are exposed and show 
a thickness of about 300 ft. About a mile down the creek, near the 
corner between Sees. 21 and 17, the creek cuts them again. A section 
shows as follows: 

Gray sandstone above. 

Blue shale ._ _ __■_ : 60' 

Clay stained with iron 12' 

Carbonaceous matter with thin seams of coal... 15' 

Blue clay _ 5" 

Decomposed coal 5' 

Grav soft sandstone with clay _ 2' 

Clay rock 10' 

Coal _. 3' 

The strike is N. 80° W., and the dip 40° N.E. 

Five feet above, another seam appeared, but its thickness could not 
be measured, as it was partly covered with earth. Some large pieces 
of nice bright coal which came out of that vein were found in the creek. 

The next cropping occurs in Sec. 7 or 12 of the next township, but 
the hills here are covered too deeply with soil to trace them. 

Another set of veins exist 1 j miles N.E., running parallel to the one 
just described, and have nearly the same strike and dip; in other words, 
they lie conformably upon the Drabble bed. The croppings can be 
traced through Sees. 14, 10, and 9, and probably farther N.W. as well 
as S.E. There are two veins of carbonaceous matter close together. 
The upper is 100 ft. thick, and has at least two good sized veins of coal; 
below this lies 50 ft. of gray sandstone, and then comes the lower vein, 
which is 50 ft. thick. No work has been done on these veins, and their 
value is a matter of uncertainty. 

Stone Canon. — This mine lies on the most southerly cropping in the 
Priest Valley coal field, and in the drainage of the Salinas River. See 
our Vllth and Vlllth Reports, pp. 172 and 403. Disagreement about the 
price of the land was the cause of work being suspended several years 
ago. This property is of importance, for the reason that the vein is 
very large, and that the coal is hard enough to stand handling. Lumps 
exposed on the dump to the weather for four years had crumbled but 
little.. The croppings have been traced east to the head of Stone Canon, 
and west about a mile beyond the lowest working. No doubt the coal 
extends many miles beyond these points, waiting for the prospectors to 
uncover it. Croppings have been found in many places in the canons 
of the headwaters of Gaviota and San Lorenzo creeks, which are sup- 
posed to be of the same veins as those in Stone Canon. No work has 
been done on them as far as could be learned, and they were not visited. 



60 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. , 

The coal measures in and around Priest Valley will be of great com- 
mercial value and importance in the future when made accessible by 
railroad facilities. A railroad 20 miles long from the present terminus, 
Alcalde, would tap the field on the east side of the summit, and should 
it be continued to Hollister or Kings City, short branches to the out- 
lying mines would reach the entire field. 

ORANGE COUNTY. 

Yoch Mine is situated in Santiago Canon, about 20 miles from Santa 
Ana. A vein 12 to 18 in. thick is being worked and the coal shipped to 
local points by wagon. It is said to give satisfaction. 

There are several other prospects of coal in Santiago Canon, one of 
which was unusually promising, but being located on railroad land the 
miners were compelled to stop operations. The workings were not 
accessible. 

In the Trabucco Canon small coal prospects have been discovered, but 
little work has been done on them. The veins are small. This coal field 
can be traced in an almost unbroken line around the northern end of 
the Santa Ana range to South Riverside, and thence on toward Elsinore, 
in Riverside County, where it reaches its greatest development. 

That the coal seams thus far discovered in Orange County will ever 
become of any considerable commercial importance is extremely doubtful. 

RIVERSIDE COUNTY. 

The largest coal mine in operation in the southern part of the State is 
6 miles W. of Elsinore. The vein is 3 to over 10 ft. in thickness, occur- 
ring in sandstones and sandy shales — rocks that are evidently of Tertiary 
age. It is a lignite and makes a very good heating coal, and is also 
used quite extensively for making steam in stationary boilers, but is too 
light for locomotive use. The mine has been opened over an area about 
1,000 ft. square, and has produced a large quantity of coal. A remark- 
able fact in connection with this bed of coal is that diamond drill holes 
sunk in the foot-wall at the depth of 40 ft. encountered granite, and this 
underlying granite country and the metamorphic rocks of the vicinity 
a mile distant contain veins of gold-bearing quartz. Indeed, there is 
no reason to doubt that a vein of gold rock may not or does not exist 
directly beneath the bed of coal in question. The gold is faulted from 
1 to 10 ft. in several places, but there has never been any trouble in find- 
ing the coal at each break. 

The mine lies quite flat, dipping 3° to 10° into the hill. It has been 
opened by a tunnel starting in the foot-wall and running in on a level for 
some distance. A station has been cut out underground, from which 
point the main gangway has an up-grade of about 10°. Where the bed 
of coal is encountered a second station is cut and a large drum set up; 
from this point to the base of the incline there is a double track, the 
loaded car furnishing power to draw the empty one up. The system of 
mining is by excavating large chambers, pillars of nearly equal size 
being left to support the roof. A few posts and caps are employed. 
There have been remarkably few caves, considering the scant timbering. 
The mine is perfectly dry and free from fire damp. At one point a large 
fire of coal is kept burning on a grate, causing a strong up-cast draft. 



' COAL SAN BENITO, SAN LUIS OBISPO, SHASTA, SISKIYOU, SONOMA. 61 

SAN BENITO COUNTY. 

Oat Canon,— In Oat Canon, in Sees. 20, 21, and 28, T. 19 S., R. 11 E., 
carboniferous strata crop out, aggregating in thickness probably 300 ft. 
Some work has been done here, but has long since caved. One of the 
owners said that they had driven a tunnel 20 ft. into the shale and 
found a 5 ft. vein of coal, with a 3 in. seam of shale, but that the coal 
was air-slacked and unfit for use, although very bright and black. There 
are five veins of good coal besides this one; several are 2 ft. thick, but 
no work has been done on any of them. The dip is 40° E. of N. and 
the strike E. and W. Gray sandstone lies below as well as above. 

SAN LUIS OBISPO COUNTY. 

On the Piedra Blanca Grant. — A small seam of coal has been discov- 
ered on this grant. It lies on the north side of Pico Creek, 4 miles 
from the ocean. The deposit is not over 15 in. thick, and probably 
will have no commercial value. 

SHASTA COUNTY. 

Cow Creel.— Near here, in Sec. 12, T. 33 N., R. 2 W., there is an 
extensive outcrop of coal. A number of seams, with thin clay layers 
between, about 20 ft. thick altogether, have been exposed in a shaft; the 
thickest of the seams is about 2^ ft.; one is 15 in., and others from that 
down to a few inches. The coal is said to be of good quality, though 
not entirely free from pyrites. The roof is sandstone; the floor clay. 

Near the lies place, north of Little Cow Creek, coal seams are also 
exposed for quite a distance; these beds dip 5° to 10° E., and have not 
been worked. 

SISKIYOU COUNTY. 

Siskiyou Coal Mining Company's Mine. — It is on Willow Creek, about 
10 miles N. of Yreka, 4 miles E. of Henley, on the S. P. R. R. The 
developments consist of a 400 ft. incline with 'an 80 ft. and a 100 ft. 
cross-cut. It is stated that the vein shows an average thickness of 4 ft., 
about 30 in. of which is good coal. D. Horn, of Hornbrook, President. 

SONOMA COUNTY. 

Several seams' of coal, varying from 2 to 15 in. in thickness, crop 
out in the sandstone 8 miles S.E. of Cloverdale. It is said to be of a fair 
quality, burning with a good flame; the seams are not worked. A shaft 
has been sunk 20 ft. Owners unknown. 

BenneVs Claim. — This is at the head of a gulch about one fourth of a 
mile from the beach, in the vicinity of Fort Ross, and has been idle for 
years. A shaft was sunk 80 ft. deep, from which it is reported that a 
good quality of coal was obtained but no continuous seams were found. 

Haiiser's Claim. — It is 8 miles E. of Stewart's Point. No work was 
being done, and little could be seen beyond some black shales. 

Pierson Mine. — This is 5-J miles from Mark West Creek, on the ranch 
of Mr. Wrighton. A shaft has been sunk 150 ft., and a bore-hole con- 
tinued from the bottom for 50 ft., which is reported to have cut through 



62 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

three seams, respectively 2 in., 1 ft., and 4 ft. thick. One fourth of a 
mile south from the shaft are several tunnels, mostly caved in. The 
uppermost one runs 75 ft. northwesterly to a seam of coal and black 
shale from 1 to 3 ft. thick. No coal has been shipped from here', and the 
mine is closed down. 

TRINITY COUNTY. 

Hay Fork Valley Coal Field. — Hay Fork Valley is an opening in the 
mountains at the confluence of Big Creek and Hay Fork. It contains 
nearly 8 square miles of arable land, partly under ditch. Near the 
village of Hay Fork, coal crops out in the bed of the river at two points. 
The upper cropping is found a mile below town, and contains two veins 
of coal, each 2 ft. thick. The dip is 28° S.E. The coal is much decom- 
posed, having weathered into thin laminae, and no opinion of its quality 
could be formed. A large log of hard lignite, containing fossil rosin, 
was noticed in the mass. The lower cropping lies 2 miles below town, 
also in the river bed, and is of more importance; the section shows a 
dip of 55° S.E. 

Gray sandstone on top. 

Coal 5' 

Gray sandstone 30' 

Coal r 

Gray sandstone. . . -_ 4(y 

Coal ._ 6' 

Gray sandstone in bottom. 

The large lower vein is poorly exposed, and the coal dirty and mixed 
with mud from the river. The upper vein consists entirely of a black, 
tough lignite of good quality. In the hills north of town the veins crop 
out again, but the exposure being incomplete, nothing regarding dip, 
thickness, or associations could be learned. The Hay Fork coal field is 
more valuable than the one in Hyampom Valley, partly because it is 
nearer to the railroad, and partly because the upper vein in the lower 
bed contains true lignite — a substance that will stand transportation, 
and make a valuable addition to the fuel supply of the Sacramento 
Valley. Mining could.be done at little expense, owing to the clean 
sandstone roof and foot-wall. No bone or clay was noticed. 

Hyampom Valley is at the foot of South Fork Mountain, at the mouth 
of the Hay Fork of Trinity River. A bed of carboniferous shale crosses 
the valley near the middle, and croppings of coal are found in the river 
and on the hillsides. The best exposure occurs in the bed of the river 
in front of the post office, where 10 ft. or more of coal crops out. What 
the foot-wall is cannot be seen. Above the coal lies 6 in. of rather hard, 
blue slate; 34 ft. of soft brown shale; 1 ft. of gray sandstone; 22 ft. of the 
same brown shale, and next gravel and soil to the surface. The dip is 
21° E., but changes within a short distance to nearly horizontal. Fol- 
lowing the course of the vein to the N.E. into the mountains between 
Hay Fork and South Fork the coal is burned out, only small patches 
here and there having escaped the fire. In the foothills on the south 
side of the river, at the base of South Fork Mountain, the vein is par- 
tially exposed. It shows below the surface soil: 

Coal 3' 

Yellow shale ._ 6" 

Coal 3' 6" 

Yellow shale V 

Coal not wholly exposed. 



COAL TRINITY COUNTY. 63 

The dip is 15° S.W. Both croppings resemble the lone coal in texture 
and luster, although in quality the one in the river is decidedly better. 
Two miles up Trinity River from the post office some parties had sunk 
a shaft, which is now caved. The cropping shows about 8 ft. of coal, 
dipping at a high angle to the W. It shows the effect of the squeezing 
it received during the tilting of the beds, in its brighter color and firmer 
texture. A short distance up the river the accompanying shales are 
exposed, lying next to a dike of diorite and baked into a hard rock. 
Two miles up Hay Fork a bed of cemented gravel 200 ft. thick forms 
the bank on the south side, and some of the harder strata crop as reefs 
across the river on a strike of S. 20° W. and a dip of 25° N.W. Below 
that lies blue clay shale 250 ft. thick, and in it occur a few thin seams 
of coal. Beyond the shale a very hard quartzose metamorphic rock 
appears, and of this material the mass of mountains farther east is 
composed. 

The Hyampom Valley coal field extends undoubtedly over a great 
area, and as the veins are large and easily tapped, mining could be con- 
ducted at a minimum cost. What the value of the coal might prove to 
be from a commercial standpoint cannot be estimated until some under- 
ground developments have been made, but it is probable that it will stand 
handling much better than the Mount Diablo coal, and at least equal it 
in contained carbons. The mountains are covered with sugar pine, and 
taking the timber and the coal together as an inducement, no doubt 
capital can be prevailed upon to build a railroad into this region, with 
reasonable certainty of a handsome return on the investment. 

Poison Camp. — The metamorphic rocks here are covered by a bed of 
very soft sandstone and sand of quite recent origin, and in this formation 
coal occurs, cropping out in Sees. 22 and 15, T. 2 S., R. 6 E., H. B. M. 
No work has been done on it. The vein is 3 ft. thick; strike N. and 
S., with a dip of 24° E. Another vein is said to lie above this one, and 
a cropping was pointed out a little higher up the hill. It proved to be 
the same vein, however, the dip and the contour of the hill accounting for 
the seemingly higher position. Immediately below the coal lies white 
clay 6 in. thick, and below that a very fine grayish-white sand. Above 
the coal lies fine white sand mixed with clay. The coal is a very young, 
true lignite, still showing plainly the structure of wood. It is tough 
and hard, and resembles ebony wood. Its color is a dull brown-black 
when split parallel to the fiber, and glistening black when broken across 
the fiber. After thoroughly drying, the color becomes somewhat lighter 
and the coal cracks. Bunches of bark are seen in the cropping, having 
a light red color and being hardly changed. Some pieces will float on 
water. Analysis shows the coal to be good, as it runs high in carbon 
and exceptionally low in ash; but the sand roof, if it does not change to 
a harder sandstone on driving under the hill, will make mining for profit 
almost impossible. 



64 



REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 



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66 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 



COPPER. 

Copper ore is found in many counties of California, but is only utilized 
in a few. The copper product of the State fell off materially in 1893 
from that of previous years, owing to the fact that the largest company 
operating, the Union of Copperopolis, while it continued mining, did 
not smelt any of its ores. 

CALAVERAS COUNTY. 

The copper mining industry in this county has for many years been 
an important one, though since the summer of 1893 comparatively little 
has been done in Copperopolis and Campo Seco. The district and 
mines have been fully described heretofore. See our IVth, VHIth, and 
Xlth Reports, pp. 148, 151 to 156, and 167. 

Campo Seco (Penn Chemical Works) Mine. — It is 1^ miles N.W. of 
Campo Seco. See our VHIth Report, p. 152. Penn Chemical Works 
of San Francisco, owners; Solon Pattee, Secretary. 

Hecla {Copper Hill) Mine. — It joins the Campo Seco Mine on the 
north. See our VHIth Report, p. 156. 

San Francisco Mine. — It joins the Campo Seco on the south. See 
our VHIth Report, p. 156. ■ 

Union-Keystone Mine. — It is at Copperopolis, and is the largest mine 
in the district. See our VHIth Report, p. 150. Agassiz-Shaw Co., 
of Boston, Mass., owners. 

FRESNO COUNTY. 

Copper King Mine.— This is in Sec. 3, T. 12 S., R. 23 E. Develop- 
ments consist of a 25 ft. shaft, a 40 ft. drift, a 140 ft. tunnel, and open 
cuts. The workings are partly filled with water. The vein is said to 
show a width of from 4 to 15 ft. In June, 1894, there was a large 
amount of ore on the dump, which appears to be chiefly decomposed 
copper pyrites, with some oxide and carbonate of copper. The country 
rock appears to be a mica slate passing into gneiss. 

Acres Mine. — This is situated in Big Dry Creek Mining District. 

Extensive copper leads are said to exist near the headwaters of Kings 
River. 

HUMBOLDT COUNTY. 

Red Cap Creek Mine. — On the high precipitous ridge between Red Cap 
and Roise creeks, a great deal of money has been spent in underground 
prospecting for copper. Large pieces of float, native copper, and bornite 
are frequently found in Red Cap Creek and the neighboring country, and 
have attracted the prospectors to look for a vein of similar ore, but so 
far all attempts have been futile. The ridge between the two creeks 
rises perhaps 2,000 ft. above them, and is very steep. Slides, many 
acres in extent, can be noticed on both sides of the trail. The country 
rock is a soft slick serpentine, cut through near the summit by a heavy 
dike of a very hard eruptive rock, probably diorite. Copper float has 
been found throughout the slide material and in such shape as to lead 
to the belief that the ore occurs, not in a regular vein, but rather in 
bunches, as pockets in the serpentine. Although much money has been 
spent here, the work has been done without any system and does not 



COPPER — MENDOCINO AND NEVADA COUNTIES. 67 

demonstrate the existence or absence of a vein of ore. John Daggett, of 
San Francisco, owner. 

MENDOCINO COUNTY. 

Native Copper Mine. — It is situated on top of a spur about a mile 
S.W. from the cabin in Lost Valley. A shallow opening discloses a 
stratum of serpentine about 3 ft. thick, impregnated with small particles 
of metallic copper and copper minerals. The strike is E. and W. and 
the dip nearly vertical. The wall rock consists of the same serpentine, 
but is barren of copper. C. H. Staut, of Ukiah, owner. 

Red Buck Mine. — This is a continuation of the Salinas, and contains 
some old abandoned workings on the same vein. In the bottom of a 
gulch a tunnel runs in 35 ft., and at its end a shaft is sunk about 50 ft. 

Salinas Mine. — It lies on top of a spur l\ miles S.E. from Lost Valley. 
A shallow opening does not disclose the thickness of the vein. The strike 
is N.W. and the dip 65° N.E. The ore is sulphide and is said to carry 
nickel. The walls are soft, decomposing serpentine. Dr. G. W. Staut, 
of Ukiah, owner. 

Thomas Mine. — It is on Bratt Ridge, forming the southern rim of Eden 
Valley, 55 miles N. of Ukiah. The opening made several years ago is 
caved, and nothing could be seen of the vein; there are several hundred 
pounds of ore, rich in copper sulphurets, on the dump. It is to be 
reopened soon. W. T. Thomas, of Ukiah, owner. 

NEVADA COUNTY. 

The same counties that are known as belonging to the auriferous belt 
of California may be considered as those containing copper ores. Along 
the entire west side of the Mother Lode belt, developments of copper ores 
are continually met with, and for the most part, under very favorable 
conditions for working, being mainly at an altitude which permits of 
operations being carried on the year round in the open air, and in a local- 
ity well supplied with water power and timber. 

Golden Eagle Consolidated. — This property is 2 -J miles N. from Spenue- 
ville. The ores contain with the copper an appreciable amount of gold, 
the copper being almost entirely in a sulphide condition. 

Imperial Paint and Copper Company. — These works are in Sees. 35 and 
26, T. 15 N., R. 6 E., at Spenceville. Fifteen men are employed. The 
company hold 220 acres of land. The ore workings consist of a pit, 
N.W. and S.E., along the course of the vein, 100 ft. deep, 200 ft. long, and 
about 100 ft. wide, from the bottom of which a drift has been extended 
on the ore body. In this opening stands about 40 ft. of leaching-water, 
which, when sufficiently strong, is hoisted out in iron buckets lined with 
tar and passed through a series of sluices filled with old scrap iron. 
Above the opening on the hillside is a dump, formed from the material 
taken out of this hole, placed over tar-coated sheets, estimated to consist 
of 150,000 tons. This mass has been decomposing, subject to the weather, 
for over twenty years, during which time the almost solid pieces of iron 
and copper sulphides have been oxidized and decomposed. The ore 
seems to form in the slate in large kidneys. Water brought from Dry 
Creek through 2 miles of ditch is sprayed over the entire heap, washing 
out the finely divided ore and copper salts. This leach is collected at 
the lower end of the pile and conveyed to four settling tanks, where the 



68 KEPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

floating parts are settled, shoveled out, and dried; this goes to make up 
the " paints." The leach passing clear out of these vats is directed 
through a long line of 2 ft. sluices, set at a low angle, and filled with scrap 
iron, on which the cement copper precipitates. This product is shipped 
to San Francisco to the chemical works for the production of bluestone. 
About $2,000 per month is realized from this source. 

The " paint," after being shoveled out on a platform and dried, is con- 
veyed in cars to the paint mills, where it is passed through a chute that 
conveys it through rollers; elevators then convey it above a 30 ft. rever- 
beratory furnace with step hearth and five work doors, where three or 
four charges, of one ton each, are roasted per day, with wood for fuel. 
The roasted paint is dropped through an opening in the hearth-bottom 
next the fireplace and spread evenly on an iron platform to cool, when 
it is passed through a chute under millstones until ground sufficiently 
fine, when it is again elevated, sifted, and filled into wooden barrels 
with the help of a patented packing machine. From 25 to 30 bbls., 
containing from 300 to 400 lbs. per barrel, are produced per day at 
present. A 50 horse-power engine is required for motive power. A 
cooperage is to be added. Fifteen men in all are employed around the 
works. The waste water leaving the works empties into Dry Creek, but 
is unfit for use. See our Xth Report, p. 392; also Xlth Report, p. 313. 

ORANGE COUNTY. 

Small copper "prospects" have been discovered, and developed some- 
what, on the high hills lying north of Trabucco Canon, 25 miles E. of 
Santa Ana. They are apparently of no importance. The ore, while 
rich, occurs only in small pockets. 

PLUMAS COUNTY. 

A series of copper-bearing veins can be traced across the eastern side 
of the county. At various points they have been exploited for copper 
until the price of that metal declined. Later some of them continued 
active, on account of a paying quantity of gold and silver being carried 
in the ore. At present they are nearly all being held by assessment 
work, awaiting a more prosperous future for copper. 

Cosmopolitan Mine. — This is on the north side of Genesee Valley, 
and carries large quantities of sulphuret ores. A tunnel was driven 
many years ago to cut the vein, but on account of the extreme hardness 
of the rock, progress was slow and the expense too great at the present 
prices of copper; hence, the claim has been idle for a number of years. 

Engel Mines. — These properties (for there are three distinct claims, 
designated as No. 1, 2, and 3) are situated 16 miles N.E. from Taylor- 
ville, up the north arm of Indian Valley, on the Clarke trail in Union 
township. The first of these claims is on the left side of Light's Canon, 
near the Engel ranch, on the road from Indian Valley to Honey Lake 
Valley across the Diamond Mountain range, and shows a large amount 
of "peacock" copper ore, carrying a large percentage of zinc and some 
iron. It is in the direct course of the copper and iron belt that passes 
through the country with a general N.E. course. This belt has an 
approximate length of 40 miles, with a width of about 4 miles, and is 
about 40 miles from railroad communication. The entire belt is well 



COPPER — SAN BERNARDINO AND SHASTA COUNTIES. 69 

supplied with water and timber. No. 2 and No. 3 claims are farther up 
Light's Canon, near what is known as Clark's trail. Developments 
consist of tunnels run into the sidehill on ore; the longest of these is 
425 ft., a second 180 ft., and a third 90 ft. These tunnels are about 55 ft. 
apart. The ore bodies are more in the nature of lenticular masses (kid- 
neys), reaching a width of 60 ft. The ore is mostly low-grade sul- 
phurets, with a little carbonate of copper. Idle, because of low price of 
copper. 

Pocahontas Mine. — This claim is 20 miles from Susanville, 26 miles 
from Greenville, in Mountain Meadow district; half mile W. of the 
Plumas County line. The country gives plain evidence of eruptive 
action; rhyolite, basalt, and amygdaloidal rocks are in close proximity, 
and nearly all the springs carry copper in solution. The rock in which 
the copper bodies are found is largely epidote filled with small grains of 
native copper. The kidneys show large lumps of native copper, with 
red oxide and carbonates, and also native silver. Millerite (sulphide of 
nickel) was also found here. 

SAN BERNARDINO COUNTY. 

Along the Colorado River, south of the A. &. P. R. R., and situated 
from 10 to 40 miles W. of that stream, in the Colorado Desert, are copper 
" prospects," on which little work has been done to prove their value, 
yet of which a great deal is heard from time to time. 

In the region W. of Vanderbilt and N. of the New York Mountains 
are many veins and deposits containing copper ores. 

In the Ord Mountain District, 12 miles S. of Daggett, are veins con- 
taining low-grade copper ores. These veins also contain gold. The 
copper occurs as silicate (chrysocolla) and carbonate (azurite and 
malachite). These veins are doubtless more valuable for the gold than 
the copper they contain. 

Amazon Mine. — This is 5 miles E. of Oro Grande. A shaft 60 ft. deep 
with a drift 56 ft. long in hard rock has not uncovered, as was hoped, a 
rich body of ore. The work is in a diorite dike impregnated with small 
crystals of iron and copper sulphide. Near this shaft is a contact of 
limestone and an intrusive dike, along which considerable copper ore 
appears. This i.s the most promising place on the claim. Copper car- 
bonate is found in small quantities in a score of places on the claim. 
Horace Eaton & Co., of Halleck P. O., owners. 

Copper World Mine. — It is about 50 miles N.W. from Vanderbilt. 
The property has only superficial development. J. H. Boyd, of San 
Bernardino, owner. 

Tiptop Mine. — It is in the Lava Beds District, 36 miles E. of Daggett. 
Fully described in our Xlth Report, p. 354. W. U. Masters et al., of 
Pasadena, owners. 

SHASTA COUNTY. 

Blue Jacket Mine.— This claim, 1,500 by 600 ft., is in Sec. 25, T. 34 N., 
R. 4 W., 1 mile E. of United States Fishery on the McCloud River. This 
is a late discovery of copper and iron ore 4 ft. wide, between limestone 
and porphyry, with an N.E. and S.W. course, dipping about 30° N. 
Assays of the ore show 25 per cent of copper and traces of gold and 
silver. Three men have started development work. 



70 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 






Cortez Mine. — This is 9 miles S.W. of Round Mountain. The vein 
has an E. and W. course with a dip of 45° S., between porphyry and 
conglomerate walls, and varies in width from a seam to 4 ft. The 
ore carries principally copper and lead sulphides. A tunnel runs on 
the vein 173 ft. 

Peck Mine. — This patented claim adjoins the Afterthought on North 
Cow Creek, Furnaceville. The ore deposits are near the contact of slate 
and porphyry. The mine is not worked, on account of the rebellious 
nature of the ores, which carry a high percentage of copper, lead, anti- 
mony, and zinc, and a little gold and silver. 

SIERRA COUNTY. 

Depot Hill is 5 miles N. of Camptonville. Above it and. 300 ft. 
from the gravel diggings is a belt of serpentine, through which seams of 
copper ore, mostly carbonates, have been found, having a general N. and 
S. course. Considerable prospect work by shafts and tunnels was done 
here about twenty-seven years ago, but at present the property is un- 
claimed. 

TULARE COUNTY. 

Copper Queen. — This mine and the extensions thereof are situated 
above the snow line at the headwaters of the Kaweah River. It is said 
that the developments consist of open cuts; that the ledge is 150 ft. in 
width, and that the ore from it contains 18 per cent of copper. Also, 
that the vein stands nearly vertical, and has a strike of N.E. and S.W., 
and that one wall is slate and the other granitic rock. 

Mankins (Yokol) Mine. — This mine is situated on Yokol Creek and 
about 9 miles E. of Exeter, on the Porterville branch of the S. P. R. R. 
The mineral-bearing portion of the ledge is said to be 4 ft. in width. 



GOLD. 

AMADOR COUNTY. 

The mines of this county have long since demonstrated the great depth 
of the veins on which they are situated, and the possibilities of deep 
mining. There are a dozen or more shafts which have attained a depth 
of more than 1 ,000 ft., and several of more than 2,000 feet. The Kennedy 
Mine furnishes an example of what may be possible elsewhere. Recently 
several new mining enterprises have been inaugurated, and some old 
ones have been revived. The mining industry in "Little Amador" 
was never in a more prosperous condition. Besides gold and silver, 
coal, clay, and marble are also among the mineral productions of the 
county. 

Alma Mine (Quartz). — It is on the "Mother Lode," W. of Jackson. 
A heavy quartz cropping courses N.W. along the hill, to develop which 
a vertical shaft is being sunk nearly 400 ft. E. of the vein in the black 
slates. The vein has a black slate hanging- and diabase foot-wall. It 
is the intention of the company to sink 2,000 ft. on this vein. A large 
hoist was built in the fall of 1893, the shaft then being nearly 100 ft. 
deep. Alma Mining Company, of Jackson, owners. 



GOLD — AMADOR COUNTY. , 71 

Albany Mine (Quartz). — See New Albany. 

Amador Consolidated Mine (Quartz). — This claim, comprising the 
Eureka and Badger mines, is on the " Mother Lode," S. of Sutter Creek. 
Described in our Xth Report, pp. 72 and 102. Mrs. N. Green, of New 
York, owner. 

Amador Mine (Quartz). — See Original Amador. 

Am,ador Gold Mine (Quartz). — It is 1^ miles S. of Jackson, and is 
fully described in our Vlllth and IXth Reports, pp. 88 and 102. J. H. 
Tibbetts, of Jackson, Superintendent. 

Amador Queen Mine (Quartz). — It is 2 miles S. of Jackson on the 
" Mother Lode." See our Vlllth Report, p. 91. Idle. An interesting 
series of transition rock from diabase to talcose schist was obtained in 
this mine in 1893. They may be seen at the Bureau. W. N. Bardue, of 
2443 Mission Street, San Francisco, owner. 

Argonaut (Pioneer) Mine (Quartz). — It is on the " Mother Lode," and 
adjoins the Kennedy on the S., f of a mile N. of Jackson. See our Xth 
Report, p. 111. Since then a corporation has been organized to thor- 
oughly develop the mine, and a shaft commenced in the hanging-wall 
diabase, about 300 ft. from the croppings. The dip of the vein at the 
surface is considerably less than the angle at which the shaft is being 
sunk (63°), and it is calculated to cut the vein at great depth. It is 
thought that in depth the vein will assume a greater pitch, conforming 
to that of the shaft. These calculations are based on the developments 
of their neighbor, the Kennedy. The shaft has three compartments, the 
estimated cost of which is placed at $35 per foot, and it is estimated 15 
ft. can be sunk per week. In September, 1894, the shaft had reached a 
depth of 480 ft. Preparations have been made to carry the shaft to a 
depth of 2,000 ft. Argonaut Mining Company, of Jackson, owners. 

Astoria Mine (Quartz). — See New Albany Mine. 

Badger Mine (Quartz). — See Amador Consolidated. 

Bay State Mine (Quartz). — This is 4 miles N. of Plymouth, and is 
briefly referred to in our Xlth Report, p. 146. Since that time the cross- 
cut has been completed and drifts run N. and S. on the vein. So great 
was the quantity of water encountered that it was found necessary to 
construct concrete bulkheads in the drifts in the fall of 1893. In 1894, 
the shaft had been sunk to a depth of 400 ft., and excellent ore encoun- 
tered. There are two veins in the mine, lying side by side. The foot- 
wall vein is banded and granulated and contains in the interstical 
spaces carbonate of lime, which causes it to slack and crumble on ex- 
posure to the atmosphere. The hanging-wall is massive and firm, but 
low grade. A light-colored dike rock accompanies the vein. Bay State 
Mining Company, of Plymouth, owners. 

Belmont (Sutter Creek) Mine (Quartz). — This is just N. of Sutter Creek, 
near the Amador Reduction Works. See our Vlllth and IXth Reports, 
pp. 73 and 143. In 1893 the hoist at the north shaft was removed to the 
New Albany Mine. It was said, however, that the Belmont shaft was 
to be continued down in 1894 with heavier hoisting and pumping machin- 
ery. Belmont Mining Company, of Sutter Creek, owners. 

Bellwether Mine (Quartz). — It is N.E. of Jackson, on the outskirts of 
the town. See our Xth and Xlth Reports, pp. 104 and 140. S. W. 
Bright, of Jackson, owner. 

Bunker Hill Mine (Quartz). — See South Mayflower. 



72 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

Clinton Consolidated Mine (Quartz). — It is at Wieland, 6 miles N.E. 
of Jackson. See our Xlth Report, p. 142. This mine was in active 
operation during part of 1893, but in the fall of that year was closed 
down, and no reason given. Wieland Bros., of San Francisco, owners. 

Colorado and Kate Gray Mines (Quartz). — These are two " prospects, " 
2 -J miles E. of Volcano. The veins are small, but the quartz is rich in 
gold. W. Q. Mason, of Volcano, owner. 

Downs Mine (Quartz). — It is 2 miles E. of Volcano. See our Vlth 
Report, p. 20. R. C. Downs, of Sutter Creek, owner. 

Doyle Mine (Quartz). — It is on the "Mother Lode," between the 
Amador Queen and Amador Gold mines, 2 miles S. of Jackson. See 
our Xth Report, p. 107. 

Elephantine Mine (Quartz). — See New Albany. 

Eureka Mine (Quartz) — See Amador Consolidated. 

Evans Mine (Quartz). — See Meek. 

Farrel Mine (Quartz). — It is on the N. side of Mokelumne River, half 
a mile below Middle Bar. The mine has recently been equipped with a 
5-stamp mill, and a force of men is at work on development. James 
Farrel, of Hardenburg, owner. 

Gold Mountain (Quartz Mountain) Mine (Quartz). — This claim is 1-J 
miles N.E. of Amador City. Described in our Xth and Xlth Reports, 
pp. 75 and 145. The property was in active operation in 1893. Gold 
Mountain Mining Company, of 325 Montgomery Street, San Francisco, 
owners. 

G over Mine (Quartz). — It is on the "Mother Lode," 2 miles N. of 
Amador City. See our Vlllth, IXth, and Xlth Reports, pp. 53, 75, and 
146. Important developments have recently been made in this mine. 
The depth of the mine in the fall of 1893 was 1,362 ft. to the bottom of 
the sump on the incline, or 1,000 ft. vertical. The south shaft is 700 ft. 
on the incline, or 525 ft. vertical. There are ten levels run from the 
main shaft at vertical distances of 100 ft. The longest drift south is 
1,100 ft. and north 400 ft, from the shaft. It has two fissures, which at 
the surface lie between slate and altered diabase. The black slate reef 
separating these veins is 90 ft. broad at the surface, but widens in depth 
somewhat. The vein which lies on the east side of the slate, known as 
the hanging-wall vein, is well denned at the contact to a depth of about 
775 ft., where it is pinched. The foot-wall vein continues at the contact 
for several hundred feet, and then stratifies. A cross-cut on the fourth 
level passes through a zone of crushed slate, quartz fragments, and 
veinlets similar to the zone in the Kennedy Mine, which marks the 
crossing of the vein from the west to the east diabase, and it is not 
unlikely that the same thing has occurred here. At the ninth level the 
foot-wall (slate) dropped back, and the shaft, which had followed a 
contact vein down from the eighth level, is continued on a large vein 
which has formed in the hanging-wall or east diabase. This ore body, 
which on the ninth and tenth levels is from 30 to 50 ft. wide, is the 
largest in the mine. It is more than 300 ft. high, and nearly as long, 
and has an average width of about 30 ft. Though of a low grade, it is 
said to be pay-rock. The mine has immense reserves in sight. 

It is possible that the vein occurs at the contact of the east diabase 
and the slate in the lower levels. At this time no cross-cut has been 
run to determine this. 

On the fourth level, 1,000 ft. south of the main shaft, the hanging- 



GOLD AMADOR COUNTY. 



73 




74 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

wall vein has been found to leave the contact and strike out into the 
hanging-wall diabase. The vein is 5 to 6 ft. wide. A heavy gouge 
which has followed the foot-wall side of the vein continues at the con- 
tact, but the formation has been turned back from its course to the west. 
A drift was run on the gouge seam, which at some distance in encoun- 
tered a fault. The hanging-wall diabase had been thrust west and was 
found abutting against the broken edges of the black slates. A cross- 
cut was driven 50 ft. west and has disclosed a mass of quartz in diabase, 
12 ft. wide. It is probable that this is the continuation of the vein left 
in the main drift. 

This section of the mine possesses unusual interest, being the first 
occurrence of a fault on the "Mother Lode" that has been noted. 

Along the contacts both east and west the diabase in proximity to 
the veins has been sheared, compressed, and altered to slaty and schis- 
tose magnesian rocks (chloritic and talcose). Complete transitions 
from normal diabase to soft talcose schist may be seen at many points 
in the mine. 

The large ore body in the lowest levels of the mine greatly resembles 
those of the Utica Mine at Angels, the quartz often including large and 
small masses of the altered diabase, which usually contains more or less 
auriferous iron sulphurets. Gover Mining Company, of Amador City, 
owners; A. B. Call, Superintendent. 

Hardenburgh Mine (Quartz). — It is on the "Mother Lode," 3-J miles 
S. of Jackson. See our Xth and Xlth Reports, pp. 68, 106, and 139. 
The shaft is down 800 ft. in a heavy crevice, 15 to 20 ft. wide; the mate- 
rial consists of shattered and pulverized fragments of foliated black 
slate, a little quartz, and considerable clay, with occasional intrusions 
of altered dike rock. Masses of quartz, much shattered but still coher- 
ent, frequently occur, the outer surface being rounded and polished by 
pressure and attrition in the plane of the fissure, which, like most of the 
mines of this part of the lode, has been subjected to enormous move- 
ment and pressure during a long period of time. This phenomenon is 
observable in the Quaker City, Gwin, and the intermediate mines. The 
ground slips, swells, and runs, and requires most substantial timbering. 
Quartz has made its appearance at two places on the 800 ft. level, but it 
was very low grade. All energies were being devoted to prospecting. 
Hayward, Lane & Co., of 224 California Street, San Francisco, owners. 

Hollywood Mine (Quartz). — See New Albany. 

Irm.a Mine (Quartz). — This is at Pioneer, 16 miles N.E. of Jackson, 
in the granite region. In many respects it resembles the mines of West 
Point District, in Calaveras County. Irma Mining Company, of San 
Francisco, room 94, Crocker Building, owners. 

Kate Gray Mine (Quartz). — See Colorado. 

Kelley Mine (Quartz). — It is on the "Mother Lode," 4 miles S. of 
Jackson. Referred to in our Xth Report, p. 108. Henry Emerson, of 
Jackson, owner. 

Kennedy Mine (Quartz). — This mine is on the "Mother Lode," one 
mile N. of Jackson. See our VHIth, Xth, and Xlth Reports, pp. 66, 70, 
103, and 141. The south shaft has reached a depth of 2,000 ft. below 
the croppings on the incline, and 1,750 ft. vertically below the collar of 
the shaft. It is vertical for 376 ft., at which point it makes a bend con- 
forming to the dip (66°) of the fissure. This abrupt bend in the shaft 
interferes with a rapid movement of the skips. To overcome the difn- 



GOLD — AMADOR COUNTY. 



75 




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/b REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

culty a portion of the hanging-wall side is to be cut away, making 
a curve of greater radius, so that it may not be necessary to slow down 
when passing this point. 

The geology of this mine is very interesting as an indication of possi- 
bilities in other mines where the quartz pinches, leaving only a barren 
crevice. A study of the surface shows several reefs or strips of black 
slate, intruded by dike-like masses of diabase. A cross-section at the 
south shaft (see cut), beginning with the foot- wall diabase of the vein 
is as follows: Vein, 4 ft.; black slate, 80 ft.; east wall diabase, 200 ft. 
black slate, 250 ft.; diabase, 30 ft.; black slate, 35 ft.; diabase, 300 ft. 
black slate, 20 ft.; diabase, 200 ft. or more. Northward the strips of 
slate become narrower and pinch out, with a single exception, the 
broadest, which extends some distance into the diabase. One thousand 
feet N. of the south shaft, the black slate is only 25 ft. wide, while the 
surface diabase is more than 1,000 ft. The vein at the surface occurs 
at the contact of the west diabase and the black slates, which latter 
form the hanging-wall. This slate zone is 80 ft. in width, more or less. 
The vein follows the contact, striking N. 20° W. and dipping 35° to 40° to 
the E. at the surface. At about 400 ft. in depth the dip is about 50°, 
and at 700 ft., 60°. Below this, the fissure has a pitch of 65° to 70°. 
The quartz continued to depths varying from 300 to 750 ft., the latter 
figure obtaining at the south shaft. Below these limits the fissure left 
the west diabase; the quartz became stratified, and nothing remained of 
the crevice excepting a zone of crushed and foliated black slate with 
fragments of quartz and small broken quartz seams. It was found in 
sinking that the fissure kept a fairly uniform pitch, while the inclosing 
rocks approached more nearly in dip to the perpendicular; the fissure 
crossing the slate and forming a contact with the slate and the east 
diabase, the latter now becoming the hanging-wall. The quartz reap- 
peared at this contact on the 950 ft. level, and has continued to the bot- 
tom of the mine, the 1,750 ft. level. At several points the vein has 
branched, sending out shoots of quartz into the diabase hanging-wall. 
The distance on the vein from the croppings to the point where the south 
shaft intersects the vein is 800 ft. (The levels are presumed to repre- 
sent the vertical depth.) The vein continued 750 ft. on the incline at the 
south shaft. The quartz re-formed on the east contact at the 950 ft. 
level. At the 1,250 ft. level a split occurs, a branch making off into the 
hanging-wall diabase. It took a low pitch, and it was thought it might 
lead to a bonanza in the east country rock. A cross-cut was driven east 
from the 1,350 ft. level and crossed the diabase, measuring 185 ft. hori- 
zontally. An upraise of a few feet encountered the vein, which was then 
followed east to the slate, where the quartz divided and a number of 
stringers and apparently the fissure came to an end. It has not been 
followed farther. 

Again on the 1,650 ft. level, between the north and south shafts, and 
at a point where the contact vein is strong and well defined, the quartz 
strikes into the diabase of the hanging-wall. The vein maintains a 
nearly true course, while the slates and diabase are deflected to the west 
several degrees. A heavy foot-wall gouge usually accompanies this 
vein. This gouge occurs at the place referred to, but does not follow the 
quartz. It continues, however, at the contact of the slate and diabase. 
A similar occurrence was noted in the Gover Mine. It will be under- 
stood that this is not a split of the vein, but a branching off from the 



GOLD — AMADOR COUNTY. 77 

contact on the strike of the vein. It is presumable that the movement 
which resulted in producing the gouge occurred subsequent to the for- 
mation of the vein, and the fracture followed the line of least resistance, 
viz.: the contact. The solid vein, which at the contact usually has a 
distinctly banded structure, has been split and the rock-masses subjected 
to movement resulting in highly polished surfaces. When the quartz is 
included entirely within the diabase it assumes a massive structure, the 
banded appearance of the contact vein disappearing entirely. The size 
of the vein and value of the quartz in the lowest workings show no 
deterioration. They are, practically speaking, similar to those above. 
Ores of both high and low grade are found on these lower levels. In 
short, the depth appears to form no criterion of the value of the quartz. 

A section taken between the north and south shafts shows the quartz 
to continue from the surface to a depth of 300 ft., where it ends in 
numerous small stringers. The fissure continues- as a zone of barren 
crushed slate. It crosses the slate belt to the east diabase, the quartz 
reappearing on the 1,200 ft. level, and continuing to the lowest workings. 
At 1,450 ft. an off-shoot was found making into the hanging-wall dia- 
base, but at a much higher angle than that on the 1,250 ft. level. This 
branch on the 1,450 ft. level appears to maintain nearly the pitch of the 
vein above, the slates and diabase assuming a position nearer the per- 
pendicular. 

Opposite the north shaft a section shows the quartz to be continuous 
to a depth of 300 ft., where it ends. The conditions from that point 
downward are similar to those already described, the quartz re-forming 
at the 1,450 ft. level and continuing downward as a contact vein as far 
as explored. 

A notable fact in the Kennedy vein is that the values are not always 
associated with quartz. In one portion of the fissure in the lower levels 
the crevice is destitute of quartz, the filling consisting of a mass of lus- 
trous, scaly, foliated, black slate and black putty-like substance (pulver- 
ized slate), containing an abundance of auriferous iron sulphurets, for 
most part coarsely crystallized. This mass is from 2 to 4 ft. in width. It 
pays well, and is mined and sent to mill together with the more promis- 
ing-looking quartz. 

The idea that pay veins might lie in the hanging-wall country rock 
is losing favor; the cross-cut on the 1,350 ft. level having failed to develop 
anything of value. The shoot discovered some years ago in the west 
diabase has no apparent connection with the Kennedy vein. 

This mine is substantially timbered, well managed, and is a model of 
its class; a fissure vein of moderate width and great depth. The recur- 
rence of a well-defined and rich pay shoot of great continuity at such a 
great depth, after having pinched near the surface, leaving only a bar- 
ren crevice in one place for more than 1,100 ft., should prove a great 
incentive to thoroughly explore veins of this type before abandoning 
them as being worked out. Kennedy Mining Company, of 404 Mont- 
gomery Street, San Francisco, owners; J. F. Parks, Superintendent. 

Keystone Mine (Quartz). — It is in Amador City. See our Vlth 
(Part II), VHIth, and Xlth Reports, pp. 16, 63, and 144. Since the 
last report the main shaft has reached a depth of 1,400 ft. (1,200 ft. ver- 
tical), with large reserves in sight. Its geological relations to the wall 
rocks are quite similar to those of the Kennedy. Keystone Consolidated 
Mining Company, of Amador City, owners. 



78 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

Lincoln Mine (Quartz). — It is on the " Mother Lode," half a mile N. 
of Sutter Creek. See our VHIth and Xth Reports, pp. 73, 72, and 100. 
E. C. Voorheis, of Sutter Creek, owner. 

Little fleld Mine (Quartz). — See New Albany. 

Mahoney Mine (Quartz). — This is just E. of the Lincoln and half a 
mile N. of Sutter Creek. See our VHIth and Xth Reports, pp. 73 and 
72. It was sold in July, 1894, to the Wildman Company, and its thor- 
ough development undertaken. Wildman Gold Mining Company, of 
Sutter Creek, owners. 

Mammoth Mine (Quartz). — This is on the "Mother Lode," near the 
Mokelumne River, at Middle Bar. See our Vlth (Part II), VHIth, 
and Xth Reports, pp. 21, 93, 67, and 108. W. E. Nevills, of Jamestown, 
Tuolumne County, owner. 

Mayflower Mine (Quartz). — This is a mile N. of Amador City, and 
joins the Old Bunker Hill, now called the South Mayflower Mine. A 
new shaft is being sunk quite a distance back of the vein in the foot- 
wall. A long drain tunnel is also being driven in from the base of the 
hill to connect with the shaft at a depth of 250 ft. Two prospecting 
shafts are also being sunk on the vein. Mayflower Gold Mining Com- 
pany, of San Francisco, room 165, Crocker Building, owners. 

Meek (Evans) Mine (Quartz). — It is S. of the Zeila Mine and half a 
mile from Jackson. Several shallow prospecting shafts constitute the 
development. Ellis Evans & Co., of Jackson, owners. 

Middle Bar Mine (Quartz), — See New Albany. 

Moore Mine (Quartz). — It is a short distance S. of Jackson, on the 
"Mother Lode." See our Vlth (Part II) and VIHth Reports, pp. 20 
and 84. 

New Albany Consolidated Company's Mines (Quartz). — They comprise 
the Albany, Middle Bar, Astoria, Hollywood, Elephantine, and Little- 
field. A hoist was built on the Middle Bar claim in the fall of 1893 and 
active operations commenced. A tunnel was also run into the Albany 
Mine on the opposite side of the gulch from the Hardenburgh. As yet 
these mines, which are on the " Mother Lode," are only in the prospect- 
ive stage. J. H. Tibbetts, of Jackson, Superintendent. 

New London Mine (Quartz). — This property is half a mile S. of Ply- 
mouth, and is described in our VIHth and Xth Reports, pp. 49 and 117. 
In 1894 the mine is being rehabilitated by an English company. 

New York Mine ( Quartz ).— It is 3 miles W. from Jackson. See our 
Xth and Xlth Reports, pp. 123 and 140. 

North Star Mine (Quartz). — This is 2 miles S. of Amador City, on the 
"Mother Lode" belt. See our VIHth and Xth Reports, pp. 73 and 99. 
E. C. Voorheis, of Sutter Creek, owner. 

Oneida Mine (Quartz). — This is 2 miles N. of Jackson, on the "Mother 
Lode. " See our VIHth and Xth Reports, pp. 79 and 109. It has been 
idle for a long time. Seligman Bros., of Anglo-Californian Bank, San 
Francisco, owners. 

(Original) Amador Mine (Quartz). — It is in and N. of Amador City. 

Philadelphia Mine (Quartz). — It is on the "Mother Lode," 4 miles 
N. of Plymouth. The course of the vein is N. and S. and dips about 
70° E. An old location and patented. J. J. Crawford et al., of Placer- 
ville, owners. 

Pioneer Mine (Quartz). — This property is S. of New London, about 1^ 
miles S. from Plymouth. It is one of the oldest locations on the " Mother 



GOLD — AMADOR COUNTY. 79 

Lode," and after an idleness of many years was rehabilitated in the fall 
of 1893; new hoisting works were erected and prospecting commenced. 
A shaft has been sunk to a depth of 300 ft., and a fine body of high- 
grade ribbon rock reported developed. A 20-stamp mill is now 
(August, 1894) being erected. Dr. Thos. Boysen, of San Francisco 
(Palace Hotel), owner. 

Pioneer Mine (Quartz). — See Argonaut. 

Plymouth Consolidated Mine (Quartz). — It is in Plymouth. See our 
Vlth, VHIth, and Xth Reports, pp. 15, 42, and 117. These mines, once 
long famous for their long-continued output and large dividends, have 
been abandoned, and the machinery has mostly been removed. Hay- 
ward & Co., of San Francisco, 224 California Street, owners. 

Quartz Mountain Mine (Quartz). — See Gold Mountain. 

South Eureka Mine (Quartz). — It is a mile S. of Sutter Creek. See 
our Xth and Xlth Reports, pp. 113 and 144. The shaft is now about 
1,000 ft. deep. Low-grade quartz was encountered on the 500 ft. level. 
The fissure consists chiefly of crushed, foliated, and pulverized slate, 
with an occasional mass of quartz. It is the expressed intention to 
thoroughly explore the ground. South Eureka Mining Company, of 
Jackson, owners; J. F. Parks, Superintendent. 

South Mayflower (Bunker Hill) Mine (Quartz). — This is owned by the 
same company controlling the Mayflower, though a separate corpora- 
tion. See our VIHth and Xth Reports, pp. 57, 75, and 114. The mine 
was idle in the fall of 1893, but it was to be reopened in 1894. South 
Mayflower Mining Company, of San Francisco, room 165, Crocker Build- 
ing, owners; S. H. Emmons, Secretary. 

South Spring Hill Mine (Quartz). — This is half a mile S. of Amador 
City. See our VIHth, Xth, and Xlth Reports, pp. 80, 73, 98, and 145. 
It has reached a depth of 900 ft., and is in constant operation. South 
Spring Hill Mining Company, of Lemonston, Mass., owners; J. R. 
Tregloan, Superintendent. 

Stewart Mine (Quartz). — It is on the hill N. of Sutter Creek. See 
our Vlth Report (Part II), p. 19. 

Summit Mine (Quartz). — This claim is half a mile S. of Sutter Creek. 
See our Xth and Xlth Reports, pp. 104 and 144. Idle. John T. Treg- 
loan & Co., of Sutter Creek, owners. 

Sutter Creek Mine (Quartz). — See Belmont. 

Tellurium Mine (Quartz). — This property is 1 mile N. of Pine Grove, 
on the Volcano road. A large amount of work, including shafts, tun- 
nels, and underground connections, has been done on this mine, expos- 
ing a well-defined vein in mica schist and altered diorite with a gray 
fine-grained dike rock. Sulphurets of iron, lead, zinc, and copper occur 
in the quartz, but no tellurium. Since the burning of the hoisting works 
some years ago, it has been idle. N. G. Young, of Volcano, Superin- 
tendent. 

Valparaiso Mine (Quartz). — This claim is on the "Mother Lode," 
near Middle Bar. See our VIHth Report, p. 42. It is scarcely beyond 
the prospective stage. . Joseph Poggi & Co., of Jackson, owners. 

Wheeler Mine (Drift). — This is near the village of Pine Grove. The 
property is partly hydraulic and partly drifting ground. J. T. Wheeler, 
of Pine Grove, owner. 

Wildman Mine (Quartz). — It is within the town limits of Sutter 
Creek,* and is at present the only property in operation at this place. 



80 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

It is described in our VHIth, Xth, and Xlth Reports, pp. 75, 101, and 
144. Since the last report a level at 1,100 ft. has been opened, and 
sinking is in progress for the 1,300 ft.. level. It is said that there are 
considerable ore reserves above the 1,100 ft. level, though the mill was 
not in operation in November of 1893. The lower levels of this mine 
have developed in places 30 ft. of quartz. Where the amount of quartz 
is small the remainder of the fissure is filled with crushed slaty mate- 
rial and fragmental quartz. In retimbering a portion of the shaft the 
Superintendent resorted to a novel device to continue uninterruptedly 
the hoisting in the shaft. A chute, 12 in. square, made of 2 in. planks, 
was secured to the timbers in a corner of one of the compartments 
reaching from the 500 to the 600 ft. level. As fast as the old timbers 
were removed, all the refuse, waste dirt, rock, etc., were sent down the 
chute to the level below and hoisted in the regular way. As the work 
progressed (working downward) section after section of the improvised 
chute was removed. Wildman Gold Mining Company, of Sutter Creek, 
owners. 

Wolverine Mine (Quartz). — This is at Sutter Creek, and lies between 
the Eureka and Wildman mines. 

Zeila Mine (Quartz). — This is in Jackson, on the "Mother Lode." 
See our Vlllth, Xth, and Xlth Reports, pp. 22, 85, 68, 104, and 139. The 
shaft is at the same level as at the time of the last report. The mine 
is being operated constantly. Zeila Mining Company, of Jackson, 
owners. 

BUTTE COUNTY. 

In this county all the different processes of obtaining gold are being- 
carried on, and generally with satisfactory results. Among the mining 
properties are found placer, river, drift, hydraulic, and quartz mines. 
The county has also a large area of the finest agricultural and timber 
land, and is connected with the central markets of trade by two lines 
of railroad. With the exception of a comparatively narrow strip next 
the Plumas County line, the climate permits of work being carried on 
continuously throughout the year. 

Bader Mine (Drift). — This is \\ miles E. of Magalia. The work is 
somewhat of an exploratory nature, being carried forward to locate the 
exact course of the old river-bed, the gravel from which has similar 
features to that of the Smartsville channel in Yuba County. A bedrock 
tunnel, 900 ft. long, passes through a limestone belt, besides cutting 
through two quartz veins between slate walls. The course of the 
tunnel is N. 30° E., and it has tapped a fine body of old river-wash. It 
is still being run ahead to intersect the channel at a bend. For the first 
700 ft. the tunnel required close and heavy timbering. The gravel drifts 
are A.\ ft. high, timbered with single posts and caps. About 7 in. of 
water comes from the tunnel and is used for washing the gravel. The 
dump holds about 40 carloads, of 1,500 lbs. weight each. The gold is 
worth $17 50 to $18 per ounce. G. Strauss et al., of San Francisco, 
owners. ■ ■ 

Bangor Mine (Drift).— This is 1 mile E. of Bangor, in T. 25 N., R. 5 E. 
The company claims 2,400 ft. The channel, running N.W., is opened 
through a shaft 135 ft. deep and 4| by 6 ft., closely planked. The main 
gangway is 305 ft. long, working up channel. The gravel drifts are from 
25 to 35 ft. deep, and are carried 6 ft. high. The channel is 300 ft. wide 






GOLD — BUTTE COUNTY. 81 

in the upper part, and about 80 ft. in the deeper part, which is somewhat 
cemented. There is about 40 per cent of cobbles and bowlders in the 
gravel. The best pay is in the cemented gravel; each breaster takes 
down 3 carloads per shift. The gravel is hoisted and run over a grizzly 
and through a 12 ft. arrastra run by steam power, which discharges 
through 180 ft. of 14 in. flume, with a grade of 14 in. to the rod. The 
upper boxes are cleaned up once a week, the remainder once a month. 
The gold is " scaly," and sells for $18 15 per ounce. About 500 ft. of 
the channel have been worked; 1,750 ft. remain to be mined. Steam 
power, supplied from a 40 horse-power engine, does the work, 2-§ cords 
of wood being consumed in twenty-four hours at an expense of $3 75 per 
cord. Twenty-four men are employed. See our Xlth Report, p. 164. 
F. W. Johnson, of Marysville, owner. 

Bessie Mine (Quartz). — This mine is 1^ miles W. of Inskip, in Sec. 29, 
T. 26 N., R. 8 E. The claim contains 40 acres and has three veins, dis- 
tinguished as the decomposed (No. 1), the sulphuret (No. 2), and the 
ribbon ledge (No. 3), all on an E. and W. course, with a slight dip to the S. 
No. 1 has an average w T idth of 3 ft.; No. 2, from 1-J to 2 ft., and No. 3, 
from 4 in. to 1 ft. The veins have all been prospected through tunnels; 
they are about 300 ft. apart, in a granitic formation. The tunnels are, 
respectively, 70, 100, and 40 ft. in length. T. Salisbury et al., of Inskip 
P. O., owners. 

Butte King and Butte Queen Consolidated (Drift). — This is 8-J miles 
E. of the Chaparral House, in Sec. 20, T. 25 N., R. 5 E. The claims 
contain 2,150 ft. on the course of the channel by 1,000 ft. wide. For 
the present that part of the mine constituting the Butte King has been 
practically abandoned. The lava and pipe-clay capping is 150 ft. deep 
and about 1,000 ft. wide, while the channel beneath averages 5 ft. in 
thickness and 200 ft. in width. The gravel carries gold throughout, 
largely on the 5 ft. near the bedrock and toward the center and east 
rim; the west rim, where exposed, being apparently barren. The bed- 
rock is granitic in part and partly quartzose schist. The present work 
will open the east of the channel on the Butte Queen ground. The tun- 
nel has been run 469 ft. to the inside of the west rim, thence starting 
across and partly with the course of the channel 300 ft. A water-blast 
furnishes ventilation through a 2 in. air pipe. The elevation above the 
sea at mouth of tunnel is 6,225 ft. See our Xth Report, p. 145. Butte 
King and Butte Queen Consolidated Mining Company, owners; J. W. 
Woods, of Chaparral, Superintendent. 

Butte Belle Mine (Drift). — This claim is 2^ miles S.W. of Lovelocks, 
in Sec. 3, T. 23 N., R. 3 E., in Forks of the Butte Mining District. A 
bedrock tunnel is being run in the serpentine N.W. 590 feet, to intersect 
a channel coursing N. 10° W. along Big Butte Creek. The breast of the 
tunnel is supposed to be about 40 ft. from the channel rim. The ground 
is worth $7 per foot to drift and timber. The claim embraces 159 acres of 
well-timbered ground and has a large and well-defined quartz vein run- 
ning across it, on which gold prospects have been obtained. C. H. Ford, 
room 5, Crocker Building, San Francisco, owner. 

Butte Greek Mine (Quartz). — This is 1 mile N.W. of Nimshew, on Big 

Butte Creek, in T. 23 N., R. 4 E. The property embraces 1,300 by 600 

ft., through which an 18 to 30 in. quartz vein runs with a N.W. strike 

and a dip 45° E. There is a slate foot-wall and a limestone hanging- 

6m 



82 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

wall. Two tunnels, about 70 ft. apart, have been run on the vein 160 
and 80 ft., respectively, and this block of ground has been stoped; a 
second pay- shoot beyond has not yet been worked. A 10-stamp water- 
power mill, with 750 lb. stamps, reduces the ore, making 95 to 104 drops 
per minute. This mill is built at the upper level, and a water-hoist, 
using a 4 ft. Pelton wheel, conveys the rock to the upper level, from 
whence it is run to the mill. A 4 ft. Pelton wheel furnishes the power 
for the mill and a 10 in. wheel of the same pattern runs the two Frue 
concentrators. The mill is idle, as the tunnels are being pushed ahead. 
T. O. Carter, Big Butte Creek P. O., Nimshew, owner. 

Buzzard Mine (Quartz). — This is 3 miles W. of Inskip, T. 25 N., R. 4 
E., in Nimshew District. The claim is 3,000 by 600 ft., through which 
a quartz veinlet of extreme richness, often only 3 in. wide, strikes, with 
a N.E. course and S. dip. After extracting the quartz it is panned over 
and the tailings worked in an arrastra. Three tunnels, about 30 ft. 
distant, run into the hill; the two upper ones, 80 and 200 ft. long, and 
connected through an upraise, follow the vein. The third and lowest is 
a cross-cut 300 ft. in length, that has not yet cut the vein. The ore is 
sledded down hill to an arrastra 8 ft. wide, run by a 9 ft. undershot 
wheel, taking water from the Cherokee ditch, at a cost of 5 cents per 
inch. The arrastra makes from 14 to 16 revolutions per minute. T. 
Salisbury et al., of Inskip, owners. 

Catskill Mine (Drift). — This mine is 1 mile N.W. of Bangor, in T. 25 
N., R. 5 E. The claim employs 40 men when running, but is at present 
temporarily closed down. It contains 40 acres of ground, through 
which the same channel runs that is being worked by the Bangor Mine; 
about 1,600 ft. of the channel being estimated as within their lines, of 
which 600 ft. have been worked through a 210 ft. shaft, which reaches 
down to the bedrock. The gravel is from 12 to 14 ft. thick in places. 
Catskill Gravel Mining Company, owners; E. E. Meek, of Marysville, 
Secretary. 

Coleman & Paxton Mine (Quartz). — This claim is located on Jordan 
Hill, 2 miles E. of the town of Paradise. W. T. Coleman, of San Fran- 
cisco owner. 

Cole Mine (Drift).— See Xth Report, p. 144. 

Defiance Mine (Quartz). — This mine is 9 miles N. of Oroville and 1 
mile N. of Oregon City. There are two parallel veins, with slate and 
porphyry walls. There is a 90 ft. shaft on the vein. The quartz carries 
very few sulphurets. A. Ekman, of Oroville, owner. 

Denver and Rio Grande Consolidated Mine (Quartz). — This mine is 3 
miles W. of Forbestown. It has developed beyond a " prospect," on 
which a shaft is being sunk. — Price, of Forbestown, owner. 

Dog Hill Mine (Drift). — This claim is 2 miles W. of Chaparral House, 
on the Magalia Ridge. It lies in T. 24 N., R. 5 E., and comprises 40 
acres of ground, through which a gravel channel is supposed to run N.E. 
and S.W., and to cut which the company are driving a tunnel, at present 
130 ft. long; 20 ft. farther they contemplate sinking, as they are too high, 
having struck lava after cutting through the rim. This ridge lies 
between the west branch of Feather River and the main branch of 
Butte Creek. Wetherbee et al., of Chaparral House, owners. 

Dutch Ravine Mine (Quartz). — This is a prospect being developed 3 
miles S. of Hurleton. A shaft has been sunk 135 ft.; the first 50 ft. 
vertical, the remainder on incline of 45°. The vein has a N. and S. 



GOLD — BUTTE COUNTY. 83 

course, with a W. dip, and is from 2 to 5 ft. wide, between a slate hang- 
ing- and trap foot-wall. H. Stowe, of Forbestown, owner. 

Gold Bank Mine (Quartz). — This property was described in our Xth 
and Xlth Reports, pp. 125 and 162. The present ore supplies come 
from the stope on No. 2 drain tunnel level, No. 1 level E., and No. 3 
level, on foot-wall side, W. On the No. 1 level E. the stope is 300 ft. 
long and the vein is 8 ft. wide. Two pumps are in the mine: an 8 in. 
plunger on the No. 2 level, and a 6 in. bucket pump on the No. 3 level, 
running with 5 ft. stroke. Motive power is water applied on six wheels 
under 150 ft. pressure. The crushing capacity has been increased by 
the addition of 20 stamps, or 40 stamps in all, with 16 Frue concen- 
trators. .The stamps are run from 90 to 100 drops per minute on a 7 
in. drop, with about the same discharge, using narrow mortars. Both 
shoes and dies are steel, with a life only twice as long as good iron ones. 
No. 8 diagonal slot screens are used, which, when worn out, are used 
up in the chlorination works. Each stamp crushes 2-| tons in twenty- 
four hours. The pulp from the battery passes over an outside plate 
and 17 ft. of apron and sluice plates, set on a slope of 3 in. to the 
foot; also through sand-boxes and distributors before reaching the 
concentrators, which are producing 8 tons of sulphurets per week. The 
ore is passed through a No. 2 Gates crusher before reaching the mill, 
which is about 150 yds. distant from the hoisting works. The ore-bins 
have a capacity of 1,500 tons. The canvas tables below the concen- 
trators are 60 ft. long, the sections being 22 in. wide. Settling-boxes are 
beyond, the material from which is chlorinated separately. 

The chlorination plant handles 3 tons per day, making two charges. 
The furnace is a three-step reverberatory, with ten alternating doors. 
At the conclusion of the roasting proper, 5 lbs. of salt are introduced 
through each door on the ore, which is piled and remains heated for two 
hours before removing to the cooling floor. After cooling, 1-J tons are 
placed in an iron revolving barrel and mixed with 25 lbs. of sulphuric 
acid and 50 lbs. of chloride of lime, and water. The barrel is then 
closed and makes 7^ revolutions per minute for twelve hours. At the 
end of this the barrel is run on a track over the leaching-out vat, into 
which the charge is emptied. 

The gold is leached with hot water, then " hypo " solution added 
without removing the charge, for the extraction of silver; and finally 
the copper precipitated as cement copper. The sulphurets, of which 
there are from 2 to 3 per cent in the ore, yield about $40 per ton in 
silver. The concentrates give an average yield of about $60 per ton. 
The ore can be mined and milled for $2 25 per ton, exclusive of the 
chlorination. The ores from this mine produce a peculiar coating of a 
hard, blackish-brown substance over the apron plates, which adheres 
like plating and does not appear to be readily affected by acids. This 
may be a combination of selenium, arsenic, and mercury, or arsenic, 
sulphur, and mercury. The entire plant is lighted by electricity, and 78 
men are employed. W. W. Stow, of San Francisco, owner. 

Golden Banner Mine (Quartz). — It is situated 5 miles N. from Oro- 
ville, and has lately passed into the hands of a new company, who are 
erecting an extensive working plant. See our Xlth Report, p. 153. 
F. McLaughlin, of OroviJle, owner. 

Golden Feather Channel Company {Limited) (Placer). — Up to date 
600 ft. of the lower end of the channel have been worked; also a stretch 



84 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

immediately below the permanent dam. Stripping off the debris cover- 
ing the un worked portion was being actively prosecuted in October, 1893. 
The flume for washing is 550 ft. long and 2 ft. wide, with a grade of li 
in. to the foot, and lined with 8 in. blocks. The tailings are elevated 
60 ft. out of the bottom of the channel through a 21 in. pipe with a 
" hydraulic elevator." Fifty men work day and night, aided by electric 
lights. Fully illustrated in our Xlth Report, p. 150. Golden Feather 
Channel Company, owners; F. McLaughlin, of Oroville, Manager. 

Golden Gale Alluvial Syndicate Company (Limited) (Placer). — See our 
IX th and Xlth Reports, pp. 271 and 152. Golden Gate Alluvial Syndi- 
cate Company (Ltd.), owners; W. G. Sanborn, of Oroville, Superin- 
tendent. 

Golden Queen Mine (Quartz). — One half mile north of Forbestown. 
See our Xth and Xlth Reports, pp. 120 and 162. At present 15 men are 
employed, C. Nickerson et al., of Oroville, owners. 

Golden Summit Mine (Quartz). — This property is in T. 25 N., R. 5 E., 
Con cow township, 10 miles E. of Chaparral House, and lies both in 
Butte and Plumas counties. It contains 5,000 by 100 ft.; the vein is 9 ft. 
wide, courses N.E. and dips W. At a distance of 100 ft. the tunnel cuts 
the ledge, on which it turns and continues for several hundred feet. An 
upraise connects the tunnel with the surface. The quartz is of ribbon 
texture and carries some sulphurets. A 10-stamp mill, supplied with 
Frue vanners, is being erected. Hon. Geo. C. Perkins, of Oakland, 
owner. 

Golden Thread Mine (Quartz). — This property is on Secret Creek, 2 
miles N.W. from Inskip, and comprises 1,500 by 600 ft., through which 
a veinlet 2 in. wide runs N. and S. and dips W.; the wall rocks are 
decomposed. A tunnel has been run 60 ft. on the vein, which has been 
stoped to the surface. Two 8 ft. arrastras with cog gearing are run by 
a 14 ft. overshot wheel with free water from Secret Creek. The gold is 
quite coarse. The property is worked by 3 men. G. W. Leeper, of 
Inskip, owner. 

Gregory Mine (Drift). — This property is situated 9 miles E. from 
Chaparral House, in T. 25 N., R. 5 E., and is on the same gravel channel 
as the Butte King and Butte Queen to the south. The working tunnel 
has been run near the division line, and cuts through the rim rock 530 
ft. from the mouth; here a shaft was sunk on the pitch of the rim rock 
12 ft. deep, and a drift run across the channel 200 ft., where the breast 
shows the rim to be rising. The gravel averages 5 ft. in thickness, with 
a pipe-clay a ad lava capping. The gravel and water are hoisted by 
windlass, and the ventilating fan is run by hand-power. J. B. Dogle, 
of Chaparral House, owner. 

Index Mine (Drift).— See Xth Report, p. 138. 

Inskip Mine (Quartz). — This property is half a mile S.W. from 
Inskip,~in Sec. 29, T. 25 N., R. 4 E. The claim of 1,500 by 600 ft. has 
two nearly parallel veins, with a N.E. course and a S. dip; they are 
about 20 ft. apart. No. 1 vein is from 6 in. to 3 ft. wide; the other 
about 2.| ft. A drift has been run between and parallel with the veins 
a distance of 100 ft., with intention to cross-cut to both veins; from this 
level there are 125 ft. of backs. The ore is hand-sorted and the better 
quality hauled to an 8 ft. arrastra run by a 16 ft. overshot waterwheel, 
the Cherokee Water Company's ditch furnishing 20 in. of water at a 
cost of $10 per month. Thomas McVeigh, of Inskip, owner. 



GOLD — BUTTE COUNTY. 85 

J#hm, T)in Mine ( Drift). — This property is 6 miles N. of Lovelock sta- 
tion, on the North Fork of Big Butte. The property comprises 200 
acres, and after lyixig idle for a long time, is having a hoisting and 
pumping plant put in shape to reopen it. The old incline tunnel, which 
is being put in shape, was started in gravel on a slope of 2 ft. in 12 for 
a distance of 500 ft. The total width of the channel is 500 ft., 200 ft. of 
which constituted the pay streak. Four out of every five carloads taken 
from the channel are bowlders. The tunnel is extremely small; 4 ft. on 
bottom, 3 ft. on top, and using 6 ft. posts. The car contains only 18 
cu. ft. The course of the channel is S.W., and it is supposed that the 
channel holds this course all the way down the ridge that lies between 
Oroville and Chico, no spot having been discovered where it breaks out. 
Bank of Chico, Chico, owner. 

Jones Bros, and Reese Mine (Drift). — This property is 10 miles E. of 
Chaparral House, in Sec. 29, T. 25 N., R. 5 E. It is a southerly con- 
tinuation of the Butte King and Butte Queen, and in this claim the 
channel breaks out. Its south continuation between this point and the 
Snow Diggings on the opposite side of the bank of the West Fork of 
Feather River has been entirely eroded. The elevation above the sea 
of the bedrock here is 6,140 ft. The main tunnel starts on the gravel 
near the west rim and runs in about 450 ft., and is connected by a cross- 
drift with an old tunnel run on the east rim, securing good ventilation. 
The gravel is breasted out 35 ft. wide and 5 ft. high, using posts and 
caps for timbering. The bedrock is partly syenite and partly a quartzose 
slate. When crevices are found the yield is quite large. The narrower 
the channel the richer the gravel, the gold being all coarse. The gravel 
is very clayey, but more so on the east than on the west rim; it also 
contains a large amount of quartz. The grade of the bedrock is irregu- 
lar, making in one place a fall of 4 ft., below which point the ground 
was extremely rich. About 20 carloads of gravel are washed at a time 
with the 3 in. of water that drain from the tunnel, passing through 120 
ft. of flume provided with cross and slat riffles. The upper cross riffles 
are cleaned twice per week, the remainder once a month. The mine is 
only run during the summer months. Jones Bros, et al., of Chaparral 
House, owners. 

Keystone {Reasner) Mine (Quartz). — This property was described in 
our Xth Report, p. 127, and is situated 1 mile W. of Forbestown. A 
shaft has been sunk. The formation is syenite. D. Reasner, of Forbes- 
town, owner. 

Kickapoo Placer Mine (Drift). — This mine, formerly hydraulicked, is 
3^ miles N.W. of Strawberry Valley, on the Mooreville Ridge, T. 20 N., 
R. 7 E. The property consists of two patented claims, the Kickapoo 
and the Burgstresser placers, containing 48 and 60j acres, respectively. 
The bank is 150 ft. deep, including a 20 ft. lava capping, 10 ft. of a sand 
streak, and the 120 ft. of gravel. Next to the granite bedrock the gravel 
contains many large bowlders. A 200 ft. tunnel has been run on the 
bedrock, and drifts run out to both sides for a distance of from 40 to 50 
ft. without reaching either rim; the course of the channel is E. and W. 
The gravel is gray, somewhat cemented, and prospects throughout the 
whole depth, but is best on the lower 6 ft., some parts having yielded 
from 25 cents to $1 per pan several feet from bedrock. It will be breasted 
down from 6 to 8 ft. deep. The gold is not coarse, and is .940 fine. The 



86 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

water supply for three or four months is taken from Rock and French 
creeks. J. H. Drake et al., of Strawberry Valley, Yuba County, owners. 

Lost Treasure Mine (Quartz). — This property is on Dutch Gulch, 
situated | of a mile N. of Inskip, in Sec. 28, T. 26 N., R. 4 E. It con- 
tains 1,500 by 600 ft., and carries quartz stringers, each about 12 in. 
wide, striking N.E., on which a tunnel has been driven 150 ft. The 
wall rocks are decomposed altered syenite. The gold occurs in pockets. 
J. Hedges et al., of Chaparral House, owners. 

Lucky Bob Mine (Quartz). — This property is situated on Feather 
River, 4 miles N. of Oroville. The vein crops out near the banks of the 
American River, and courses a little W. of N., dipping 55° W. It is 
about 2 ft. wide, between greenstone walls, and occasionally a little 
slate. A tunnel has been driven on the vein 550 ft. A crew of 60 men 
are working. Col. F. McLaughlin, of Oroville, owner. 

Lucretia Mine (Drift). — See Perschbaker. 

Magalia Consolidated (Mineral Slide) Mine (Drift). — This property 
has been described in our VIHth and Xth Reports, pp. 117 and 145. 
The claim embraces 400 acres of patented ground. Several tunnels 
have been driven under the lava capping, reaching a distance of 1,300 
ft., and disclosing an extremely wide body of gravel. No breasting was 
being done, the gravel drifts being run ahead 3| ft. high. In the main 
gangways the timbers consist of 6^ ft. posts, 3f ft. caps in the clear, and 
b\ ft. spread. The pa}' extends throughout the gravel, right up to the 
lava capping. The bedrock is partly slate, partly sandstone, the latter 
fossiliferous. To work the gravel successfully a deeper bedrock tunnel is 
required. The present cost of extracting a carload of gravel is 40 cents. 
Ten carloads (100 lbs. "each) are extracted per man; the total width of 
the gravel is half a mile. N. D. Rideout et al., of Oroville, owners. 

Mammoth Gold Mine (Quartz). — This property is I5 miles N.W. from 
Inskip, in Sec. 30, T. 25 N., R. 4 E., and consists of a full quartz claim, 
1,500 by 600 ft. The vein is 10 in. wide, and courses E. and W., with 
vertical walls of porphyry and granite. A shaft 4 by 6 ft., sunk to a 
depth of 20 ft., has been drifted from about the same distance, and this 
block of ground stoped to the surface. Not being worked at present. 
Messrs. Leeper & Cory, of Inskip, owners. 

Mascot Mine (Quartz). — This property is situated 6 miles from Oro- 
ville. The claim consists of 4,500 by 600 ft., with a N. and S. vein 1 
to 8 ft. wide, dipping 60° E., between greenstone and porphyry, the 
latter being the hanging-wall. A cross-cut tunnel 165 ft. long reaches 
the vein, which has been drifted on 26 ft. N. and 80 ft. S., giving 280 ft. 
of backs. A 10-stamp water-power mill, with 1,000 lb. stamps, and 
two Woodbury concentrators, belong to the property. The mill uses 
No. 35 punched screens, and has a 12 ft. apron set on a grade of 1^ in. 
to the foot. Four men are working the mine; the mill is not running. 
Mascot Mining Company, owners; A. Gabriel, of Woodland, President. 

Mineral Slide Mine (Drift). — See Magalia. 

Oro Fino Mine (Drift). — This property was described in our VIHth 
and Xlth Reports, pp. 118 and 160. There are 80 acres in the property. 
The channel, with S.E. course, is lava-capped; the bedrock, serpentine 
and slate; has an altitude of 2,340 ft. The present working tunnel 
started on an outbreak of gravel, and was run to the S.E. a distance of 
750 ft., where a smaller channel or feeder ran into it. The main gang- 
way is extended 3,000 ft., and shows the course of the channel at that 



GOLD — BUTTE COUNTY. 87 

point to be a horseshoe bend. The gangway drifts are carried 5 ft. high, 
with about 40 ft. wide breasts; the timbering in the latter are single 
posts and caps. The main gangway has 6 ft. posts, with 5 ft. spread at 
the bottom. The gold is smooth, well-washed, and sells for $17 75 per 
ounce. L. Cohen, of Magalia, owner. 

Pactolian Mine (Quartz). — This property is 2 miles N. of Hurleton, 
T. 19 N., R. 5 E., and shows a vein from 2 to 8 ft. wide. L. Jacobs et 
al., of Oroville, owners. 

Palace Mine (Drift). — This 80-acre claim is 1\ miles W. of Lovelock, 
on Big Butte Creek, T. 25 N., R. 3 E. The channel is supposed to have 
an E. and W. course. The former tunnels being too high, a new bed- 
rock tunnel has been started in the greenstone, and is in 30 ft. at present. 
P. Reardon, of Lovelock, owner. 

Palo Alto Mine (Quartz). — This property has been described in our 
Xth and Xlth Reports, pp. 129 and 164. The 3 ft. vein courses N. and 
S., dips about 75 c E. Palo Alto Mining Company, of Merrimac, owners. 

Parry (AIM) Mine (Drift). — See our Xth Report, p. 141. It is situ- 
ated 2 miles N.E. of Magalia. For seven years the owner, with very 
limited means, has been sinking an incline on the west branch of Feather 
River, to tap the deep channel that is supposed to follow down the 
Magalia ridge. The twisting off of the 3^ in. steel crank shaft caused 
the mine to fill up with water in thirty-six hours, shutting down the 
works temporarily. The vertical depth reached is about 250 ft. G. 
Parry, of Magalia, owner. 

Perschbaker (Lucretia) Mine (Drift). — This property "was mentioned 
in our VHIth Report, p. 110, and is situated on Little Butte Creek, 
2i miles N. from Magalia, in Sec. 13, T. 23 N., R. 3 E. The channel is 
only from 4 to 20 ft. wide, with steep grade. It is supposed to be a 
branch, and to join the deep channel under the Magalia ridge. It makes 
considerable water, and ten pumps are required to control it, four boil- 
ers 4 by 16 ft. being required. Two compressors are run by water 
power, with 110 ft. head, operating on two 5 ft. Knight wheels. From 
mouth of incline to bottom of the works is 250 ft. perpendicular, and the 
present bedrock is about 200 ft. below the level of Butte Creek. The 
work has been down the channel; the general grade is 12 ft. in 100. 
The gold is very coarse, and in places almost covers the bedrock; it is 
worth from $18 75 to $19 per ounce. N. D. Rideout, of Marysville, 
Yuba County, owner. 

Phoenix Gold Mine (Quartz). — This property is 3 miles S. of Hurleton 
and 15 miles from Oroville, in Sec. 28, T. 19 N., R. 5 E. It embraces 
three claims (4,500 by 600 ft.), with 600 acres of timber land. The 
vein, 2 to 8 ft. wide, has a N. and S. course between decomposed wall 
rocks, Avell mineralized, standing nearly vertical. The main working 
shaft is 105 ft. deep. The hoist is a patent horse-whim. Short drifts 
are run from the shaft N. 33 ft. and S. 50 ft.; some stoping has been 
done. About 1 mile from the mine is the mill, a Bryan roller, with a 
Stanford self-feeder and Dodge rockbreaker. The mill makes 18 to 20 
revolutions per minute, crushing 12 tons in twenty-four hours, and 
using a No. 40 diagonal slot cut screen. An apron 5 by 15 ft. carries 
the pulp to a Johnston concentrator; 80 per cent of the amalgam is 
obtained inside the mill. Below the concentrator is a canvas plant 40 
ft. long, and a riffled sluice having a grade of 1 ft. in 6. The quartz has 
a ribbon structure and carries 3 per cent of iron and copper sulphurets. 



05 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

Ore hauling costs 60 cents per ton. The mine is ventilated by means 
of a stove placed at collar of the shaft. J. L. Gibson et a.L, of Hurle- 
ton, owners. 

Porphyry Point Mine (Quartz). — See our Xlth Report, p. 161. 

Porphyry Point Mine (Drift). — It is 3-J miles N. of Magalia, and 
contains 30 acres, through which a channel is supposed to run N.E. and 
S.W. A bedrock tunnel 75 ft. in length was run in porphyry, then an 
incline for 90 ft. that reached a perpendicular depth of 22 ft. The 
gravel has not been reached, but sediment is showing in the face. See 
our Xlth Report, p. 169. R. Shipley et al., of Magalia, owners. 

Rainbow Mine (Quartz). — This property was described in our Xth and 
Xlth Reports, pp. 131 and 158, and is situated on Jordan Hill, 4 miles 
N.W. of Yankee Hill. Captain Griffith, of San Francisco, owner. 

Republican Mine (Drift). — This property is situated 4 miles N.W. 
from Lovelock, on " Forks of the Butte," in T. 24 N., R. 3 E., and contains 
140 acres. Course of the channel is slightly S. of E., and 1,200 ft. of it 
has been worked. The gravel drifts have been run at right angles from 
the main gangway 50 ft. in gravel without touching the rim rock. The 
gravel is worked 4 ft. deep with 25 ft. breasts. The bedrock is slate 
and granite, the channel running part way on the contact. There are 
two qualities of gravel: the red and the regular blue. The gold is 
smooth-washed; a breaster can take out 6 cars per day; the best pay is 
on the bedrock, 1 ft. of which is picked up. An old tunnel 200 ft. long 
is used as a reservoir, and the washing is done once a day through 160 
ft. of sluices, using Hungarian and slat riffles; the head box is cleaned 
once a week, the remainder once a month. About 400 ft. from daylight 
in the tunnel the bedrock makes a 4 ft. raise. A belt of slate filled with 
quartz seams passing through the country rock would seem to justify its 
working, as where the outlet cut was made through it pieces of good- 
paying quartz were picked up, apparently from a pocket. P. N. Woods, 
of Lovelock, owner. 

Scott 1 s Bar Mine (Placer). — This property is 3 miles W. of Lovelock, 
on Big Butte Creek, in T. 24 N., R. 3 E. The property comprises 1,100 
ft. along Butte Creek, and is 790 ft. wide. The pay ground is in a bar 
of Big Butte Creek running under the present bank, and a tunnel 30 ft. 
deep is run into it. The water of the creek is brought down through 2-J 
miles of ditch and affords 120 ft. pressure. The flume is 200 ft. long, 
2 ft. wide, paved with blocks and pole riffles. The upper box is cleaned 
once a week, the remainder once a month; 200 carloads can be washed 
per day; 60 per cent of the washed material is bowlders. J. Leechman 
et al., of San Francisco, owners. 

Shakespeare Mine (Quartz). — This property was described in our Xth 
and Xlth Reports, pp. 128 and 163, and is situated in Forbestown. It 
gives employment to 50 men, 30 being in the mine. The 4 ft. vein, which 
is very strong, crops out for several hundred feet with an N. and S. 
course and a dip of about 80° W. Since being under the control of 
the present management, the mine has been fully equipped with steam 
hoisting works, a 30-stamp mill, and a chlorination plant. From the 
incline shaft to the mill is a loop incline tramway, the descent of the 
full car bringing the empty one up. The formation is syenite and 
greenstone, the former projecting into the latter between the mill and 
hoist. The general character of the quartz is similar to that of the Gold 
Bank Mine, but the character of the sulphurets appears more diversified. 



GOLD — CALAVERAS COUNTY. 89 

The 30 stamps, of 1,000 lbs. each, drop 100 times per minute. There are 
battery plates, but no aprons; only sluice plates. There are also 12 
Frue concentrators and a chlorination plant, using direct generation of 
chlorine gas. No silver or copper is saved, although the works are 
prepared to save silver. The capacity is for 5 tons of concentrates per 
day, but they only work 3 tons per twenty-four hours at present. The 
reverberatory furnace has working doors on one side only, the inter- 
spaces between the doors being beveled off on the inside. The new 
shaft is down 250 ft. and drifting has commenced. Col. A. Hay ward 
et al., of San Francisco, lessees; — Nickerson, Superintendent. 

Standard Gold and Silver Mining Company (Quartz). — This property 
is at Oregon City, 8 miles N.E. of Oroville; it is an old mine that is 
being reopened. The present claim includes 4,500 by 600 ft. The 2 ft. 
vein courses N.W. and S.E. and dips about 45° E; it has greenstone 
walls. The quartz carries about 1 per cent iron sulphurets. The present 
work includes an incline shaft 250 ft. deep, on the pitch of the vein, 
with N. and S. drifts at the 100 and 200 ft. levels. From the upper 
drift stopes connect with the surface. The power is supplied by a 10 
horse-power steam engine; a No. 6 Knowles pump controls the water, 
and a 4 ft. Bryan roller mill crushes the ore. The works employ 26 
men. E. T. Jewell, of San Francisco, Secretary. 

Turner Mine (Drift). — This property is 1 mile E. of Bangor, in T. 25 
N., R. 5 E. The claim controls 1,000 ft. on the channel, which is N.W. 
and S.E., and has a width of about 40 ft. The pay gravel is 8 ft. deep, 
but a capping of barren gravel reaches the surface. There are two 50 
ft. shafts on opposite sides of the channel, and drifts are being run from 
both across the channel. The bedrock is slate. Timbers used are posts 
6 ft., caps Si ft. in the clear, with 5 ft. spread. A 6 in. jackhead pump, 
run by steam, consumes l-§ cords of wood per twenty-four hours, at an 
expense of $2 per cord. The boiler is 26 horse-power. The grade of the 
channel is 3 ft. in 100. An arrastra, tank, and flume are being built. 
Water is obtained from the Forbestown ditch, 7 in. being used, costing 
10 cents per inch. The gold is flaky, and worth $18 50 per ounce. 
Gravel is tight, but not cemented. Turner Drift Mining Company, of 
Marysville, owners. 

Wood's Mine (Drift).— See Xth Report, p. 144. 

CALAVERAS COUNTY. 

This county boasts the largest producing gold mine in the State, 
and there are many properties which promise, with complete equip- 
ment, to become as great as any of those now operating. Several old 
mines have recently been reopened near Murphys, and the Gwin Mine, 
after years of idleness, is again in operation. Besides the quartz industry, 
there are 50 miles of the ancient gravel channels remaining un worked. 

Adelaide Mine (Quartz). — It is on the " Mother Lode," at Robinson's 
Ferry. See our Xth and Xlth Reports, pp. 57 and 169. It was worked 
in a small way during 1893. .Harvey Woods, of Robinson's Ferry, owner. 

Angels Mine (Quartz). — It is N. of Angels. Described in our VIHth 
and Xth Reports, pp. 141 and 150. J. V. Coleman, of San Francisco, 
owner. 

Balaklava Mine (Drift). — It is 2 miles S.E. of Vailecito, and is part 
of what is called the Cataract channel; this channel extends southeast- 
ward into Tuohimne County. Luke Sanguinnetti, of Vailecito, owner. 



90 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

Bald Hill Mine (Quartz). — See Graham. 

Banner Mine (Quartz). — See Mayflower. 

Beatrice Mine (Quartz). — It is near the Buckhorn, and is idle. W. S. 
Edwards, of Murphys, Superintendent. 

Beatrice Mine (Quartz). — See Mayflower. 

Belle Mine (Quartz). — It is on the southeastern slope of Carson Hill, 
near the Stanislaus River, and is a new property in course of develop- 
ment. A cross-cut tunnel 210 ft. in length intersects two veins 25 and 
15 ft. wide and 75 ft. apart. A third vein cropping on the surface will 
probably be cut by this tunnel a short distance farther in. Drifts have 
been run 70 ft. N. on the first vein, and 200 ft. S. on the second. 

Birney Mine (Quartz). — This is a new u prospect" on the Birney ranch, 
1-J miles N.E. from Angels. The four owners of the mine are develop- 
ing it. A shaft has been sunk 110 ft. There are eleven veins of quartz 
known on the surface, and two u blind veins " have, been discovered 
beneath. These veins all occur within a zone 200 ft. wide. Good pros- 
pects are obtained on several of these veins. In sinking on two veins of 
18 in. and 24 in. they have widened at the 100 ft. level to 4 ft. each of 
pay rock (quartz and schist). These veins all occur in altered diabase 
(chloritic and talcose schist), and contain from 3 to 4 per cent auriferous 
iron sulphurets. The geological features of this mine thus far greatly 
resemble those of the Utica Mine, at Angels Camp. T. L. Birney & Co., 
of Angels, owners. 

Blair Consolidated Mine (Quartz). — See Smith's Flat and our Xlth 
Report, p. 172. A new shaft was being sunk in 1893. James Schmedake, 
of Angels, owner. 

Blazing Star Aline (Quartz). — This and the adjoining property, The 
Water Lily, owned by the same company, is 1-J miles E. of West Point. 
Described in our VIHth Report, p. 414. Since then the workings have 
been carried down to the 450 ft. level. The concentrates were formerly 
sent away, but will now be treated at the mine, where custom work will 
also be taken. C. J. Moore, of West Point, Superintendent. 

Boston Mine (Quartz). — This is 2^ miles N.E. of Mokelumne Hill, on 
Indian Creek. Patented under the name of Esperanza. The vein or 
zone of gold-bearing quartz occurs on a much splintered and crushed 
dike of diorite of dark greenish-gray color. The zone of fracture is 40 
to 60 ft. wide. The quartz contains iron, lead, zinc, and copper sul- 
phurets. It is without wall or well-defined limits. Interstratified or 
intermingled with the irregular masses of quartz are strips and bunches 
of chloritic and talcose schist, altered from the diorite country rock. A 
large amount of work has been done here. M. Davidson, of Mokelumne 
Hill, owner. 

Bruner Mine (Quartz). — It is on the "Mother Lode," 2 miles S.E. of 
Angels. Referred to in our Xth and Xlth Reports, pp. 59 and 174. F. 
Bruner, of Angels, owner. 

Buckhorn Mine (Quartz). — It is 2 miles W. of Murphys. It is now 
being reopened after a long period of idleness. Two veins are exposed 
on the surface 140 ft. apart. A cross-cut tunnel 275 ft. long cuts one 
of them, exposing a fine banded vein 2 ft. in width. This vein is of the 
branching character common to many veins in slaty rocks. The forma- 
tion here is mica schist and quartzite with dike rocks, one of which 
accompanies each vein. The mine has not been worked to any great 






GOLD — CALAVERAS COUNTY. 91 

depth. It was worked for fourteen years in a desultory sort of way. 
F. R. Gamier, of Murphys, Superintendent. 

Buckminster Mine (Drift). — See Uptograph. 

Calaveras Mine (Quartz). — This is 5 miles N. of Murphys, on the 
Sheep Ranch road, and, after a long period of idleness, resumed opera- 
tions in January, 1894. 

Calaveras Consolidated Mine (Quartz). — It is on the southern slope of 
Carson Hill, at Robinson's Ferry. See our Xth and Xlth Reports, pp. 
56 and 169. During the summer of 1893 a new vertical shaft was sunk, 
cutting at 230 ft. in depth a shoot of quartz. W. J. Scrutton, of Angels, 
Superintendent. 

Canape Mine (Quartz). — This claim is 1 mile W. of the old town of 
Carson. It is a small prospect, but yields a high-grade quartz. Jos. 
Canape, of Carson, owner. 

Carson Creek Mine (Quartz). — It is on lower Carson Creek, at its 
junction with the Stanislaus River. This property has been erroneously 
referred to in our Xlth Report, p. 173, as the "Jones Mine." The 
formation is highly metamorphic rock of indefinite character, probably 
a much altered slaty or schistose diorite. The mine is opened by an 
incline shaft 250 ft. deep, and there is also a vertical shaft of 140 ft. 
There are 700 ft. of levels and drifts. On the 100 ft. level two cross-cuts 
were run, one 70 ft. and the other 90 ft., without finding a wall. The 
quartz carries 0.5 per cent of sulphurets, mostly iron and zinc. Some 
of the latter is extremely rich in silver and has been mistaken for hessite 
(silver telluride). Twenty stamps were added in 1893 to the twenty 
already in place. Tulloch concentrators, sixteen in number, are in use. 
A chlorination plant is in contemplation. The Belle Mine is under the 
same management. E. W. Roberts, of Angels, Superintendent. 

Central Hill Mine (Drift). — This claim is half a mile W. of Murphys. 
A drain tunnel .3,000 ft. in length is being run from the vicinity of 
Douglas Flat, and was 1,600 ft. in in September, 1893. W. Thomas, of 
Douglas Flat, owner. 

Champion Mine (Quartz). — It is 1\ miles west of West Point, and is 
750 ft. deep, where the profitable ore shoot was exhausted, and work 
abandoned. The vein formed in a dike of diorite, having a strike nearly 
N. and S., and a dip of 35° to 65° W. The walls are very uneven, owing 
to pinches and swells in the dike mass. The outside country rock is 
hornblendic granite of even texture and light-gray color. The shaft 
was started on a small vein in the granite, which was quite rich; at a 
depth of 300 ft. the shaft entered a zone of chloritic and talcose schists 
(locally called serpentine and slate). A large lens-shaped mass of quartz 
was encountered at a greater depth, which reached diagonally from wall 
to wall, pitching S., and was followed downward 400 ft., and produced 
a large amount of bullion. A small quartz vein was found on both foot- 
and hanging-wall of the dike, but neither contained sufficient gold to 
pay. S. Rufino, of Wes.t Point, owner. 

Chappellet Mine (Drift). — This claim is in Chile Gulch, 2 miles S.W. 
of Mokelumne Hill, and is on the Chile Gulch channel. A new hoist 
and mill were built in 1893, and are in successful operation. F. Chap- 
pellet, of Mokelumne Hill, owner. 

Cook Mine (Quartz). — It is \\ miles N.E. of Angels, and adjoins the 
Birney Mine. The vein, from 1 to 4 ft. wide, occurs in a light-gray dike 



92 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

rock. The surface quartz is much disintegrated and stained with iron 
oxides, and is heavily sulphuretted. S. Cook, of Angels, owner. 

Crown Point and Teirakoff Mines (Quartz). — These adjoining proper- 
ties are on the north side of the South Fork of the Mokelumne River, 
2 -J miles N.W. of West Point. They are on the "Champion dike," and 
have similar geological features. In the Crown Point Mine a shoot of 
quartz was extracted, which occupied a position nearly midway between 
the walls of the dike and lying parallel with them. Work is now being 
prosecuted in the Teirakoff Mine in search of a similar deposit. Here 
occasional transitions between the normal crystalline diorite and com- 
pletely altered schists may be found. Teirakoff Company, of West Point, 
owners; — Marchand, Superintendent. 

Demorest Mine (Quartz). — It is 6^ miles S. from San Andreas, and has 
reached a depth of 107 ft. The vein is 5 to 7 ft. wide, and the quartz is 
dark blue and carrying 3 or 4 per cent of iron sulphurets. D. D. Demo- 
rest, of Altaville, owner. 

Dodson <k McQuaid Mine (Quartz). — It is a mile S.W. of Murphys. 
The vein is 18 in. wide, and the quartz is blue and banded, and carries 
iron and lead sulphurets. The formation is black slate. Dodson & 
McQuaid, of Murphys, owners. 

Dora Mine (Quartz). — It is 3 miles N. of Murphys. A tunnel and 
other workings expose a vein 1 ft. in width, some of which is rich in 
gold. A 5-stamp mill is about completed. George Hengen, of Mur- 
phys, Superintendent. 

Eclipse Mine (Quartz). — It is \\ miles N.W. of Angels (see Smith's 
Flat). A new shaft was being sunk in 1893. T. E. Flagg, of Angels, 
owner. 

Edna Mine (Quartz). — It is 3 miles N.W. of San Andreas. The 
developments consist of a shaft nearly 100 ft. deep, and a cross-cut of 
35 ft. The cross-cut passes through a dike of granular, buff-colored, 
heavily mineralized rock, 36 ft. in width, which is gold-bearing from 
wall to wall, with the exception of 5 ft. of hard rock near the middle. 
Near the west wall several large masses of quartz containing gold have 
been found, but were not developed in 1893. J. S. White, of San 
Andreas, owner. 

Esperanza Mine (Quartz). — See Boston. 

Eureka Mine (Quartz). — This location is t mile N. of West Point. A 
new shaft is down 100 ft. The 5-stamp mill is a quarter of a mile dis- 
tant, where it is run in connection with a sawmill; the waste of the 
sawmill supplying fuel for both. The vein, from 1 to 3 ft. wide, is a 
simple fissure in granite, and has sustained a curious cross fracturing. 
The quartz breaks freely from the walls, but there is no selvage or 
gouge. Joel Rowe, of West Point, owner. 

Everlasting Mine (Quartz). — This patented claim is half a mile S. of 
San Andreas. See our Xth Report, p. 63. N. Seiffort, of San Andreas, 
owner. 

Fellowcraft Mine (Quartz). — This is on the eastern outskirts of San 
Andreas, and is described in our Xth and Xlth Reports, pp. 149 and 178. 
Herman Bode, of San Andreas, owner. 

Finnigan Mine (Quartz). — It is on Carson Hill, and is being worked 
in a small way for pockets. Tarbut, Bickel & Co., of Angels, owners. 

Gold Cliff Mine (Quartz). — This property is being operated as one of 
the Utica group, and is on one of the branches of the " Mother Lode," 



GOLD — CALAVERAS COUNTY. 93 

just W. of Angels. It has a somewhat unusual geological structure. 
See our Xth Report, pp. 60 and 150. Hay ward, Lane & Co., of Angels, 
owners. 

Gold Hill Mine (Quartz).— This is half a mile S.E. of Vallecito. The 
vein, having a N.E. course, is a fissure in diorite, and is accompanied by 
a dike of felsite. It is a " pocket " claim, and said to have produced 
largely. Johnson & Burnell, of Vallecito, owners. 

Gold Hill Mine (Quartz). — This property is 1^ miles N.W. of Angels. 
See Smith's Flat and our Xth Report, p. 170. The surface portion of 
the mine is a labyrinth of cuts, trenches, and drifts, made in mining for 
rich pockets. There are over 2,500 ft. of shafts and levels, exclusive of 
the surface cuts. That portion of the mine which is below 100 ft. from the 
surface is now being developed in a systematic manner. S. V. Ryland, 
of Angels, owner. 

Graham (Bald Hill) Mine (Quartz). — It is on one of the branches of 
the " Mother Lode," a mile south of Angels. See our Xth and Xlth 
Reports, pp. 150 and 174. L. Graham, of Angels, owner. 

Guadaloupe Mine (Quartz). — See Homestead. 

Gwin Mine (Quartz). — It is on the " Mother Lode," 3 miles W. of 
Mokelumne Hill. This famous mine is completely described with sec- 
tional plates in our Vlth Report, p. 30. It is now being reopened, and 
fine hoisting works, capable of lifting 3,000 ft., are being erected. Gwin 
Development Company, owners; F. F. Thomas, of Mokelumne Hill, 
Superintendent. 

Hale Mine (Quartz). — This location is half a mile W. of Angels. See 
our Xth Report, pp. 60 and 147. 

Hardy Mine (Quartz). — This is situated 1 mile S.E. of Angels. It 
consists of a broad zone of alternating magnesian schists and quartz 
veins of greatly varying size. Considerable work, mostly of a super- 
ficial character, has been done. Structurally, the mine is somewhat 
like the Utica. Considerable gold has been taken out in pockets. Two 
men make a living "pocket mining" on this claim, which should be 
operated in a larger way to secure the best results. Hardy & Osborne, 
of Angels, owners. 

Hillary Mine (Quartz). — See Lone Star. 

Holland Mine (Quartz). — It is 2 miles S. of San Andreas. At this 
mine a hoist and mill were erected to work a mass of talcose schist said 
to contain auriferous iron pyrite. All operations were suspended after 
a short trial. W. Holland, of San Andreas, owner. 

Homestalce Mine (Quartz). — This is in a small district 5 miles E. of 
Murphys. The settlement is called Collierville. The region is distin- 
guished for the high-grade quartz, which occurs as lenses and veins in 
mica schist. Geologically it is similar to the mines about American 
Camp, on the opposite side of the Stanislaus River. The mines are on 
the " east lode." In the Homestake, which may be taken as a type of 
the entire group, there are two fissures nearly parallel, strike E. and W., 
and 3 to 8 ft. apart. The schistose rock between these crevices is much 
disturbed and crushed. The foot- wall is well defined, while the hang- 
ing-wall crevice is rarely well defined for any considerable distance. 
The quartz lies in a small vein on the foot- wall side of this crushed rock; 
branching and reticulated veinlets sometimes unite and form a solid 
mass up to 28 in. in width. It is claimed that at one point (inaccessible) 
the vein is 8 ft. wide. W. Collier, of Murphys, owner. 



94 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

Homestead and Guadeloupe Mines (Quartz). — They are in the Glencoe 
District, If miles S.E. of Glencoe, which is largely granitic in character. 
The property was being reopened in the fall of 1893, after a long period 
of idleness. S. Tyson, of Glencoe, Superintendent. 

Hudson Mine (Quartz). — It is on the western side of Central Hill, and 
half a mile N. of North Branch Post Office, 4 miles S.W. of San Andreas. 
The vein is 3 to 5 ft. wide, and dips to the S. A vertical shaft was sunk 
and was continued in the foot- wall, but no cross-cut was ever run to cut 
the vein. M. Angels, of San Andreas, owner. 

Ilex Mine (Quartz). — It lies between Mokelumne Hill and West Point. 
See our VIHth Report, p. 135. Idle. 

Illinois Mine ( Quartz ).— It is 6 miles S. of San Andreas. See our 
Xth Report, p. 149. After a long period of idleness work was resumed 
late in 1893. Ben Thorne, of San Andreas, owner. 

Iron Rock Mine (Quartz). — This is on the northern slope of Carson 
Hill. The name is derived from the occurrence of a vein of hematite in 
the fissure. It has been explored for pockets only. Richard Cohen, of 
Vallecito, owner. 

Jones Mine (Quartz). — See Carson Creek. 

Keltz Mine (Quartz). — It is 4 miles N.E. of West Point, and is in gran- 
ite similar to the Eureka and Blazing Star mines. In operation in 1893. 
O. A. Peaseley, of West Point, Superintendent. 

Kentucky House Mine (Quartz). — This is 2 -J miles S. of San Andreas, 
on the Copperopolis road. It is a new prospect, and has a shaft 60 ft. 
deep. John SeifTort, of San Andreas, owner. 

Lamphyre Mine (Quartz). — It is a short distance N. of the Moser Mine, 
and covered by an agricultural patent, although a promising prospect. 

Lane and Tulloch Mine (Quartz). — See Matson. 

Last Chance Mine (Quartz). — On the southeastern slope of Carson Hill. 
Adjoins the South Carolina. James Wood, of San Andreas, owner. 

Lewis Mine (Quartz). — See Gold Hill. 

Lone Star Mine (Quartz). — This property, which also includes the Reed 
& Hillary vein, is 2-| miles W. of West Point. It is the largest property 
being operated at present in this section. The veins, of which there are 
two important ones, are 50 to 140 ft. apart, strike a little E. of N., and 
dip generally to the W. The inclosing rock is hornblendic granite of 
normal type. The linear extent of the workings exceeds 7,000 ft. The 
bunches of quartz which constitute the vein occur as replacements in 
the granite, crushed between a series of fault planes, some of which are 
nearly perpendicular and parallel, and a second series which pitch to the 
W. at an angle of 15° to 40°. The ore shoots have a pitch to the N. at 
an angle of 30°. The sulphide minerals are iron, zinc, and lead; a large 
percentage of the iron pyrites (pyrrhotite) are magnetic, and seriously 
disturb the working of the magnetic needle. See our Xth Report, p. 152. 
Lone Star Mining Company, owners; M. Hurley, of San Francisco, Presi- 
dent. 

Louisa Mine (Quartz). — This is 3 miles W. of Murphy s. A cross-cut 
tunnel 120 ft. long has been driven to the vein, and a drift 300 ft. long 
was run on the vein, when it encountered caved ground in an old shaft. 
The veins are small but rich. The fissures have a branching tendency. 
Granite dikes accompany all the veins. The formation is mica schist 
and quartzite. The dike rock at times appears to cut the quartz out 
entirely. Carley Bros., of Murphys, owners. 



GOLD — CALAVERAS COUNTY. 95 

Matson (Lane and Tulloch) Mine (Quartz). — This is in the townsite 
of Angels, and is the south extension of the Gold Cliff. See our Xth 
and Xlth Reports, pp. 59, 151, and 171. The property is being actively 
worked. The shaft is between 900 and 1,000 ft. deep, the greatest 
depth reached in this vicinity (the collar of the shaft is nearly 200 ft. 
lower than that of the Utica-Stickles). The rock extracted in prospect- 
ing keeps 20 stamps in constant operation. The " reserves " are very 
extensive. The reported expense of mining and milling is but little 
over $1 per ton. This mine uses the waste water from the Utica hoists 
and mill. A 32 ft. overshot wheel supplies power to the mill, and a 
hurdy wheel runs the hoist. Two Frue and two Tulloch concentrators 
save the coarser sulphurets, no attempt being made to save the slimes. 
Hayward & Lane, of Angels, owners. 

Mayflower (Banner) Mine (Quartz). — It is 1^ miles W. of Murphy s. 
After a long idleness this mine is being reopened. There are two veins, 
one of which is called the "Mayflower" and the other the " Banner." 
The formation is mica schist and quartzite. The veins strike nearly 
E. and W. and dip 85° N. They conform to the strike and dip of the 
exclosing rocks. The Mayflower vein is 4 ft. wide. There are several 
smaller veins lying back in the foot-wall, which may join the main 
fissure in depth. Two shafts are being sunk on the Mayflower vein, 
600 ft. apart, and a level is being run to connect them, 118 ft. from the 
surface in the deeper shaft. A cross-cut is also being run on the level 
to cut the Banner ledge, which lies north of the Mayflower. The Total 
Wreck and Beatrice claims also lie north of the Mayflower. An old 
tunnel, 400 ft. long, running across a portion of the Beatrice ground, 
has been reopened and is being driven in through the Total Wreck, and 
will be continued to a connection with the workings on the Banner and 
Mayflower veins. New hoists have been built and active mining 
operations on a large scale inaugurated. W. S. Edwards, of Murphys, 
Superintendent. 

McQuaid Mine (Quartz). — See Dodson. 

Melone's Mine (Quartz). — This claim is on the " Mother Lode," on the 
southern slope of Carson Hill, near Robinson's Ferry. After producing 
a large amount of gold from pockets, work was abandoned and the mine 
has now lain idle for years. It produced several varieties of telluride, 
among them being the rare melonite (telluride of nickel). Geo. W. 
Grayson, of San Francisco, owner. 

Morgan Mine (Quartz). — It is on the "Mother Lode," at the summit 
of Carson Hill. See our IXth and Xth Reports, pp. 37 and 57. Jas. 
G. Fair & Co., of San Francisco, owners. 

Moser Mine (Quartz). — This is situated on Spring Gulch, within a 
mile of Mokelumne Hill. The workings are immediately under a por- 
tion of the Tunnel Ridge gravel channel, and all above the level of the 
tunnel. Two veins, 4 or 5 ft. apart, and ranging from a few inches to 
6 ft. in width, are being mined. The country rock is slate. A dike 
accompanies the vein, and it is said that on the contact the rock is 
richer. The sulphurets (2 to 3 per cent) are iron, lead, and zinc. The 
quartz is crushed in a new 10-stamp mill, provided with concentrators. 
W. T. Harris & Co., of Mokelumne Hill, owmers. 

Moser Mine (Hydraulic). — This claim, on Tunnel Ridge channel, is 
on the east side of Spring Gulch, near the Moser Quartz Mine. W. T. 
Harris & Co., of Mokelumne Hill, owners. 



96 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

Moyle Mine (Drift). — It is 2 miles S.E. of Vallecito, on the Cataract 
channel. J. Moyle, of Vallecito, owner. 

New York Mine (Quartz). — This is 2 miles N.E. of Railroad Flat. 
The vein is from 8 to 12 in. in width. It contains iron and copper 
sulphurets and occasionally galena. It has a small hoist and mill. 
James Prentice, of Stockton, owner. 

Norfolk Mine (Drift). — This claim is a mile S.E. of Murphys. The 
channel is much disturbed, portions of it -standing vertically, and all 
parts of the deposit standing at a high angle, and are much broken. 
The extent of the workings is too limited to discover the cause of this 
disturbance, but it appears to be partly due to the intrusion of igneous 
material and faulting of the rocks. The mine is worked through an 
incline shaft 200 ft. deep, and has a well-arranged hoisting and sluic- 
ing plant. T. B. Morse, of Murphys, Superintendent. 

North Trojan Mine (Quartz). — See Trojan. 

Oro y Plata Mine (Quartz). — This is located on the hillside just N.W. 
of Murphys. It is equipped with a complete hoisting and milling plant, 
but is now idle. . Frank Morse, of Murphys, Superintendent. 

Particelli Mine (Quartz). — This is a new "prospect," 3 miles W. of 
Mokelumne Hill. A small force of men is employed. Colonel Robin- 
son, of Mokelumne Hill, Superintendent. 

Phillips Mine (Hydraulic). — This claim is 3 miles N.E. of Mokelumne 
Hill. It is owned by residents of the town, and was actively worked 
n 1893. C. M. Burleson & Co., of Mokelumne Hill, owners. 

Quaker City Mine (Quartz). — It is 3 miles S.W. of Mokelumne Hill. 
See our VHIth Report, page 144. The only work in progress was that 
of keeping the pumps in motion, retimbering, and maintaining accessi- 
bility. A. Knell, of Mokelumne Hill, Superintendent. 

Rathgeb-Union Group of Mines (Quartz). — This property is on Cala- 
veritas Creek, 3 miles S.E. of San Andreas. See our Xth Report, p. 63. 
W. Holland, of San Andreas, Superintendent. 

Reed & Hillary Mine (Quartz). — See Lone Star. 

Reserve Mine (Quartz). — It is on the eastern side of Carson Hill, near 
the summit of the mountain. See our Xth Report, p. 58. George W. 
Grayson, of San Francisco, owner. 

Riverside Mine (Quartz). — This is 2| miles W. of West Point, on the 
same vein and adjoining the Lone Star on the S. It was idle in 
October, 1893, but work was about to be resumed. F. J. Severns, of 
West Point, owner. 

Safe Deposit Mine (Quartz). — See Smith's Flat and our Xlth Report, 
p. 172. Charles Smyth, of Angels, owner. 

Sheep Ranch Mine (^Quartz). — This property is in the town of Sheep 
Ranch. Described in our Vlth, VHIth, and Xlth Reports, pp. 30, 131, 
and 175. The shaft is somewhat deeper since then, but otherwise the 
conditions are unchanged. W. H. Clary, of Sheep Ranch, Superin- 
tendent. 

Shenandoah Mine (Quartz). — This property is 9 miles N.E. of San 
Andreas, on the north side of Jesus Maria Creek, and is reached by road 
via El Dorado. The country rock is hydro-mica schist and quartzite, 
east of which is an area of amphibole rocks and diorite; these rocks 
strike N.W. The system of fissures constituting the Shenandoah Mine 
strike N. 25° E. and dip 80° E. The vein has a decided branching tend- 
ency, and is accompanied by dike rocks of fine granular texture. The 



GOLD — CALAVERAS COUNTY. 97 

-vein is usually banded where more than 6 in. in width. The central 
portion of the vein, which extends over two spurs of the main ridge, has, 
by the weight of the mountain, here bent over to the E., giving it a dip 
of 50° to 65° W. It may be that the torsion of the rocks has resulted in 
a fault, but as yet it has not been discovered. The best portion of the 
property lies at the north end, but it is too far distant from the mill for 
economical operation. A lack of pressure or insufficiency of water also 
puts the property at a disadvantage. The mine is in active operation. 
See our Xlth Report, p. 176. This mine is owned by an Oakland 
company, with offices in the Masonic Building. 

Sheridan Mine (Quartz). — This is a new "prospect," one fourth of a 
mile below Robinson's Ferry, on the Stanislaus River. The vein, from 
2 to 10 ft. wide, may be considered as belonging to the " Mother Lode" 
series. It has a clean, well-defined hanging-wall, but no foot-wall, the 
vein striking out into the black slate in many veinlets. The quartz is 
splintery and stained with iron oxides and azurite. It is being devel- 
oped. Thomas Richards, of Robinson's Ferry, owner. 

Sloane Mine (Drift). — This claim is on the Cataract channel, 2\ miles 
S.E. of Vallecito. It is being worked continuously. Sloane & Sons, of 
Vallecito, owners. 

Smith's Flat District. — In a general way all the veins of this region 
are quite similar, being veins and lenses of quartz in slaty, splintery, 
and schistose diabase, altered to chloritic and talcose schists. Reticu- 
lated systems of small quartz veins are also common. The principal 
mines are the Blair Consolidated, Eclipse, Gold Hill, Safe Deposit, 
Smyth (formerly Suffolk), Star of India, Turner, and Yellowstone. 
There are three parallel zones of gold-bearing rock. The Star of India 
is on the west, the Blair, Turner, Eclipse, and Gold Hill on the central, 
and the Smyth on the east zone. Still farther east are the Gold Cliff 
and Utica systems. See our Xth Report, p. 60. 

Smyth (Suffolk) Mine (Quartz). — See Smith's Flat District and our 
VIHth Report, p. 126. A cross-cut was being made in 1893. Chas. 
Smyth & Co., of Angels, owners. 

South Carolina Mine (Quartz). — This is on the southeastern slope of 
Carson Hill, and is working. W. H. Worden, of Angels, owner. 

Spring Gulch Mine (Placer). — This claim is on Spring Gulch, 3 miles 
N.W. of San Andreas, and is opened on a recent alluvial deposit, which 
is "piped" loose and shoveled into sluices. In active operation, and 
said to pay handsomely. J. S. White, of San Andreas, owner. 

Star of India Mine (Quartz). — See Smith's Flat District. 

Stickles Mine (Quartz). — See Utica. 

Suffolk Mine (Quartz). — This property is one fourth of a mile E. of 
€arson Hill, on two broad zones of gold-bearing quartz and talcose and 
chloritic schists. The mineral zones are each about 50 ft. in width, and 
separated by nearly 50 ft. of diabase. With the larger masses of quartz 
intrusive dikes occur. Nothing has been done here except superficial 
work. I. Copeland, of Vallecito, owner. 

Suffolk (Smyth) Mine (Quartz). — See Smith's Flat District. Chas. 
•Smyth & Co., of Angels, owners. 

Teirakoff Mine (Quartz). — See Crown Point. 

Total Wreck Mine (Quartz). — See Mayflower. 



98 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

Trojan and North Trojan Mines (Quartz). — These are 3 miles N.W. of 
West Point, on the north side of Mokelumne River, and on the " Lone 
Star " vein. Wilson & Co., of West Point, owners. 

Try on Mine (Quartz). — It is 3 miles S.E. of Angels, and described in 
our Vlllth Report, p. 129. Chas. Tryon, of Angels, owner. 

Tulloch Mine (Quartz). — Thi^ is about 1\ miles S.E. of Angels, and is 
on the "Mother Lode" series, being a zone of quartz veins in magnesian 
schists. Some of the quartz is rich in gold. A new shaft was being 
sunk m 1893. Calcite and mariposite also frequently occur in the veins. 
Jas. Tulloch, of Angels, owner. 

Turner Mine (Quartz). — See Smith's Flat District. 

Utica- Stickles Mine (Quartz). — These properties are in the town of 
Angels, and have been heretofore described in our Vlth, Vlllth, Xth, 
and Xlth Reports, pp. 28, 122, 150, and 171. The general geological 
structure of this section is described in our Xth Report, p. 60. The 
mineral belt, or " Mother Lode," in this part of Calaveras County has a 
width of 3 miles, from the Birney Mine on the east to the Star of India 
Mine on the west. The shafts of the Utica and Stickles mines are now 
(1893) 1,000 and 1,100 ft. deep, respectively. The three shafts start on 
the vein at the surface, but at a depth of 500 ft. the vein takes a some- 
what lesser dip, but the shafts continue at the same angle in the foot- 
wall. The stopes of this mineral zone are from 10 to more than 100 ft. 
wide. In these broad portions are found ribs or masses of rock contain- 
ing little or no gold. The entire gold-bearing zone, as it must be called 
in contradistinction to a simple vein, consists of a great mass of altered 
diabase, which by shearing and pressure has been rendered splintery or 
slaty, and subsequently altered to chloritic and talcose schists, with the 
infiltration of much silica into the magnesian rocks, and the replacement 
of large masses of crushed diabase by solid massive quartz. Both the 
quartz lenses, bunches, and veins, and the magnesian schists, contain 
gold and auriferous pyrites. 

Between masses of quartz are frequently seen irregular bunches, and 
often reticulated veins, of quartz. Perfect series of transition rocks, from 
normal diabase to a typical talcose schist, may be obtained in almost 
any portion of the mine. Power drills are used. With an Ingersoll 
drill a drift 8 by 8 ft. was run 196 ft. in thirty days, working three eight- 
hour shifts. The timber used in these mines is exclusively round and 
mostly large size; few sticks being under 18 in. in diameter in the main 
sets and many being 24 in. and 30 in. Sprags are 12 to 16 in. The 
cost in timbering is approximately 30 cents per ton of ore extracted. In 
good ground headings are made without timbering, but it is usually 
found safer, and a better plan, to timber as fast as excavation proceeds. 

The manner of lowering timbers into this mine is interesting, but is 
only possible in shafts that are vertical, or nearly so, without construct- 
ing a slide or chute. The timbers, sawed to the proper length, are deliv- 
ered at the collar of the shaft. A number of chains, about 8 ft. in 
length, provided with a dog at each end, are at hand; a workman selects 
a chain, drives a dog into one side somewhat above the middle of the 
timber, passes the chain over the end of the log and down the opposite 
side, where the other end is secured by driving that dog into the log. 
A rope 5 ft. in length, with a spike at one end, is secured to the oppo- 
site end of the log by driving the spike well in. At a convenient time 
the skip is hoisted above the collar of the shaft and a hook is caught 



GOLD — CALAVERAS COUNTY. 99 

into the ring in the chain. The engineer hoists slowly until the heavy 
timber hangs suspended over the shaft, the rope at the bottom being 
used to steady it, and also to land it at any desired level. This is found 
to be a convenient method of handling the timbers, and does away with 
the necessity of block and tackle at the several stations. There is no 
loss of time and no interference with the use of the skips for other 
purposes by this method. 

The absence of waste dumps at the Utica is noticeable. All waste 
broken in sinking the shafts and in all dead work is utilized in filling 
up old stopes, and as the amount obtained from these sources is insuffi- 
cient, considerable waste is taken from the walls, large chambers being 
excavated for this sole purpose in the hard diabase. There are 350 men 
employed in the mine, reduction works, etc. Miners' wages are $3; 
shovelers and other underground laborers, $2 50. Hayward, Lane & 
Co., of Angels, owners. 

Uptograph (Buckminster) Mine (Drift). — This claim is at Douglas 
Flat, 6 miles N.E. from Angels. It is on the Central Hill channel, and 
was formerly worked by the hydraulic method. An upper ''lead" is 
now being drifted upon, with good results. T. Uptograph, of Murphys, 
owner. 

Vallecito Consolidated Mines (Drift and Hydraulic). — These are located 
between Douglas Flat and Vallecito, and comprise a valuable tract of 
land. The company owning these mines contemplate the driving of a 
tunnel 7,000 ft. in length to drain them, the construction of a ditch 
and flume 26 miles in length, and the building of storage reservoirs in 
the mountains. I. Copeland, of Vallecito, Superintendent. 

Washington Mine (Quartz). — It is 5 miles N. of Murphys, but it has 
not been worked for several years. 

Water Lily Mine (Quartz). — See Blazing Star. 

West Point District. — This is an interesting district, geologically. The 
mines are in a granite belt striking N. and S., and is at least 6 or 7 
miles wide. Southward the granite appears to alter into dioritic and 
hornblendic rock; its northern limits are not known further than that 
the granite extends 6 or 8 miles N. from West Point. Through the 
granitic area numerous dikes of fine-grained, dark-green diorite are 
found, having an E. and W. course. Dikes of diorite of light greenish- 
gray color and coarse texture also occur, striking nearly N. and S. 
These latter appear to be the older, and often accompany important 
veins of the district. 

A strange idea prevails in this region, viz.: that the granite is a "cap" 
rock, beneath which may be found serpentine and slates, and that the 
veins under the granite will be found larger, richer, and more permanent 
with increase in depth. That such was not the case was amply proven 
by a careful geological investigation of the region. The basis for this 
remarkable theory was discovered, however, in the Crown Point, Teira- 
koff, and Champion mines (on the "Champion dike"), the latter being 
formerly a large producer, but now idle. 

Whittle Mine (Quartz). — It is 1 mile W. of Carson Hill. John B. 
Reddick, of San Andreas, owner. 

Willard Mine (Quartz). — It is half a mile E. of Murphys. While in 
fact a quartz vein or series of veins, it was formerly worked by the 
hydraulic method, as are the "seam diggings" in El Dorado County. 
See our Vlth Report (Part II), p. 35. 



100 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

Yellowstone Mine (Quartz). — See Smith's Flat District and our Xlth 
Report, p. 172. Chas. Smyth, of Angels, owner. 

COLUSA COUNTY. 

Although chiefly one of the richest agricultural counties, yet a portion 
of its revenues are derived from the mining of gold and quicksilver ores 
found in the rolling hills adjacent to Lake County. That this work has 
been intermittent lies partly in the peculiar occurrence of these ores, 
making their profitable exploiting a matter of close financiering and 
complex workings. Of late the increased facilities of transportation 
have encouraged the opening of good quarries and the manufacture of 
salt. Valuable mineral springs may also be counted among the wealth 
producers of this section. 

Clyde Mine (Quartz). — This is situated in Sulphur Creek Mining 
District. Only " prospect work " was done at this mine during 1893-94. 
See our Xlth Report, p. 183. 

Keely Mine (Quartz). — This is in the Sulphur Creek District. See 
our Xlth Report, p. 184. 

Manzanita Mine (Quartz). — See Manzanita Quicksilver and Gold 
Mine. 

DEL NORTE COUNTY. 

Bald Hill Mine (Placer). — Several parties are working it in a small 
way. The pay gravel is over 6 ft. deep, and is said to pay well through- 
out. 

Big Flat Mine (Hydraulic). — This claim lies on Hurdy Gurdy Creek, 
and contains 640 acres of gravel. The mine has yielded a large amount 
of gold, but is idle at present. The ditches were destroyed several 
years ago by excessive rains, and have never been repaired or rebuilt. 

Craig 1 s Creek. — The bars along this creek are rich throughout. Mining, 
however, is limited to the cradle and rocker, the creek bed only being 
worked. The land is patented to the lumber firms and is not obtain- 
able by the miner at present. Bernard Purnische, of Crescent City, 
owner. 

Miller Mine (Hydraulic). — It is on Smith River, 6 miles E. of Crescent 
City. A ditch and pipe-line are now under construction, and work will 
soon be resumed. R. W. Miller, of Crescent City, owner. 

Musick Mine (Placer). — This lies below and adjoining the Miller Mine, 
and is worked by both sluice and rocker. The gravel, from 1 to 4 feet 
deep, is trammed by car to the sluice, where it is washed by water raised 
from the river by a current wheel. Besides gold, platinum is found in 
the clean-up. Ben Musick, of Crescent City, owner. 

Preston Peak (Quartz). — Quite a flurry was caused some time ago by 
the discovery of gold quartz in this vicinity, and no doubt some good 
veins occur in the neighborhood, as many rich specimens were brought 
in, but owing to its inaccessibility, developments have been retarded. 

Rice's Mine (Placer). — It lies on Mill Creek, and contains 20 acres of 
a bar; it is worked in a small way by sluicing. The gold, being coarse, 
lies exclusively on the bedrock; the gravel is practically worthless. H. 
Rice, of Crescent City, owner. 

Yates' Beach Mine. — One mile S. of Crescent City, Mr. Yates is washing 
the beach sands. About 50 in. of water are brought through a flume 








I 



GOLD — DEL NORTE AND EL DORADO COUNTIES. 101 

12 by 12 in. to the washer. The beach at this place is littered with logs 
and driftwood, and the sand taken out from among them is shoveled 
into wheelbarrows and dumped on the washing machine, which consists 
of a table 3 ft. wide and 11 ft. long. From there the mixture flows onto 
another table 6 by 8 ft., which tends to more evenly distribute it over 
the whole surface. The lower end of this table consists of a screen of 
sheet-iron, with £ in. punched holes, where the gravel, driftwood, etc., are 
retained. The clean sand then flows over corrugated plates 6 ft. long, 
set at an angle of 14°, and thence onto a table covered with coarse 
blanket, and having a square well 4 in. deep at its upper and lower 
ends to catch escaping quicksilver. There are three men employed to 
wheel sand and one man keeps the screens clear and tends to the 
machine. It is said that about $5 is taken out to the man employed. 
A. L. Yates, of Crescent City, owner. 

EL DORADO COUNTY. 

This county is as well supplied with gold-bearing veins as any part 
of the mineral belt, and is equally well furnished with facilities for water 
power, and better than some as regards timber. The formations do not 
show the same regularity which is found along the " Mother Lode" in 
the counties south; the slates have in part been greatly crushed and 
altered, and the granitic rocks come lower down the ridges. It is in 
this county that the so-called seam diggings have found their greatest 
development, furnishing a large proportion of the gold output of the 
county with comparatively small outlay for permanent plants, making 
it possible for men of small means to engage profitably in the mining 
business. There is considerable of this kind of ground still awaiting 
the miner's advent. Unfortunately, agricultural patents covering these, 
in a measure put a barrier in the way of the prospector, and lose to the 
community the possibility of an increased output of gold from this 
direction. 

During the writer's stay in Georgetown, parties plowing a field below 
town turned up quartz from a seam that yielded $400 in gold, showing 
that in many parts the wealth below is more valuable than the product 
of the surface. 

For years the county has not received the attention that its mineral 
wealth merits, but the success attending the deeper explorations in the 
Taylor, Springfield, Church, Big Canon, Gentle Annie, and other mines 
should be an encouragement to other operators to delve deeper in their 
now idle mines. 

Adam's Gulch Mine (Quartz). — It is 2 miles N. of Nashville, and is 
1,500 by 600 ft. It shows a 2 ft. vein of quartz with a N. and S. course, 
on which two shafts have been sunk about 100 ft. deep. J. C. Heald, 
of Nashville, owner. 

Alpine Mine (Quartz). — See our VHIth Report, p. 167. 

Argonaut Mine (Quartz). — See our Xth Report, p. 176. 

Armstrong & Roberts Mine (Drift). — It is 3-J miles S. of Grizzly Flat, 
and contains 30 acres of ground. A channel 60 ft. wide runs through 
the ground in a N.E. and S.W. course, and is tapped by a tunnel 600 ft. 
in length. The channel is lava-capped. Pay gravel 5 ft. thick. The 
bedrock and most of the bowlders are granitic. One man works the 



102 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

claim, washing the extracted gravel two or three times a year. W. T. 
Armstrong and — Roberts, of Grizzly Flat, owners. 

Aultman Mine (Quartz). — It is situated 2 miles E. of Greenwood, and 
is supposed to be on the same vein as the Idlewild Mine. It is 1,500 by 
600 ft. of patented ground. The vein courses nearly N. and S., with 
slate and diabase walls, pitching slightly to the E. The walls contain 
considerable lime; small stalactites having formed in the drifts. The 
croppings have been exploited by an open cut over 30 ft. deep; a cross- 
cut tunnel driven at an expense of $35 per foot has penetrated 500 ft., 
cutting the ledge 250 ft. below the croppings; at this point a shaft was 
sunk 35 ft. deep and drifts turned both N. and S. about 25 ft. The vein 
is 103 ft. wide between walls. The quartz is milk white and carries 
some iron sulphurets. The 2-stamp mill and office buildings have been 
destroyed by fire. Water power is available. Timber is plentiful. John 
Smith, of Greenwood, owner. 

Bald Eagle Mine (Quartz). — See Crown Point Mine. 

Baldwin Mine (Quartz). — It is 2 miles E. of Nashville, in T. 8 N.. R. 
10 E., and is 3,000 by 300 ft. The vein, 7 ft. wide, runs a little W. of 
N., and lies E. of the main "Mother Lode"; it dips toward the' E. at 
an angle of about 60°; the walls are slate and porphyry. The vein 
carries 0.5 per cent sulphurets. Two shafts, supplied with steam hoisting 
works, have been sunk 175 ft. and 60 ft. deep, respectively, and drifts 
turned from the former. One foot of gouge accompanies the vein. They 
usually employ 7 men. E. J. Baldwin, of San Francisco, owner. 

Barnes Mine (Quartz). — It is 2-J miles N.E. of Shingle Springs. The 
vein lies on the contact of serpentine and hornblende porphyry. Con- 
siderable work has been done on the surface along this contact, as shown 
by the numerous shallow openings, although but little quartz appears. 
The main workings consist of several shafts. This and other mines on 
this belt produce much telluride of gold. H. L. Robinson, of Placer- 
ville, owner. 

Base Bonanza Mine (Quartz). — Located in Sec. 32, T. 12 N., R. 10 E. 
Well defined ledge; east wall diorite and west wall serpentine. 

Beattie & Parsons Consolidated Mine (Seam Digging). — See our Xlth 
Report, p. 203. It is situated at Georgia Slide, 1-J miles N. of George- 
town, in Sees. 3 and 34, Tps. 12 and 13 N., R. 10 E., and contains 60 
acres on the south bank of Canon Creek, on the porphyry seam belt. It 
is worked as a placer, the pit being about 150 ft. deep. The formation 
is traversed by slates and schists, and intercepted by numerous gold- 
bearing quartz seams, varying in width from almost nothing to several 
inches. The mass containing these seams is loosened by blasting and 
washed through 1,500 ft. of sluices, set on a grade of from 14 to 18 in. 
per box of 16 ft.; these being lined with 8 in. wooden blocks. If any 
gold is seen in the quartz, it is laid to one side and crushed in the hand 
mortar, but necessarily many such pieces escape and are washed into 
Canon Creek. The upper boxes are cleaned up once or twice a week, 
and the remainder three or four times a season. Many of the slates in 
this belt carry from $2 to $3 per ton, mostly in coarse gold, which sells 
for $18 50 per ounce. Beattie & Parsons Consolidated Placer Mining 
Company, owners; C. Beattie, Superintendent. 

Benfeldt Mine (Drift).— See our VHIth and Xth Reports, pp. 187 
and 197. 

Berry Mine (Quartz). — See True Consolidated. 



GOLD EL DORADO COUNTY. 108 

Bidstrup Mine (Quartz). — It is in Logtown, and is a small claim, 
800 by 400 ft. F. T. Bidstrup, of Mud Springs, owner. 

Big Canon (Oro Fino) Mine (Quartz). — See our VIII th Report, p. 
174. It is situated 5 miles S. of Shingle Springs, and has been newly 
equipped with steam and water hoisting works, air compressor, 20-stamp 
mill, and chlorination plant. The ore body is quite peculiar, and while 
it has its counterparts in several smaller ones in the vicinity, yet it is 
very different from the ordinary type of gold-bearing quartz veins. As 
shown in an open cut made on the croppings, the ore body occurs in 
the form of an immense lens, having an extreme width on the surface 
of more than 100 ft. and tapering toward both ends. The ends are not 
reached in the cut, which is 400 to 500 ft. long. This opening is 20 ft. 
deep in places, extending down to the undecomposed ore. The upper 
part of the material taken out was sluiced. At the time of examination, 
in October, 1893, the three-compartment shaft had reached a depth of 
215 ft., costing over $40 per foot, and cutting through the ore body 70 ft. 
The dip is a little less than 40° to the E.; the strike about N. and S. As 
far as the developments have gone, the hanging-wall has been found to be 
a serpentine schist, quite loose and difficult to hold up, while the foot-wall 
is a greenstone schist, judged to have resulted from the decay of a diorite 
or diabase dike. On the 100 ft. level a great chamber fully 100 ft. across 
has been excavated out of the massive ore body. No timber is used, 
the roof being held up by pillars of ore. On the hanging-wall several feet 
of ore is left to hold back the soft serpentine. An examination of this ore 
body shows it to be a very hard, compact, and fine-grained mass of gray 
quartz, which is thickly sprinkled with small but regular crystals of iron 
pyrites. Gold occurs both in the free state and in combination with sul- 
phurets. The ore carries from 8 to 1 per cent of sulphurets. The ore body 
is sharply defined from the hanging-wall, but in places blends into the 
foot-wall in such a manner as to show conclusively that it is not a fissure 
vein in the usual sense, but occurs as a replacement of the green schist. 
Not only were excellent samples found of the gradual transition to this 
green schist by a decrease of the quartz and sulphurets, and an increase of 
the green chloritic matter, but several irregular bodies of ore were observed 
to lie wholly separated from the main one and to present every appearance 
of being replacements. More generally the contact between the ore and 
the foot-wall is rather sharp. The serpentine on the hanging-wall has a 
very limited extent, seeming to swing away from the ledge at both ends; 
on the S. being replaced by black slate, and on the N. by a decomposed 
rock, perhaps originally a diabase. Immediately E. of the serpentine is 
an irregular body of fresh diabase, precisely similar to that so character- 
istic of the " Mother Lode." The number and variety of the dikes in 
almost immediate contact with this ore body is quite remarkable. 

A compressor, with capacity for eight drills, runs two in the shaft and 
one in the drift. Twelve men are engaged in sinking, and seven break 
ore for the mill. A tramway and elevator convey the ore into the mill, 
which is supplied with a rockbreaker and self-feeders. The mill is 
unique, the stamps being of the unusual weight of 1 ,400 lbs., this increase 
being obtained by a boss of 220 lbs. being attached to the upper end of 
the stem; the tappet increased to 345 lbs. with three keys; and the stems 
lengthened by 2 ft. The shoes are chrome steel and weigh between 120 
and 130 lbs.; the dies are iron; the speed is 100 drops per minute, 7 in. 
high. The duty of these stamps is 2 tons each in twenty-four hours. 



104 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

An 8 in. silvered plate is used on the front, inside the battery, and 3 
miner's inches of water is required. 

The apron plates are 14 in. by 4 ft., and each battery is supplied 
with a double set of sluice plates, enabling the cleaning of the same to= 
proceed without hanging up the battery; these sluice plates are 18 in. 
wide by 27 ft. long, and are set on a grade of 3 in. to the foot. The 
batteries, which are cleaned up once a month, produce 30 per cent of 
the amalgam. 

The sulphurets are hauled by wagon to the chlorination works about 
100 yards distant. This plant is built for working 5 tons wet per 
twenty-four hours, using a reverberatory furnace, with single hearth 
75 ft. long and working doors on both sides. Three gas generators and 
four chlorination vats comprise the plant, no silver being saved. The 
concentrates are worked upward of 90 per cent, the gold being .980 fine. 
The tailings are said to assay from $1 to $1 50 per ton. 

The mill and concentrators take power from a 6 ft. Pelton wheel, 
working under 395 ft. pressure. The compressor and hoist are run by 
steam or water, the latter acting on a 6 ft. Dodd's wheel under 300 ft. 
pressure, delivered from the Crawford ditch through an 18 in. pipe. 
Forty men are employed. Big Canon Gold Mining Company, owners; 
G. B. Pierce, Superintendent. 

Big Sandy Mine (Quartz). — See our Xth Report, p. 173. It is situ- 
ated in T. 10 N., R. 11 E., near Kelsey, on the porphyry belt. Big 
Sandy Mining Company, of Kelsey, owners; J. Kelly, Superintendent. 

Bitters Claim (Placer). — This property is situated on Missouri Canon, 
near Volcanoville, and comprises 80 acres of ground. W. Kinny and 
— Morgan, of Georgetown, owners. 

Black Lead Mine (Quartz). — This mine lies 6 miles S. of Shingle 
Springs. It is so termed from the appearance of the quartz, which is 
quite black. As exposed in the old shaft, the vein appears to be inclosed 
in slate. The hoisting works and other buildings have all been burned. 

Blair Mine (Drift). — See our Xth Report, p. 179. 

Blue Rock Mine (Seam). — It is situated at Georgia Slide, adjoining 
the Beattie & Parsons seam mines on the N.E., and working the same 
seam belt. See our Xlth Report, p. 203. Beattie Bros., of Georgetown, 
owners. 

Board Mine (Quartz). — It is half a mile E. of Greenwood, and com- 
prises two claims of 600 by 600 ft., side by side. The vein courses E. 
and W. and dips to the N., showing a 4 ft. vein. A tunnel has been run 
60 ft., cross-cutting the slate; a second tunnel has been started to the 
north. W. Board, of Greenwood, owner. 

Bona Forsa Mine (Quartz). — See our Xth Report, p. 177. 

Boneset Mine (Quartz).— It is in T. 10 N., R. 9 E., 6 miles N. of 
Shingle Springs, near Weber Creek. The property extends three quarters 
of a mile N.E. and S.W. along the vein, which dips N. about 70°. The 
country rock is granite. The vein on the croppings shows a width of 
30 ft. The quartz carries a fair percentage of iron and copper sulphurets, 
and has a lively character. A tunnel 130 ft. in length cross-cuts the 
vein 40 ft. below the croppings. From the Weber Creek side a good 
opportunity is afforded for a deeper tunnel, which would give 350 ft. 
backs. Water power can be brought on the claim. M. E. Gates, of 
Sacramento, owner. 

Bower Mine (Seam). — See our Xlth Report, p. 204. 



GOLD EL DORADO COUNTY. 105 

Brass's Claim (Drift). — See Murzo Mine. 

Bright Hope Mine (Quartz).— It is in Sec. 2, T. 12 N., R. 10 E., in the 
immediate neighborhood of Georgetown, and is a promising " prospect." 
See our Xth Report, p. 177. H. W. Hurlbert, of Georgetown, owner. 

Brown Bear Mine (Quartz). — See our Vlllth Report, p. 182. 

Buckeye Hill Gold Mine (Drift). — It is on Buckeye Hill, 9 miles N.E. 
from Georgetown and 2 miles W. of Yolcanoville. It is an old river 
channel with a N.E. and S.W. course, 2,730 ft. above sea-level, and 
1,000 ft. wide between rim rocks, carrying blue gravel with a red cement 
capping. Facing the American River, the west side of the claim was 
hydraulicked and shows a bank 127 ft. high, with alternating strata of 
gravel and cement; the facilities for impounding are quite favorable and 
the mine could be worked to greater advantage by this method. 

From the east side of the claim a tunnel has been run into the chan- 
nel 200 ft. through the slate rim rock; 150 ft. from the mouth an upraise 
of 35 ft. breaks into the gravel. The channel is quite steep, with a very 
uneven floor. The gravel breasts are 100 ft. wide and 5 ft. high on an 
average, although in places the gravel has been taken out 30 ft. high. 
As timber is scarce, after extracting the bottom gravel, which carries 
coarse gold, the timbers are recovered and the ground allowed to settle, 
losing the top gravel, which carries scaly gold. A bench of the main 
channel supplies the present output of gravel, which amounts to three 
carloads, of 1,500 lbs. each, to the breaster per day. The dump holds 
several hundred carloads. The dirt is washed with water from neigh- 
boring springs through 10 boxes, set on a 13 in. grade to the box, paved 
with slat riffles. The washing occurs once every two or three weeks. 
The gold sells for $17 50 per ounce. J. J. Flora, of Georgetown, owner. 

Burt Alley Claim (Placer). — It is 2 miles below the crossing on Otter 
Creek, of the Georgetown and Volcanoville trail, in T. 13 N., R. 11 E. 
It is 1,320 ft. along the course of the creek by 700 ft. wide. A bedrock 
cut is being blasted up the creek, to work some valuable virgin gravel, 
left from early days. A large amount of big bowlders have to be 
removed. Forni & Smeder, of Georgetown, owners. 

Canon Creek Fluming Company's Mine (Placer). — It is in Sees. 32, 
33, 34, T. 13 N., R. 10 E., 1| miles N. of Georgetown and immediately 
below Georgia Slide. It embraces 1^ miles, or 150 acres, of patented 
ground in the bed of Canon Creek. The ground is a tailings deposit, 
having been the dump from all the Georgia Slide and Oregon Gulch 
mines, which have been working off and on for the last forty years, but 
it also contains 10 to 15 acres of valuable virgin gravel. On account of 
a rocky reef across the creek at the lower end of the claim, all the 
quartz from the Georgia Slide mines has been retained on this ground. 
The company own an excellent water power. G. W. Simpers et al., of 
Greenwood, owners. 

Carrie Hale Mine (Drift). — It is situated at Henry's Diggings, 3| 
miles S. from Grizzly Flat, and contains 260 acres of patented land. 
The channel, which is capped by lava 100 ft. deep, runs N.E. and is 60 
ft. wide, with from 5 in. to 5 ft. of gravel. The bedrock tunnel is 400 
ft. long. The gravel is now being blocked out in 12 ft. breasts, carried 
5^ ft. high, and timbered with single posts and caps. The gravel is 
blue, carrying granite bowlders and resting on a granite bedrock, next 
to which the best pay is found, though some gold is found scattered 
throughout. The gold is worth $17 per ounce. The gravel is washed twice 



106 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

a year, through 12 boxes, slat riffles; the water, which is taken from the 
Cole ditch, costs from $1 50 to $2 per twelve hours. The tailings are 
dumped into the Middle Fork of the Cosumnes River. J. H. Bradley, 
of Placerville, owner; H. C. Roberts, of Grizzly Flat, lessee. 

Cedarberg Mine (Quartz). — This property is situated 2-J miles N. of 
Greenwood, and is 1,500 by 600 ft., through which runs a 2 ft. vein 
between slate walls having a N. and S. course, and an easterly dip at an 
angle of 45°. A shaft has been sunk 300 ft. deep on the vein. E. W. 
Hulford, of Oakland, owner. 

Cement Hill Mine (Drift). — It is 4 miles from Georgetown. A pros- 
pect bedrock tunnel is being run to strike a gravel channel supposed to 
run E. and W. The tunnel, which is in slate, has reached a length of 
550 ft.; at 150 ft. connection was made with the surface, 60 ft. above, 
through an air shaft. The ridge is lava capped. 

Central Mine (Quartz). — See Inez Mine. 

Chester Mine (Quartz). — Southerly extension of the Rose. See our 
VHIth Report, p. 182. 

Chili Ravine Mine (Drift). — Idle. See our VHIth and Xth Reports, 
pp. 194, 179. 

China Hill Mines (Quartz). — They are a mile N.E. of the Big Canon 
Mine. A vast amount of work has been done here, chiefly in the form 
of surface cuts, though there are several tunnels and shafts. The gold is 
found in " pockets" in a N. and S. vein inclosed in hornblende porphyry. 

Church (El Dorado) Mine (Quartz). — This property was described in 
our Vlllth and Xth Reports, pp. 191 and 171, and is situated in T. 10 
N., R. 11 E., 3 miles S. of El Dorado; it is 1,500 by 600 ft., and is one 
of the deepest mines in the county. The present working shaft is a 
three-compartment, using skips; the workings extend from the 400 to 
the 1,000 ft. level. The plant contains a compressor for four Ingersoll 
drills, with an 8 in. Cornish pump, with two jackheads and two plungers. 
The ore from the present workings carries 2^ per cent of sulphurets, 
assaying $140 per ton. 

A new 10-stamp mill has been built; stamps 900 lbs. in weight, 3-J 
in. stems, 14 ft. long, giving 102 drops, of 5 in., per minute; discharge 
7i in. through a No. 40 mesh sheet-tin screen, with a duty of 2 tons per 
stamp in twenty-four hours. The plates consist of an 8 in. piece inside 
the battery; an apron 5 ft. by 5 ft., and 16 ft. of sluice plates 16 in. wide. 
The plates are scraped every day, and the battery cleaned up once a 
month; 75 per cent of the amalgam is taken from the latter. The gold 
is worth $17 per ounce. The mill is provided with three Frue and one 
Johnson concentrator and a Dodge rockbreaker and Challenge self- 
feeders. The entire plant is operated by water power under a 400 ft. 
pressure, furnished from the Crawford ditch. Church Gold Mining 
Company, owners; J. Richards, of El Dorado, Superintendent. 

Church Union (Springfield) Mine (Quartz). — See our Vlth Report 
(Part II), p. 43. Idle. 

Cincinnati Mine (Quartz). — It is 2| miles S. of Placerville, in T. 10 
N., R. 11 E. The claim is 1,300 by 600 ft. and the vein is supposed to 
be the same as the Epley, on the opposite side of Weber Creek. M. 
Miller and D. J. Knighton, of Diamond Springs, owners. 

Cinnamon Bear Mine (Quartz). — Two miles N. of Placerville. Idle. 

Collins & Patterson Claim (Placer). — This prospect is situated on the 
porphyry seam belt 2 miles N.E. of Georgetown, on Canon Creek. Two 
men are sinking a shaft. Collins & Patterson, of Georgetown, owners. 



GOLD — EL DORADO COUNTY. 



107 



Cousin Jack Mine (Quartz). — It is situated 5 miles S.W. of Grizzly 
Flat. It comprises 1,500 by 600 ft., with a N. and S. vein, dipping W. 
about 60°, and varying in width from 1 to 4 ft. The walls are slate. 
About 400 ft. to the E. is the contact with granite. Three tunnels have 
run on the vein; the deepest, 400 ft. long, gives 300 ft. backs; No. 2, 250 
ft. above, is 300 ft. long; from this a winze 70 feet deep has been sunk 
on good-paying ore. The pay shoot pitches N., and is richest where the 
vein is narrow. Cole's ditch runs 300 ft. above the mine. About an 
inch of water runs from the tunnel. Timber is abundant. Mrs. M. 
Jeffrey, of Grizzly Flat, owner. 

Crown Point (Bald Eagle) Mining Claim (Quartz). — It is 1^ miles 
S.E. of Diamond Springs, in Sly Ravine, 800 ft. E. of the Church Mine, 
and is 1,500 by 600 ft. The vein has a course N. 20° W., dip nearly 
vertical, within black slate walls. On the surface a number of small 
quartz stringers crop out. A two-compartment vertical shaft has been 
sunk. The present owners do only assessment work. The quartz carries 
some good looking sulphurets. J. Richards, A. Koch, and J. W. Estes, 
of Diamond Springs, owners. 

Crystal Mine (Quartz).— It is in T. 9 N., R. 13 E., on the Middle 
Fork of the Cosumnes River, 5 miles S. from Grizzly Flat. There are 
four claims in the property. The 
Mountain Quail vein is in line with 
the Stillwagon vein, running E. and 
W., as do the Crystal and North 
Creole veins. The Creole vein is 
more N. and S., with a nearly ver- 
tical dip, whereas the others dip to 
the S.: the Crystal about 70°, and 
the Mountain Quail nearly verti- _ „ ^ - „„r~ 

cal. There are 1,200 ft. on the *™ or Cxvstal Mine, El dorado Co. 

Mountain Quail, 3,000 ft. on the Creole, and 3,200 ft. on the Crystal. 
Width of Creole, 4 ft.; Crystal, 4 to 6 ft., and Mountain Quail, from 3 to 10 
ft. All these veins are in hard granite. In the Crystal the vein matter is 
not all quartz; along the foot- wall is the principal ore body. The Crystal 
has a shaft 250 ft. deep, and- two drifts (65 ft. apart) 500 and 900 ft. 
long, and four ore shoots pitching W. The Mountain Quail has two 
ore shoots, varying in length from 50 to 150 ft. The North Creole has 
two ore shoots; the pay streak being 2 ft. thick; the shaft is 70 ft. deep. 
A main working tunnel (said to have cost $80,000) has been driven by 
hand 1,208 ft. through solid granite to the Crystal vein, and is to be 
continued along that vein until it reaches the Mountain Quail. At 
present the mouth of the tunnel is caved and the tunnel filled with 
water. In the main tunnel an air shaft connects with the surface 200 
ft. from the mouth, and where the tunnel intersects the North Creole 
a winze is sunk 65 ft. deep. 

An 8-sta.mp mill, with 650 lb. stamps, belongs to the property and is 
driven by water power acting under 200 ft. pressure on an 8 ft. Hurdy 
wheel. The company owns the water power. Its ditch is \\ miles 
long. The mill is supplied with 16 ft. of apron and sluice plates, set on 
a grade of 2 in. to the foot, followed by 36 ft. of blanket sluices. L. L. 
Alexander, of Ohio Ranch, owner. 

Crystal Mine (Quartz). — It is 3-§ miles S. of Shingle Springs, in Sec. 
28, T. 9 N., R. 10 E. The claim is 1,220 by 600 ft., and has a N. and S. 




108 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

vein 3 ft. wide, dipping E. 50° between slate walls. An incline shaft 
250 ft. deep, with steam hoist, connects with a tunnel below. A cross- 
cut tunnel, 70 ft. below the collar of the shaft, 350 ft. long, conveys the 
ore to the level of the hill. The latter has 10 stamps of 650 lbs. weight, 
and is worked by water power from the Crawford ditch under 112 ft. 
head, applied to two Pelton wheels of 4 ft. and 8 in. in diameter; the latter 
for the concentrators. The percentage of sulphurets in the ore is large. 
Idle. G. Phelps et al., of Mud Springs, owners. 

Dailey Mine (Quartz). — It is on Clear Creek, 3 miles S. of Grizzly Flat. 
The claim is 3,000 by 600 ft., and shows a vein from 18 in. to 3 ft. wide, 
carrying a fair percentage of iron sulphurets, and striking N. and S. 
A tunnel started on the banks of Clear Creek has been driven on the 
vein 600 ft. At the mouth of the tunnel is a small rotary stamp used 
for prospecting purposes. Dailey et al., of Grizzly Flat, owners. 

Dalmatia Mine (Quartz). — This property has been fully described in 
our VHIth, Xth, and Xlth Reports, pp. 177, 174, and 201. It is 8 miles 
N.W. of Placerville. Now idle, but to be reopened shortly. American 
River Syndicate (Limited), owners; C. G. Pearson, of Kelsey, Superin- 
tendent. 

Darling Mine (Quartz). — See our Xlth Report, p. 202. Idle. 

Davidson Mine (Quartz). — This old mine lies 3 miles N.W. of El 
Dorado, on the eastern edge of the slate belt which runs north from Big 
Canon. A 20-stamp mill was put up on this property many years ago for 
working a vein situated 100 ft. W. of the contact in the slate. On the 
contact is a large vein which has been worked but little, while but a few 
feet away in the slate is another closely resembling the Big Canon ore 
body. The mine has been bonded, and it is expected that it will be 
opened up again. 

Defiance Mine (Quartz). — This old mine is located 5 miles N.E. of 
Shingle Springs. Here is said to occur a large body of low-grade ore 
inclosed in green chloritic schists. 

Dividend Mine (Placer). — It is 2-J miles W. from Shingle Springs, in 
T. 10 N., R. 9 E. The company own 3,136 acres of ground on Kelly 
Creek. The gravel deposit is quite extensive and worked through ground 
sluices. It has a soil capping of about 10 ft., making the stripping 
expensive; the gravel is from 1 to 3 ft. thick, lying on a soft granite bed- 
rock, and contains a little quartz. Ground-sluicing is carried on during 
winter and spring; the season averages six months. The claim, though 
operated for a number of years, has plenty of good ground in reserve. 
About 2,000 ft. in length have been worked. Seven men are employed. 
The gold is .888 fine. The ground is poorly situated for dumping. The 
gold is apparently derived from numerous small seams throughout the 
bedrock in this vicinity. Ayl. Pelton et al., of Shingle Springs, owners. 

Donozo Gold Mine (Quartz). — It is half a mile E. of Greenwood, and 
is 1,500 by 600 ft. It is on the same mineral belt as the Taylor Mine, 
showing in the 60 ft. of tunnel run on the vein a width of 20- ft., with a 
course N. 40° W. and dipping E. about 55°. J. Donozo, of Greenwood, 
owner. 

Eagle King Mine (Quartz).— It is 2-J miles N. of Grizzly Flat, in close 
proximity to the Melton Mine, and is 1,500 by 600 ft. It has a N. and 
S. vein, dipping slightly to the W., with a width of from 2 to 4 ft.; the 
walls are a decomposed granite. The vein is worked through a tunnel 
driven 800 ft. on the ledge. A winze, 200 ft. from the mouth of the 



GOLD EL DORADO COUNTY. 109 

tunnel, is 30 ft. deep, and shows 28 in. of a vein in the bottom, carry- 
ing iron, lead, and zinc sulphurets. A little stoping has been done at 
this point above the tunnel level. The entire length of the vein in the 
tunnel shows good milling ore. There are 300 ft. of backs, from breast 
of tunnel. No mill is on the property, but water power can be obtained 
through the Eagle ditch, with 200 ft. pressure. This section of country 
is very well timbered. The owner works alone. See our Vlllth Report, 
p. 178. J. Melton, of Grizzly Flat, owner. 

Edner, Charles, Claim (Quartz). — It is 4 miles E. of Fairplay, and is 
1,500 by 600 ft.; the course of the vein is N. and S.; the dip is to the E., 
between granite walls. A tunnel is run on the vein 150 ft., and in the 
gulch below a 20 ft. shaft has been sunk. The quartz carries consider- 
able iron and lead sulphides. One and a half miner's inches of water 
issues from the tunnel. Water power can be obtained from the Michi- 
gan Bar ditch. C. Edner, of Omo Ranch, owner. 

El Dorado Mine (Quartz). — See Church Mine. 

El Dorado Big Tunnel Mining Company's Mine (Quartz). — Its prop- 
erty is situated 2 miles N. of Placerville, in Big Canon, and comprises 
120 acres. The tunnel was started on a N.E. course to cross-cut the 
mineral belt, from the east side of the canon, and has penetrated to date 
662 ft., cutting in that distance several quartz veins ranging from 3 to 6 
ft. in width. At the end of the tunnel 97 ft. of the very finest quality of 
roofing slate has been penetrated. At the mouth of the tunnel is a 
5-stamp mill, run by water power. El Dorado Big Tunnel Mining 
Company, owners; G. W. Campbell, of Placerville, Secretary. 

Elliot Mine (Quartz).— It is 2i miles S. of Placerville, in T. 10 N., R. 
HE. The claim, which is only 800 by 300 ft., is immediately opposite 
the Epley Mine, on the banks of Weber Creek, and the vein has the 
same N.W. course, and dips 80° E. The vein along both slate walls 
through the entire length of the claim is uncovered, showing 4 ft. of 
milky quartz with few sulphurets. A shaft sunk 50 ft. on the vein 
connects with a cross-cut tunnel from the creek. J. J. Elliot, of Placer- 
ville, owner. 

Emma Mine (Quartz). — See our Xth Report, p. 176. 

Epley Mine (Quartz). — See our VIHth and Xth Reports, pp. 186 and 
173. 

Equator Mine (Quartz). — See our VIHth and Xth Reports, pp. 190 
and 172. It is situated 3 miles S. of Diamond Springs, on Mathenas 
Creek, in T. 10 N., R. 11 E. Idle. Capt. T. Buckley, owner. 

Esperanza Mine (Quartz). — See our Xth Report, p. 175. It lies in 
Sec. 28, T. 12 N., R. 10 E. Vertical double-compartment shaft, 10 by 
4^ ft., inside of timbers, and 200 ft. deep. Steam hoist. About 300 ft. 
of levels have been run. The cross-cut at the "200" shows 64 ft. of 
low-grade ore between the walls. 

Esperanza South Extension (Quartz). — Only assessment work and 
surface prospecting have been done. 

Eureka Mine (Quartz). — It is in Georgetown, in T. 12 N., R. 10 E., 
and is 1,200 by 300 ft. Three parallel ore bodies having an N.E. and 
S.W. course are known. An incline shaft, 180 ft. deep on the main or 
center vein, showed 12 ft. of quartz. At 50 ft. depth a drift was run 
from the shaft and cut the E. vein. A small tunnel run on the W. vein 
exposed quartz 9 ft. wide. See our Xlth Report, p. 203. Idle. E. B. 
Lee, of New York, owner. 



110 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

Faraday Mine (Quartz). — See our VHIth Report, p. 186. Idle. 

Flagstaff Mine (Quartz).— See our VIII th Report, p. 178. Idle. 

Fort Yuma Mine (Quartz). — This mine is located on Dry Creek, 1 
mile S.E. of the Big Canon Mine. The vein is inclosed in black slate, 
which strikes N. and S., with a nearly vertical dip. Two claims have 
been located on the ledge, which is traceable for several thousand feet. 
The quartz has a ribbon character and varies from 2 to 3 ft. wide. A 
10-stamp mill is located on the property. — Hale, of Omo Ranch, owner. 

French Claim (Placer). — This property is situated on the seam belt, 
one quarter of a mile W t of Greenwood. The claim is 1,400 by 600 ft., 
and originally belonged to the California Water Company as a hydraulic. 
The crevices in the large pit of the former hydraulic are being worked; 
this pit is about 600 ft. long, 200 ft. wide, and about 80 ft. deep. The 
belt runs N. and S. and the quartz seams diverge in all directions, and 
carry the gold. The pit is estimated to have yielded $500,000. A shaft 
sunk 45 ft. in the bottom of the pit proves the continuity of the vein 
downwards. The belt has been traced across from the North Fork to 
the South Fork of the American River. The gold is high grade, being 
worth $20 26 per ounce. See our Xlth Report, p. 204. L. Lechance, of 
Greenwood, owner. 

French Hill Mining Company's Mine (Quartz). — Is 6 miles from 
Greenwood, in T. 13 N., R. 9 E., near Spanish Dry Diggings, and con- 
tains 160 acres in the porphyry seam belt, which here has a N.W. and 
S.E. course. The main quartz seam dips about 45° E., with an average 
width of 1^ ft., though attaining greater proportions in swells. The 
belt is excavated from 10 to 40 ft. in width. The workings are through 
a tunnel and an open cut; deep holes sunk by churn drills and exploded, 
throw large masses of rock into the cut, which are sluiced down to 
the mill 250 ft. below through 800 ft. of boxes 18 in. wide, paved with 
wooden blocks and set on grades varying from 8 in. to 2 ft. per box. 
The larger pieces of waste slate are gotten rid of by passing over a 
grizzly dumping into a neighboring ravine. By this method large 
amounts of ore are swiftly and cheaply delivered to the mill, which has 
10 stamps of 750 lbs. weight, dropping 100 times per minute with a 5 in. 
drop and 8 in. discharge. The drop is arranged 1, 5, 2, 4, 3, feeding 
from No. 2. The battery is provided with an 8 in. plate on the inside 
and with No. 6 perforated sheet-tin screens. The aprons have an area 
of 52 in. by 12 ft., set on a grade of 1-J in. to the foot; below are quick- 
silver traps, blankets, and sluices with riffles. The plates are dressed 
every day, but only scraped once a week. The line of sluices to the 
mill and to the battery are cleaned up once a month. Power is derived 
from the Georgetown ditch, the water being used on a 6 ft. Pelton wheel, 
under 250 ft. of pressure. A. J. Johnston et al., of Sacramento, owners. 

Garden Valley Mine (Quartz). — It is in the diorite, W. of Esperanza. 

Garfield Mining Company's Mine (Quartz). — It is in T. 18 N., R. 11 E. 5 
about one fourth of a mile from Volcanoville, and contains 1,500 by 600 
ft. The vein, in black slate, courses N. and S. and dips 55° W. near the 
surface, straightening up to 70° with depth. An incline shaft on the 
vein, 120 ft. deep, with a short drift near the bottom, exposes some 
pay ore. A tunnel, started at a point deeper than the bottom of the 
shaft, in running 700 ft. has cut several quartz stringers, but none of 
value. E. W. Chapman, of Greenwood, owner. 



GOLD — EL DORADO COUNTY. Ill 

Garfield and Excelsior Consolidated Gold Mine (Quartz). — It is 1 mile 
N.E. of Greenwood and contains 3,000 by 600 ft., on the same course 
as the Idlewild Mine. A serpentine dike runs a short distance back of 
and parallel with the vein, which is in slate; the foot-wall is highly 
mineralized, the sulphurets carrying gold; the vein is 20 ft. wide. Of 
the four tunnels the uppermost, No. 1, is 275 ft.; No. 2, 325 ft.; No. 3, 
over 400 ft., and No. 4, 200 ft. in length; none of them have reached the 
ledge to date. The surface along the outcrop is gold-bearing, as are all 
the ravines heading toward it. Some ground-sluicing is being done. 
Free water under 200 ft. pressure for six months in the year can be 
obtained. F. G. Bilty et al., of Greenwood, owners. 

Garibaldi Consolidated Gold Mine (Quartz). — It is three fourths of a 
mile from Greenwood, and embraces 3,000 by 600 ft. The vein courses 
N. 30° W., dips 55° N.E., in slate, with a width of 6 ft. No develop- 
ments sufficient to establish the value of the property have been made. 
Mrs. Lee and J. Wolf, of Greenwood, owners. 

Gentle Annie Mine (Quartz). — It is 1-| miles N. of Placer ville, in Sec. 
6, T. 10 N., R. 11 E., and comprises an area 1,000 ft. long by 1,500 ft. 
wide, and employs 18 men. The two parallel veins, from 50 to 80 ft. 
apart, course N. 30° W., with a dip of 70° to the E. They are from 10 
to 40 ft. wide, between porphyry hanging- and slate foot-wall. The 
quartz is of ribbon structure, interstra titled with black slate, carrying 
from 2 to 2-J per cent of sulphurets, mostly iron and galena. 

The developments consist of two tunnels, one on mill level, 70 ft., and 
the other at the N. end of the claim, 400 ft. in length; both on the ore 
body. Below the mill-level tunnel are three winzes, from 10 to 40 ft. 
deep, all in ore. The working shaft intersects the tunnel about 500 ft. 
from the mouth, at 100 ft. depth, and continues 130 ft. below the same; 
it is partly incline, partly vertical. Eighty feet below the tunnel level a 
drift has been run N. from the shaft 130 ft., and about 200 ft. of ground 
has been stoped. A jackhead pump handles the water (about 2 miner's 
inches); the mine is run by a Green wheel operated with water from the 
El Dorado ditch, while a 12 horse-power steam hoist, situated at the 
intersection of tunnel and shaft, raises the ore to mill level. A 
" National" compressor, with Rand, Little Giant, and Slugger drills, 
is used. The mine is timbered throughout, using pine and spruce at 
a cost of 2 cents per running foot. 

The reduction works consist of a 10-stamp mill, Challenge feeders, and 
2 improved Frue vanners with 6 ft. belts, handling If tons per stamp 
per day, all run by a 4^ ft. Knight wheel under 160 ft. pressure, using 
50 in. of water. The stamps weigh 750 lbs.; the speed is 100 drops per 
minute; the drop is 5 to 6 in.; the discharge 6 to 8 in., using a No. 40 
punched sheet-tin screen. The mortars are wide and deep, and fur- 
nished with plates inside. The aprons are 52 in. wide by 3 ft. long, and 
set on a grade of 2 in. to the foot. The sluice plates are double, 12 ft. 
long, and are followed by four blanket sluices 6 ft. long and 14 in. wide, 
which are washed twice during a shift. The apron plates are only 
scraped once a month, though dressed twice a day; 40 per cent of the 
amalgam comes from these plates. See our Xth Report, p. 177. John 
Melton and G. B. Parlow, of Placerville, owners. 

Gold Note Mine (Quartz). — See Philadelphia Mine. 

Golden State Mine (Quartz). — This is 4 miles N.E. of Georgetown, 
and embraces 1,500 by 600 ft. of patented land. It is a belt containing 



112 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

a network of quartz seams, worked from 200 to 300 ft. wide, with an N. 
and S. course. Aside from cuts, tunnels, and shafts made for pros- 
pecting purposes, the mine is worked through an open cut, the material 
being blasted down and washed through sluices. See our Xlth Report, 
p. 204. W. Barklage et al., of Georgetown, owners. 

Gopher and Boulder Mine (Quartz). — See our VHIth Report, p. 175. 

Grand Victory Mine (Quartz).— It is in Sec. 34, T. 10 N., R. 11 E., 7 
miles S.E. from Placerville, on Squaw Creek, and comprises 160 acres. 
See our VHIth and Xth Reports, pp. 194 and 178. The ore body is 
incased in slate, with an N.W. trend and nearly vertical dip, with a 
width of over 100 feet; the quartz seams are interstratified with the 
slate and with a black silicious rock, the whole carrying a large 
percentage of sulphurets, and also, it is supposed, selenium; the less 
decomposed and harder strata appear to carry the most free gold. 
Under the lately introduced cyanide process, working the decomposed 
portions of the ore, the yield has been largely increased, so it is 
reported. The developments in the mine consist of large pits sunk on 
the ore body, some of which are 60 feet deep and wide and several 
hundred feet long, connected near the bottom with the mill level 
through short tunnels. Grand Victory Mining Company, of Placerville, 
owners; M. B. Silver, Superintendent. 

Gray Mine (Quartz). — See Old Gray Mine. 

Gray Eagle Cliff Mine (Drift). — It is in Volcanoville, and contains 
100 acres. The ancient channel has an E. and W. course, 300 ft. width, 
between slate rim rocks. The cemented pay gravel is from 2 to 4 ft. 
deep, with a capping of alternating strata of cement and gravel. It is 
worked through a tunnel starting at an outbreak of the gravel and run 
partly in bedrock. The gravel breasts are carried 50 to 60 ft. wide, and 
5 ft. high, requiring very little timbering; ventilation is obtained 
through connection with old works. Three carloads of 1,500 lbs. each 
are taken out daily per man. The dump carries 1,000 carloads; washing 
being done once a week through 12 sluices set on a 16 in. grade, paved 
with slat and cross riffles. The wash water is obtained from the mines, 
using an old tunnel for a reservoir. The gold on the bedrock is coarse, 
and sells for $18 per ounce. D. C. Webster, of Georgetown, owner. 

Greenstone Mine (Quartz). — It is 2 miles E. of Shingle Springs. A 
considerable amount of work has been done here, as shown by several 
shafts; these were sunk in the serpentine. As no vein appears on the 
surface, the character of the ledge could not be ascertained. H. Barnes 
and L. L. Robinson, of Shingle Springs, owners. 

Griffith Mine (Quartz). — See our Vlllth and Xth Reports, pp. 189 
and 172. Idle. 

Griffith <k Bryant Consolidated Mine (Quartz). — It is in Sec. 30, T. 
10 N., R. 11 E., one mile E. from Diamond Springs, and embraces 3,000 
by 600 ft. The vein, 2 to 3 ft. wide, courses N. and S. A 140 ft. shaft 
on the vein has been drifted on to the N., and 50 ft. stoped. A 5-stamp 
"prospecting'' mill, with 350 lb. stamps, driven by an 8 ft. "hurdy," 
under 60 ft. pressure, is part of the plant. C. F. Bryant, of Diamond 
Springs, owner. 

Grizzly Bear Mine (Quartz). — See our Xlth Report, p. 201. 

Grizzly Flat Mine (Drift and Hydraulic).— This is in T. 13 N., R. 11 
E., one half mile S.W. from Volcanoville, and contains 160 acres at the 
head of Grizzly Flat. A part of the surface has been hydraulicked, 



GOLD — EL DORADO COUNTY. 113 

showing the channel to have a N.E. and S.W. course. Tunnels have 
been driven into the hill to cut the channel, but so far without reaching 
it. Barklage Estate, of Greenwood, owners. 

Gross Mine (Quartz). — See our Vlllth Report, p. 181. Idle. 

Grouse Gulch Mine (Quartz). — It is 1-J miles W. of Grizzly Flat, on 
Grouse Gulch, and contains 1,500 by 600 ft. The vein courses N. and 
S., and dips 60° W., between syenite walls, varying in width from 6 in. 
to 5 ft. The ore is spotted; the narrower the vein the better the quality. 
A 100 ft. shaft is intersected at a depth of 60 ft. by a drain tunnel 200 
ft. long. There is a second shaft higher up, 80 ft. deep, with a 50 ft. 
drift. No. 1 shaft has a 40 horse-power hoisting engine with a 6 in. 
Cornish pump. A third intermediate shaft is 50 ft. deep, from which 
good milling ore was obtained. See our Vlllth Report, p. 178. Mrs. 
K. Hoskins, of Grizzly Flat, owner. 

Hallech Mine (Quartz). — See True Consolidated. 

Harmon Mine, Young and Old (Quartz). — See True Consolidated. 

Havilah Mine (Quartz). — See Nashville Mine. 

Hendy Mine (Quartz). — See Nashville Mine. 

Henrietta Mine (Quartz). — See our Vlllth Report, p. 186. Idle. 

Hope Mine (Placer). — N.E. of Volcanoville. See our Xlth Report, 
p. 206. 

Ibid Mine (Quartz).— It is 1 mile S. of Grizzly Flat, in T. 9 N., R. 13 
E. It is the southerly extension of the Mt. Pleasant Mine, 1,500 by 600 
ft., and patented. C. W. Watts and T. D. Crocker, of San Francisco 
and Ohio, owners. 

Ida Mine (Quartz). — Idle. See our Vlllth Report, p. 182. 

Idle'wild (Taylor) Mine (Quartz).— See our Vlllth, Xth, and Xlth 
Reports. It is 1\ miles E. of Greenwood, on the " Mother Lode." The 
present workings are below the 600 ft. level, and since our last report 
the electric pumps have been replaced by others worked by compressed 
air, and the mill enlarged to 40 stamps. As the mine is troubled with 
swelling ground, the management have found it advisable to fill in the 
old stopes as much as possible, and for this purpose a chute has been 
opened to the surface, through which material dug from the surface is 
dropped, besides using the waste from the mine for the same purpose. 
In making the change to pumps run by compressed air, considerable 
annoyance was caused by their freezing up in less than thirty minutes 
after starting; this was remedied by introducing a small jet of water 
into the pipe above the suction. 

The mill has 40 stamps of 950 lbs. weight, dropping 104 times per 
minute, using 4 in. chrome steel shoes and dies, that have an average 
life of 105 days, with a duty of 110 tons in twenty-four hours. The 
apron plate area is 52 in. by 16 ft., set at an angle of If in. to 1 ft. The 
plates are dressed every day, but only scraped once a month; 38 per 
cent of the total yield of amalgam is taken from them, which might be 
increased if scraped oftener. The ore at present carries about 3 per 
cent sulphurets, saved on 8 Woodbury concentrators; a chlorination 
plant for working them is in contemplation. The power is derived from 
45 in. and 6 ft. Dodd's wheels for mill and compressor; the latter to run 
five drills and the pumps. Electric lights are used all over the estab- 
lishment. The ore carries considerable slate inclosed. Seventy-five 
men are employed; 50 underground. E. W. Chapman, of Georgetown, 
owner. 

8m 



114 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

Indian Creek Land and Mining Company' 's (Shaw) Mine (Quartz). — 
This property has been described in our Vlllth and Xth Reports, pp. 
193 and 181, and is situated 2i miles W. of El Dorado, in T. 10 N., R. 
10 E. It is 3,660 by 600 ft. on the west porphyry belt. The present 
company have a vertical shaft on the W. wall, taking their drift 8 ft. 
wide. It is from this part of the mine that their best pay rock is 
obtained. A drift is being run from a point 75 ft. deep in the 135 ft. 
vertical shaft on the E. wall. With large reduction works, the whole 
width between the walls (140 ft.) would pay to crush, but the capacity 
of the company's 5 ft. Huntington roller mill being 25 tons in twenty- 
four hours, only the higher grade quartz can be worked. The mill is 
supplied with 75 sq. ft. of plates and two Woodbury concentrators, 
that handle the 1\ to 3 per cent of sulphurets contained in the ore. A 
12 horse-power steam engine is used, but water power under 135 ft. pres- 
sure could be obtained from the Crawford ditch. Very little timbering 
is required for the mine, and no artificial ventilation. 

This deposit is one of the most peculiar and interesting to be found 
in the county. A dike of feldspar porphyry, 140 ft. wide at the mine, 
but narrowing from this point, can be traced for over 2 miles in a N. 
and S. direction, inclosed in black slate. The gold occurs mostly in a 
crushed zone on each side of this dike, although traces of the metal can 
be found over nearly its whole extent. In these crushed zones the 
original porphyry is more or less completely replaced by quartz, string- 
ers of which extend in toward the center of the dike in a horizontal posi- 
tion. The stringers also extend out into the slates, but in the latter 
case they are vertical. The pure quartz is usually quite porous. Those 
portions of the dike where the replacement is not complete and which 
are filled with sulphurets, very closely resemble the ore of the Big 
Canon Mine. Although gold in paying quantities is found nearly every- 
where along the crushed zones, yet there are also many rich pockets. 
Much surface work has been done along the edges of this dike for half 
a mile N. and a mile and a half S. Indian Creek Land and Mining 
Company, owners; D. W. C. Morgan, of El Dorado, Superintendent. 

Inez (Central) Mine (Quartz). — This property is situated 8 miles S. of 
El Dorado, in T. 8 N., R. 10 E., and is now idle. It is 1,500 by 600 ft. 
The vein strikes a little W. of N. on the east side of the main " Mother 
Lode" belt, and dips E. about 60°. Hanging-wall is slate, foot-wall is 
decomposed. A shaft has been sunk 250 ft. and is supplied with steam 
hoist. See our Xth Report, p. 171. Inez Gold Mining Company, 
owners; J. C. Healds, of Nashville, Superintendent. 

Ivanhoe Mine (Quartz). — See our Xth Report, p. 175. It is said that 
this property will soon resume active work. 

Jerusalem Mine (Hydraulic). — This property is situated 1^ miles E. 
of Placerville, where they are working a bench of gravel with three men- 
It is largely prospecting. — Alderson, of Placerville, owner. 

Josephine Mine (Quartz). — See our VIHth Report, p. 165. It is situ- 
ated in Volcanoville, in T. 13 N., R. 11 E. It is idle. J. W. McCall et 
al., of Nevada City, owners. 

Kates (Norris) Mine (Drift). — This property was formerly a part of 
the Mount Hope claim, and is situated 1^ miles E. of Volcanoville; it 
contains 80 acres facing on a ridge running down to the river. It was 
formerly worked as a hydraulic claim. The channel runs E. and W. 
Parts of this channel are eroded, only showing across the spurs that 



GOLD EL DORADO COUNTY. 115 

run N. and S. down the river. A tunnel has been driven S.W. for 250 
ft. in the bedrock, then a 14 ft. upraise made into the channel. The 
gravel is strongly cemented, necessitating the use of stamps for reduc- 
tion. The gangway is being extended 100 ft. S. P. Kates et al., of 
Georgetown, owners. 

Kentucky Flat Gravel Mine (Drift). — This property is in Sec. 22, T. 
13 N., R. 11 E., 9 miles E. of Georgetown, and contains 154 acres. The 
channel courses N. 30° W., which is also the course of the main tunnel, 
extending 650 ft. From this tunnel an 18 ft. upraise breaks into the 
gravel, in which a drift has been extended for 700 ft. in length, from 
which openings have been made in gravel to the N. 150 ft., to the W. 
80 ft., and to the E. 25 ft. The gangway is carried 6 ft. high, and the 
gravel is drifted from 3 to 5 ft. in depth. The gravel is mostly quartz 
of a deep blue color; some of the bowlders being over 9 ft. in length and 
breadth; the whole is slightly cemented. The altitude of the bedrock is 
3,130 ft. Just above the gravel is a layer of hard sand from 3 to 4 ft. 
thick, between which and the cement, logs, charcoal, and petrified wood 
are frequently found. The bedrock tunnel is only partially timbered, 
and no artificial ventilation is required. Little water comes from the 
gravel; the wash water is obtained free from the neighboring gulches; 
the washing being effected through seven or eight boxes supplied with 
slat and block riffles. A second body of gravel of a gray color has been 
uncovered parallel to the blue, but on a higher bench. The bedrock is 
slate and serpentine; the gold is coarse and is .910 fine. A. J. Wilton, 
of Georgetown, owner. 

Knob Hill Mine (Quartz). — In past years this mine was actively 
worked, but at present it is idle. It lies on the N. side of Agra Mountain. 

La Moille Mine (Quartz). — This property is situated at Logtown, 3 
miles S. of Mud Springs, and comprises 1,500 by 600 ft. It carries a 
number of quartz seams in granite, with a general N. and S. course. 
H. SutlifTe, of Mud Springs, owner. 

Linden Mine (Drift). — See our VHIth Report, p. 196. They have 
three claims, comprising 300 acres, known as Cedar Springs, Linden, 
and Globe claims. The present work of drifting on this gravel deposit 
is carried on through a bedrock tunnel running S. of E. 4,000 ft., which 
crosses a 500 ft. channel below the tunnel level, and continuing, cuts the 
channel again, showing a horseshoe bend. The gravel breasts are car- 
ried 30 ft., and from 2\ to 8 ft. deep, timbered with square sets and 



fi*n^ntif~kfi 



fi/FFie vseo /?r L/AfDF/V /V/A/E, ELDO&/70O CO. 

lagged. The main drift is timbered with 6 ft. posts and Z\ ft. caps, in 
the clear. The ventilation is through an air shaft 90 ft. deep, and air 
gangways. The channel is capped with lava about 120 ft. thick. The 
company employs 23 men on two shifts, taking out 40 carloads per day. 
The gravel is run through a 10-stamp mill, being somewhat cemented, 
and carrying a large proportion of clay; hence the use of 8 in. of 
water through the battery. The stamps are light, being 500 lbs., drop- 



116 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

ping 105 times per minute, with a 7 in. drop. The battery has a double 
discharge, using wire screens, 16 holes to the square inch; the apron is 
provided with four grooves. The pulp passes into sluices provided with 
slat riffles, with alternating small, projecting blocks between the slats. 
In the slats, between the projection, auger holes are bored, the current 
thus receiving a serpentine course; 400 feet of sluices are provided. No 
regular time is set for cleaning up the boxes; it depends entirely on the 
accumulation of amalgam. The mill puts through 75 carloads per day, 
weighing 1,800 lbs. each. Linden Gold Mining Company, of Placerville, 
owners; J. M. Brown, Superintendent. 

Little Chief Mine (Placer). — It is on Canon Creek above Georgia Slide, 
on the porphyry seam belt. Two tunnels are run, 130 ft. and 240 ft. 
long, and upraises made on the seams. A one-stamp Kendall mill, run 
by 4 ft. Pelton wheel, with 5 in. of water under a 100 ft. head, crushes 
the quartz out of the seams. Most of the seams pitch to the S. Beattie 
Bros., of Georgetown, owners. 

Live Oak Mine (Quartz). — This is an undeveloped property. It lies 
about 1-J miles S. of the Big Canon Mine. The ore body has an exposed 
width of 200 ft., and in general character much resembles the latter 
mine. It lies between massive greenstone and slate. 

Log Cabin Mine (Quartz).— It is in Sec. 30, T. 9 N., R. 10 E., about 5 
miles S. of Shingle Springs, and is 1,500 by 600 ft. The vein strikes S.E. 
and N.W., dipping to the N. between slate walls 4 ft. apart. Two tun- 
nels have been run by the owner to cut the ledge, without yet reaching 
it. No. 1, 65 ft. below the croppings, is 130 ft. long, and No. 2, 35 ft. 
lower, is 170 ft. long; both on S.W. course. Worked by the owner 
alone. J. Darrow, of Shingle Springs, owner. 

Lone Jack Mine (Quartz). — See our Xth Report, p. 176. It is in Sec. 
28, T. 12 N., R. 10 E. Steam hoist on a shaft 400 ft. deep. Ledge about 
24 ft. wide. 

Lone Star Mine (Quartz). — This property is situated 2 miles E. of 
Diamond Springs. It is 1,500 by 600 ft., with a vein from 4 to 5 ft. wide, 
running N.W. and S.E. between slate walls, decomposed next to the 
vein. The quartz forms in lenticular or kidney-shaped masses in the 
vein; dip nearly vertical. A tunnel has been started on Bangor Gulch 
about 600 ft. E. of the main quartz belt. A. Latourrette, J. B. Lawton, 
and A. Tirre, of Diamond Springs, owners. 

Lone Star Mine (Quartz).— It is in Big Canon, in T. 8 N., R. 10 E., 
1± miles S. of Nashville; it is 1,500 by 600 ft. The vein strikes N. and 
S. and dips E. about 60°. The walls are slate, with a heavy gouge 1 ft. 
wide on the foot-wall. A shaft has been sunk 100 ft. deep and a drift 
run S. about 100 ft. on a 7 ft. ledge of ribbon quartz carrying about 0.5 
per cent of sulphurets. The hoisting is done with a windlass. A 5 ft. 
Huntington mill, run by steam, crushes from 12 to 14 tons per day, 
consuming one cord of wood, costing $4. J. C. Heald, of Nashville, 
owner. 

Lookout Mine (Quartz). — This property is in T. 13 N., R. 11 E., in 
Quartz Canon, near Volcanoville. The claim is 4,500 by 600 ft. The 
vein lies between slate walls, with an average width of 2 ft. A cross- 
cut tunnel running for the ledge has been driven 200 ft. W. Cary, of 
Georgetown, owner. 

McCall Gravel Mine (Drift). — It is 3 miles N.E. of Volcanoville, on 
the S. side of the Middle Fork of the American River. It is a bench of 



GOLD — EL DORADO COUNTY. 117 

50 ft. above the present river level, that has been worked since the early 
'50s. It carries regular river-wash and channel gold. A slate bedrock 
tunnel 300 ft. in length runs under the gravel, which is free, requiring 
square sets in breasting out, using 5 ft. posts. The gold is worth $18 per 
ounce. T. McCall, of Michigan Bluff, owner. 

McNulty (Oakland) Mine (Quartz).— It is in T. 9 N., R. 10 E., 4 miles 
S. of El Dorado, and contains 80 acres. The vein courses N. and S.; 
dips E. about 60°, and is 6 ft. wide, with a slate hanging- and greenstone 
foot-wall. The main tunnel is 300 ft. long, and the shaft is sunk 600 ft. 
below it, the hoisting power being furnished by a Knight wheel in the 
tunnel, with water from the Crawford ditch. J. B. Drury, of St. Louis, 
Mo., owner. 

Madrona Mine (Quartz).— It is in Sec. 29, T. 12 N., R. 10 E. Shaft 
40 ft. deep. Vein of unknown width and low grade, but carries a large 
percentage of sulphurets, and is inclosed in slate walls. 

Mammoth Mine (Quartz). — See our Vlllth Report, p. 186. 

Manzanita Queen Mine (Quartz). — See our Vlllth and Xth Reports, 
pp. 189 and 172. 

Mathenas Creek Mine (Quartz). — See our Vlllth and Xth Reports, 
pp. 190 and 172. The company owns half a mile on the course of the 
ledge, one quarter mile wide, that lies just W. of the "Mother Lode." 
The course of the vein is N. 20° W., and dips 55° to the E., and is from 
2 to 8 ft. wide between slate walls. A tunnel is being driven from near 
the creek to cut two veins that crop out on the surface, at a depth of 300 
ft. The ground requires but little timbering. The main vein carries 
0.75 per cent of sulphurets, assaying several hundred dollars per ton. 
The mill (Huntington) stands at the junction of Stone and Mathenas 
creeks, 100 yds. W. of the tunnel. Four men are employed. Sacra- 
mento Development Company, owners; R. T. Morrison, of El Dorado, 
Superintendent. 

Melton Mine (Quartz). — See our Vlllth Report, p. 177. It is 2-J miles 
S.E. of Grizzly Flat, and is being reopened after an idleness of six years. 
There are three claims of 1,500 by 600 ft., each carrying a N. and S. vein, 

■S 




Sect/on or' Melton Mi/ve j Eldorado Co. 

with a slight dip to the W. and an E. and W. vein dipping N. The 
country rock is a syenite. Aside from the old plant it is proposed to 
build a 3-ton chlorination plant to work the sulphurets. L. L. Lamborn, 
of Grizzly Flat, owner. 

Miller Mine (Quartz). — See our Vlllth and Xth Reports, pp. 
189 and 172. 

Mississippi Mine (Drift). — It is 1^ miles E. of Volcanoville, between 
the Kates and Gray Eagle claims. It contains 80 acres. A bedrock 
tunnel is run 240 ft. in the W. side of the spur; the others have been run 



118 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

from the E. In this claim a top layer of free gravel is being worked; 
the bottom (channel) gravel, which is cemented, has not been touched. 
C. F. Lloyd, of Georgetown, owner. 

Montezuma Mine (Quartz). — This property is in T. 8 N., R. 10 E. It 
controls 1,500 by 600 ft. on the main " Mother Lode," opposite Nash- 
ville. The vein on the S. end is 12 ft. wide, between slate walls; going 
N. this reduces to about 6 ft. The ribbon quartz carries about 1 per 
cent of sulphurets. A shaft has been sunk on the vein about 350 ft.; 
the mouth at present is caved. A new shaft has reached a depth of 
160 ft., and is supplied with a steam hoist and a Dow pump, consuming 
one cord of wood per day. About 60 feet of drift have been run S. from 
the new shaft. There is a 10-stamp (650 lbs.) mill, with aprons 5 by 
6 ft.; 4 sluice plates 15 ft. long by 16 in. wide, set on a grade of 1^ in. 
to the foot. Also 20 ft. of blanket sluices. The quartz is variable, 
ranging from $2 50 to $15 per ton. The mill is run by free water, 
acting through 2 miles of ditch. J. C. Heald, of Nashville, owner. 

Mooney Mine (Drift). — Is 8 miles E. of Placer ville. Active develop- 
ment commenced in summer of 1894. 

Morey Mine (Quartz). — This property is situated on Humbug Flat, 1 
mile W. from Grizzly Flat. There are two claims in the property, one 
showing an N. and S. vein; the other with an E. and W. one. The 
former dips nearly vertical, the latter to the N. The veins are in sye- 
nite and have an average width of 2 ft. The quartz is of good grade, 
carrying lead, iron, and zinc sulphurets. The property is opened 
through tunnels and a shaft. On the N. and S. vein the tunnel has a 
length of 300 ft., and on the E. and W. vein 400 ft. The shaft is down 
125 ft., or 50 ft. below the tunnel level. The ore between the tunnel 
and the surface has been stoped. A small 5-stamp mill, with 600 lb. 
stamps, is worked by a Knight wheel under 100 ft. pressure; the water 
(60 in.) is supplied from the Eagle ditch, at a cost of $1 per twenty-four 
hours. The apron plate is 4 by 6 ft., set on a grade of If in. to the foot. 
The duty per stamp, when using a No. 40 punched screen, at 90 drops 
per minute, is 1^ tons. Half the amalgam is saved in the battery, which 
is provided with an inside plate. The aprons are scraped two or three 
times in twenty-four hours. The gold is worth $13 per ounce. See our 
VIHth and Xth Reports, pp. 178 and 178. E. R. Morey, of Grizzly 
Flat, owner. 

Morse Mine (Quartz). — This mine is located 3 miles E. of Latrobe, on 
the W. side of a large body of serpentine which crosses Big Canon and 
extends S. to the Cosumnes River. An incline shaft has been sunk here 
and the hoisting works still remain, but nothing could be learned as to 
the extent and character of the ore. 

Mount Hope Mine (Drift). — See Kates Mine. • 

Mount Pleasant Mine (Quartz).- — It is three fourths of a mile W. from 
Grizzly Flat. The company controls one mile on the vein, which strikes 
N. and S. in syenite, with a width of from 2 to 6 ft. The old workings 
extend down 700 ft.; these are filled with water to the drain tunnel level, 
which cuts the shaft 125 ft. below the surface. Two known ore shoots 
have a southerly pitch. A 10-stamp mill (originally 20), run by steam 
power, with 4 Frue concentrators, is idle. See our VHIth and Xth 
Reports, pp. 178 and 178. Mount Pleasant Gold Mining Company, 
owners; L. Missmore, Superintendent. 



GOLD — EL DORADO COUNTY. 119 

Murzo Mine (Brass's Claim) (Drift). — This property is on Buckeye 
Hill, on Middle Fork of American River, in T. 13 N., R. 10 E., 2 miles 
from Volcanoville, and contains 30 acres. A tunnel has been run 150 
ft. through the slate rimrock, showing the bedrock to be pitching away. 
A second lower one has been started, with three men working. This 
claim is adjoining, and working on the same channel as the Buckeye 
Hill gravel claim. A. E. Brass, of Georgetown, owner. 

Nashville (Havilah or Hendy) Mine (Quartz). — It is situated at Nash- 
ville, in T. 8 N., R. 10 E. The works, which were very extensive, were 
established on a large quartz cropping on -the "Mother Lode" ; it con- 
tains 1,500 by 600 ft. The shaft is said to be 650 ft. deep, and at 200 
ft. depth the characteristic black gouge of the vein is given an 12 ft. 
wide. The mine has not been worked for eight years, but is now (Sep- 
tember, 1894) being rehabilitated by an English company. Joshua 
Hendy Machine Works, of San Francisco, owners. 

New El Dorado Mine (Quartz). — It is 1\ miles N. from Greenwood, 
and contains 1,500 by 600 ft. It is the north extension of the Cedar- 
berg Mine. The vein strikes N. and S. and dips E. It carries speci- 
mens of very coarse gold, and has been opened by a tunnel. W. N. 
Martin, of Oakland, owner. 

Oak Mine (Quartz). — It is 5 miles S.W. of Grizzly Flat. The claim 
is 3,000 by 600 ft. The vein, from 1 to 4 ft. wide, courses N.E. and S. W., 
dipping W. at an angle of 75°, between granite walls. The quartz carries 
considerable sulphurets. The main tunnel runs on the vein 400 ft.; 
another on a higher level is driven 150 ft., and from this to the surface 
the ground is stoped out. A 5-stamp water power mill, with 800 lb. 
stamps, and a 16 ft. buddle, crush and concentrate the ore. J. Ryan, 
of Grizzly Flat, owner. 

Ohio Mine (Quartz).— It is 1 mile S.W. from Grizzly Flat, in T. 9 N., 
R. 13 E. The claim is 1,500 by 600 ft., and forms the south extension 
of the Mount Pleasant Mine. The vein averages about 4 ft. in width. 
Two shafts have been sunk on the vein; an inclined and a vertical one; 
the latter is 135 ft. deep. An ore shoot from the Mount Pleasant 
ground pitching S. has been worked for several hundred feet in length 
on the Ohio ground to a depth of 50 ft. The ore is said to have milled 
$12 per ton, though there are spots in the vein rated at $60, exclusive 
of the sulphurets, of which there is about 1 per cent, assaying from $60 
to $200 per ton. On Steely 's Fork of the Cosumnes River is a 5-acre 
millsite belonging to the property. 

Ohio Mine (Quartz). — This property is half a mile from Greenwood, 
in Georgetown District. The claim consists of 1,200 by 600 ft., on a 4 
ft. vein coursing a little N. and W., with a northerly dip between slate 
walls. The developments consist of open cuts and surface washings. 
S. Kaiser, of Greenwood, owner. 

Old Gray Mine (Quartz).— It is in T. 10 N., R. 9 E., 3 miles N.W. 
from Shingle Springs, and is 2,000 by 600 ft. The vein runs E. and W.; 
dips N. about 45°, and is from 1 in. to 3 ft. wide. It is a pocket vein, 
and is on the edge of a great body of gabbro. There is a shaft 100 ft. 
deep, with a short drift on the pay shoot, where the vein is 3 ft. wide. 
D. C. Hodgkins, of San Francisco, owner. 

Oregon Mine (Quartz). — See our VIHth Report, p. 182. North exten- 
sion of the Rose. 



120 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

Oriflamme Mine (Quartz). — See our VHIth and Xth Reports, pp. 189 
and 172. 

Oro Fino Mine (Quartz). — See Big Canon Mine. 

Pacific Mine (Quartz). — See our VHIth, Xth, and Xlth Reports, pp. 
183, 173, and 203. It is situated in Placerville. Abandoned. 

Pacific Mine (Placer). — This property is situated near Georgia Slide, 
on Canon Creek, in T. 12 N., R. 10 E. It contains between 6 and 7 
acres on the porphyry seam belt. The workings consist of an open cut; 
the banks being blasted down and the entire mass washed through a 
long line of sluices with block riffles. Barklage Estate et al., of George- 
town, owners. 

Padre Mine (Quartz). — It is 2-J miles N. from Nashville, in T. 8 N., 
R. 10 E., and is 1,500 by 600 ft. on the "Mother Lode 5 '; the quartz is 5 ft. 
in width. A shaft on the vein is 160 ft. deep, supplied with water-power 
hoist, using a home-made wheel under 23 ft. head. A 5-stamp mill, 
with 650 lb. stamps, run by water power, belongs to the property. Not 
working. J. M. Vandergrift, of Nashville, owner. 

Parson Mine (Seam). — See our Xlth Report, p. 203. 

Payne Gravel Claim (Drift).— It is in T. 9 N., R. 13 E., 3 miles S. of 
Grizzly Flat, and consists of 50 acres south of Clear Creek. It is capped 
with 40 ft. of lava; pay gravel from 1 to 3 ft. deep on slate bedrock; the 
gold is coarse. A tunnel started in the gravel has been driven 200 ft. 
No breasting has been done yet. The drift is timbered with 6 ft. 4 in. 
posts and 3 ft. 6 in. caps, in the clear, and with a 5 ft. spread. Wash-water 
is obtained from Clear Creek. There is a bedrock race and six flume 
boxes for washing, using slat riffles. A clean-up is made twice a year. 
The channel has a S.E. and N.W. course; its width has not been ascer- 
tained. J. M. McClean, of Grizzly Flat, owner. 

Philadelphia and Gold Note Mine (Quartz). — It is 8 miles S. of Grizzly 
Flat, in T. 8 N., R. 18 E. It lies at an elevation of nearly 4,000 ft. 

above sea-level, and is 2,900 by 

XTJ ~~E — ^_ — % . 600 ft. The course of the vein is 

$ /£ | ^ l § N. 30° W., with an easterly dip at 

V" y N an angle of about 60°; the average 

f^l | looft. width between walls is 4 ft. The 

| i hanging-wall is a micaceous slate; 

the foot-wall talcose, with a black 

Section or Gold Note & Philadelphia gouge, from 1 to 2 ft. wide. Two 

Mwes, Eldopado Co. shafts have been sunk) one 150 ft. 

and the other 60 ft. deep. A tunnel 600 ft. long connects with the 
deeper shaft; below are two winzes, 17 ft. and 35 ft. deep; the former 
25 ft. and the latter 75 ft. from the mouth of the tunnel. The ore 
shoot is 600 ft. long, and about 100 ft. have been stoped; the pitch 
appears to be to the N. The property is well supplied with water 
and timber; lumber is procured from Tower's mill, 12 miles distant, 
at a cost of $10 per 1,000 ft. Not more than a miner's inch of water 
issues from the tunnel. The quartz has a ribbon structure, carrying 
about 2 -J per cent of sulphurets, mostly iron, with some galena; they 
are said to assay from $20 to $300 per ton. The ore is reduced in a 
10-stamp mill with 650 lb. stamps. The stamps make 87 drops per 
minute, starting with 4 in. drop with new shoes and dies, and increasing 
with the wear of the shoes and dies to 7 in.; the discharge varies from 
2 to 7 in. high. Three quarters of a ton is crushed per stamp through 



GOLD — EL DORADO COUNTY. 121 

a No. 40 tin screen. Cast-iron shoes and dies are used. The aprons are 
4 by 4 ft.; the sluice plates (double) 12 ft. long and 14 in. wide, all set 
on an angle of 2 in. to the foot. The feeding is done by hand. The 
tailings are concentrated on a 16 ft. buddle. The mill is run by water 
power; the water is from the Plymouth Company's ditch, and applied 
to a 8 ft. home-made "hurdy" wheel. Polk, Parker Bros. & Chapman, 
of Omo Ranch, owners. 

Pine Hill Mine (Quartz). — It lies one half mile to the E. of the 
Pyramid, on an E. and W. vein. The formation is much the same as 
at the Pyramid. 

Pine Hill Gold Mining Company's Mine (Quartz). — Its property is 6 
miles N. from Shingle Springs, and is 3,000 ft. in length on an E. and 
W. vein, by 300 ft. in width. The vein is 30 ft. wide, between slate 
walls, and carries 5 per cent of sulphurets (iron, lead, zinc, and copper). 
An incline is sunk on the vein about 30 ft., and- a cross-cut started for 
the hanging-wall; at present it is in 30 ft. and has not reached the wall. 
Pine Hill Gold Mining Company, owners; C. Milly, of Shingle Springs, 
President. 

Pleasant Valley Gravel Channel. — A rich channel of drift gravel was 
discovered in the fall of 1893, running E. and W. under Pleasant 
Valley, 10 miles E. of Placerville. It is covered by the ranches of John 
Fink and N. Avansino, and is about 60 ft. beneath the surface. Dimen- 
sions and richness undetermined. Is being actively prospected. An 
8-stamp mill is being erected by Mr. Fink. 

Pocahontas Mine (Quartz). — It is 2 miles S. from El Dorado. It is 
1,500 by 600 ft. on a N.W. and S.E. vein, which is 4 ft. wide, with an 
easterly dip, on the contact of granite and slate; the latter makes the 
hanging-wall. To resume soon. 

Pyramid Mine (Quartz). — This mine, the property of the Pine Hill 
Gold and Silver Mining Company, is situated 5 miles N. of Shingle 
Springs. The claim lies on a hill from the summit of which rises a great 
body of quartz. Before being blasted off this mass of quartz extended 
fully 25 ft. into the air. Several veins unite to form this "blowout, 1 ' as 
the miners term it, in the center of the claim. The main vein does not 
extend far S., but can be traced several miles to the N. Much of the 
quartz is white and massive. The ore is rather base, carrying a little 
galena with arsenical, copper, and iron pyrites. The gold is partly con- 
tained in these sulphurets and partly free. The inclosing walls are 
talcose schist. A small amount of mariposite is found in the lower work- 
ings. The same company owns the Unity, the extension of this claim 
on the N. A method of roasting the ore has lately been undertaken 
here, so as to save a greater proportion of the gold, but it has not yet 
been very successful. 

The mine is opened by a tunnel 300 ft. long on the vein, giving about 
100 ft. backs; 135 ft. from the tunnel mouth a shaft 100 ft. deep has 
been sunk and a drift run N. 140 ft. on the pay shoot. 

The shaft is provided with a fan ventilator and steam hoist (30 horse- 
power). The tunnel track is iron "T" rails, 12 lbs. to the foot. A 
5-stamp steam mill with 750 lb. stamps and two Frue concentrators, 
arranged to run by water part of the year, reduces ore. The mine makes 
2,000 gallons of water per day, which is hoisted to the tunnel level. The 
course of the vein is N. 27° E. Pyramid Mill and Mining Company, 
owners; W. H. Harvey, of Shingle Springs, Superintendent. 



122 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

Rattler Mine (Quartz).— It is 2\ miles S. from Placerville, in T. 10 N., 
R. 11 E., and is a small claim of 900 by 300 ft., supposed to be on the 
same vein as the Epley, on the opposite side of Weber Creek; it has two 
tunnels. John Dench and James Keyser, of Placerville, owners. 

Red Rover Gold Mine (Quartz). — It is 3 miles S.E. of El Dorado, in 
T. 10 N., R. 9 E. It is 1,500 by 600 ft., on a N. and S. vein, from 6 in. 
to 3 ft. wide, dipping N. 60° E., with granite hanging- and slate foot- 
wall. Two shafts are sunk on the vein, 130 ft. and 30 ft. deep, and 75 
ft. apart, with drifts 85 ft. to the N. and 30 ft. to the S. E. Harper et 
al., of El Dorado, owners. 

Revenge Claim (Quartz). — This property is situated in T. 13 N., R. 9 
E., 1 mile S. of Greenwood. Idle. J. Cheney, of Philadelphia, owner. 

Ribbon Rock Mine (Quartz).— It is in Sec. 20, T. 10 N., R. 11 E., 2£ 
miles S.E. of Placerville, in Scott's Ravine, and is 1,500 by 600 ft., on a 
4 ft. vein between slate walls running N. 12° W., with a dip to the E. of 
65°. This is supposed to be on the main " Mother Lode." Two shallow 
shafts, 23 and 36 ft., show a good vein, with heavy gouge on the foot- 
wall. The quartz is of ribbon structure, and carries about 1 per cent of 
sulphurets. M. Miller, of Placerville, owner. 

Rocky Bar Claim (Quartz). — It is half a mile E. of Greenwood, and 
is 1,500 by 600 feet* on a N.W. vein, about 1 ft. wide between slate walls, 
and has an easterly dip of about 60°. Two shafts (now caved) have 
been sunk, the deepest said to be 45 ft. Also an extended cut has been 
made along the croppings. The slate next to the walls is well miner- 
alized. S. Kaiser, of Greenwood, owner. 

Rodgers' Mine (Drift). — See Benfield. 

Rose Mine (Quartz) — See our VIHth Report, p. 182. It lies in the 
slate, W. of the Pacific Mine, at Placerville. 

Rosencranz Mine (Quartz). — See our VIHth and Xth Reports, pp. 
171 and 176. 

San Mar tine Gold Mine (Quartz). — It is l-§ miles N. of Greenwood, 
and is 1,500 by 600 ft. The veins, which lie in the slate near the 
serpentine, run N.W. These small quartz seams are being sunk upon. 
An incline of 23 ft., sunk on a veinlet from 1 to 6 in. wide, yields 
rich in places; the rock is worked in a 9 ft. "hurdy," under a 20 ft. 
head, requiring 10 in. of water. E. Hummel, of Greenwood, owner. 

Santa Rosa Mining Claim (Drift). — This property is situated on 
Hopkins Creek, near Volcanoville, and controls 480 acres of ground. 
A bedrock tunnel is being driven by two men, and at present is 713 ft. 
in length. From this an upraise for air will be made into the old 
Bunker Hill channel, which crosses the course of the tunnel at nearly 
right angles. The channel that the tunnel is designed to tap lies about 
1 ,000 feet farther back in the hill. The bedrock is hard slate, requiring 
no timbering. A blower run by a small Turk wheel, 16 in. in diameter, 
is used to clear the tunnel of smoke. Water power is derived from 
springs near by. Santa Rosa Drift Mining Company, owners; G. A. 
Tupper, of Santa Rosa, Secretary. 

Schleifer Mine (Quartz). — This mine is on the E. side of Big Canon, 
7 miles S. of Shingle Springs. A ledge was opened here for iron, but 
the quality proved too poor. The only mineral to be found around the 
old workings is a base sulphide ore, said to carry some gold. The 
country rock is much broken up by bunches of porphyry. 



GOLD — EL DORADO COUNTY. 123 

Sharp Mine (Quartz). — See our Vlllth Report, p. 194. A 10-stamp 
mill was erected in 1890 and run a short time. Now idle. 

Shaw Mine (Quartz). — See Indian Creek Land and Mining Company. 

Slager Mine (Quartz). — This property is situated 4 miles N. of Green- 
wood, and has 600 by 600 ft. of patented ground; the remainder of the 
claim is held by possessory right. The vein, about 20 ft. wide between 
slate walls, talcose on the foot, is on the course of the " Mother Lode," 
with a N.W. course and an easterly dip. The developments consist 
of a tunnel 500 ft. long; the tunnel taps a shaft 250 ft. deep. In and 
above the tunnel, on the pay shoot, for 300 ft. in length, the vein has 
been stoped to the surface. John Wade et al., of Oakland, owners. 

Spanish Mine (Hydraulic). — This property is situated half a mile 
N.W. from Greenwood, and is on the " seam" belt; the claim has 1,500 
by 600 ft. of patented ground. Eruptive dikes traverse the slate bed- 
rock, and numerous quartz seams penetrate the slate. In all of the 
different varieties of rock gold has been found; among these, besides 
different slates, were amygdaloidal porphyritic rocks, clays, and quartz. 
The larger body of quartz (broken up) crosses the pit between slate 
walls. A shaft was sunk on this 45 ft. and yielded considerable gold. 
The whole has been worked by hydraulic process, but at present two 
men are working on the seams, panning out the quartz. M. M. Howe, 
of Greenwood, owner. 

Springfield Mine (Quartz). — See our Vlth Report (Part II). 

Staples Claim (Quartz). — It is situated in Logtown, 2-| miles S. of El 
Dorado. It is 1,500 by 600 ft. Prospecting on small quartz stringers 
in the granite. 

Standard Pocket Mine (Quartz). — It is a quarter of a mile N. from 
Colonia, across the South Fork of the American River, and is 1,500 by 
600 ft. It belongs in the seam diggings belt near the contact of slate 
with granite. The course is N.W. A tunnel has been driven 230 ft. 
The seams run 2 to 12 in. in width, and all carry more or less gold. 
Idle. C. Schulze and G. Patrick, of Coloma, owners. 

Starlight Mine (Quartz). — This property is situated in T. 9 N., R. 10 
E., 2 miles S. of El Dorado, and W. of Logtown, and is 500 by 600 ft. 
The vein courses N., dipping E. about 40°. There are three shafts sunk 
on the vein; the most northerly is about 160 ft. deep; 300 ft. to the 
south is a second (incline) shaft, about 175 ft. deep, which is tapped 
near the bottom by a tunnel over 500 ft. long, running on the vein; still 
300 ft. farther south is a shaft 350 ft. deep, which is tapped by a tunnel 
160 ft. long, and has a drift 1 10 ft. Drifts and cross-cuts have been run 
at the 60 ft. level, 100 ft., 160 ft., and 270 ft. long. The present work- 
ings are being carried on to the north of the middle shaft. Starlight 
Mining Company, owners; A. Blanc, of El Dorado, Superintendent. 

Stewart Mine (Drift).— See Xth Report, p. 180. It is 1^ miles S.E. of 
Placerville, between Chili Ravine and Weber Creek. It is provided with 
a 10-stamp double-discharge mill. It has been worked intermittently 
for years with indifferent success. Recently some rich gravel was struck 
and its future is brighter. John Melton, of Placerville, owner. 

St. Lawrence Mine (Quartz). — Seven miles N. of Placerville. See our 
Xlth Report, p. 202. Myerson & Alderson, of Placerville, owners. 

St. Lawrence (Stillwagon) Mine (Quartz). — This property is situated 
7 miles W. of Fairplay. It comprises two claims, each 1,500 by 600 ft. 
The vein, from 2 to 3 ft. wide, between granite walls, has a N.E. strike 



124 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 






and dip to the S. The quartz carries a large per cent of sulphurets. 
Both claims are opened by tunnels on the ledge. No. 1, or the Still- 
wagon, has a 400 ft. tunnel, and No. 2, the extension, has a 200 ft. 
tunnel. On the former a little stoping has been done. A 5-stamp mill, 
to be run by water power, is being built; using 850 lb. stamps and a 
Woodbury concentrator. The motive power is a 6 ft. Knight wheel, 
worked under a 70 ft. head. The compressor, for one Burleigh drill, is 
run by a 4 ft. Knight wheel. The company own their own power; 250 
miner's inches are taken from the Little South Fork of the Cosumnes 
River through three quarters of a mile of ditch. A blower will be put 
on for ventilation. Apron plates are 4 by 6 ft., with a grade of 1 in. to 
the foot. Timber is abundant on the ground. Freight to the mine 
from Placerville is 50 cents per cental. See our Xth Report, p. 178. 
S. A. Laine, of Grizzly Flat, owner. 

Stuckslager Mine (Quartz). — It is situated on Granite Creek, 1 mile 
S.W. of Lotus or Uniontown. This claim is noteworthy for the pres- 
ence of roscoelite, a very rare mineral, with the gold; this mineral was 
first discovered here. The vein is about 1 ft. wide, and has a N.E. 
course, clipping southerly about 60°. The fissure is near the contact of 
the granite and the serpentine; the roscoelite fills fine seams near the 
face of the walls. A tunnel has been started in the wall and runs 525 
ft. along the ledge, and is connected with the surface by an upraise of 
225 ft.; a winze is sunk 40 ft. below the level of the tunnel. The two 
men working here crush the richer specimens in hand mortars. Across 
the river the same roscoelite-bearing fissures have been found. C. H. 
Grube and W. B. McKinny, of Lotus, owners. 

Sugar Loaf Mine (Quartz). — It is on the. western side of Logtown 
Divide, about 6 miles S. of El Dorado. Years ago a 20-stamp mill was 
in operation here. The ledge is large, consisting of massive white quartz 
often crystallized. The gold is not often disseminated through it, but 
appears in pockets. It has been developed by tunnels and shafts, now 
caved in. The ledge is on the contact between the diabase forming the 
divide and the belt of slates so prominent in Big Canon. 

Sunday Mine (Quartz). — It is 1^ miles W. of Grizzly Flat, and is 1,500 
by 600 ft., on a N. and S. vein parallel with the Grouse vein, varying 
from 10 in. to 3 ft. in width, between syenite walls. Developments on 
the mine consist of a shaft 110 ft. deep, with an 80 ft. drift;- the ground 
•to the surface has been stoped. The vein is 22 in. wide and heavily sul- 
phuretted. The shaft is furnished with a horse-whim and Cornish pump. 
On the hill above the shaft is a 300 ft. tunnel, exposing a vein from 1 to 
3 ft. wide. Mrs. M. Jeffrey et al., of Grizzly Flat, owners. 

Superior Mine (Quartz). — See our VHIth and Xth Reports, pp. 187 
and 172. W. H. Martin, of Crocker Building, San Francisco, owner. 

Taylor Mine (Quartz). — See Idlewild Mine. 

Texas Hill Mine (Drift). — This property is 2 miles E. of Placerville, 
and controls one mile of the channel, which is worked through a tunnel 
1,500 ft. long, ending in a 75 ft. incline. The channel is crossed by the 
tunnel first 100 ft. from the mouth, and again in the end, showing the 
works to be in a bend in the ancient river. There are two gangways, 
one to the N. and the other to the N.W. The breasts are carried 100 ft. 
wide and 4 ft. high; full sets of timber are required, as the roof is in 
many places sand; no pipe-clay. The bedrock is porphyry. Ventila- 
tion is by lower tunnel, but connection will soon be made with an air 



GOLD — EL DORADO COUNTY. 125 

shaft now 157 ft. in depth. The gravel is capped by lava 120 ft. thick. 
Pay gravel, 1 to 3 ft. deep, slightly cemented. The general course of the 
channel is N.W. About 25 per cent of the mass is cobbles and bowlders. 
Every "breaster" takes out daily 10 carloads of gravel of 1,600 lbs. 
weight; cost of recovery of gold per carload is given at 40 cents. The 
gold is coarse and sells for over $19 per ounce. The 10-stamp mill, with 
750 lb. stamps, has a duty of 75 cars per day; the stamps make 95 drops 
per minute. Steel wire screens with five holes to the inch, and 8 in. 
of water, are used in the battery. The mill is run by a Knight wheel 
5 ft. in diameter, under a 200 ft. head, from El Dorado Water and Deep 
Gravel Mining Company's ditch. Outside of the mill are 100 ft. of 
sluices supplied with slat riffles, in three tiers, with 12 ft. drop between 
them. The apron grooves are cleaned up once a month. Texas Hill 
Drift Mining Company, lessees; T. F lemming, of Placer ville, Superin- 
tendent. 

Toll House Mining Company's Mine (Drift). — Its property comprises 
the Hook and Ladder, Henry Clay, and Cowan claims. See our Xth 
Report, p. 179. 

Treat Mine (Quartz).— See our VHIth Report, p. 178. 

Trench Mine (Quartz). — It is in T. 18 N., R. 11 E., in Quartz Canon, 
S. of Volcanoville. It forms the southern extension of the Josephine 
Mine, and is 2,400 by 600 ft. The vein has a northerly course. The 
surface has been worked quite extensively, but not recently. Heirs of 
J. Trench, of New York, owners. 

True Consolidated Gold Mine (Quartz). — See our VHIth Report, p. 
180. It is situated in Big Canon, three quarters of a mile N. of Placer- 
ville; it comprises 5,400 by 600 ft., consisting of the Halleck, Berry, 
Old Harmon, and Young Harmon claims. There are two parallel veins 
having a N.W. trend. The one running between a greenstone hanging- 
and a slate foot-wall has a width of 4 ft. The other, running through 
the Old and the Young Harmon, is much larger, averaging 15 ft., and 
reaching up to 70 ft. in width; it is in black slate, which in places 
forms excellent roofing slate. True Consolidated Mining Company, 
owners; John Melton, of Placerville, Superintendent. 

Unity Mining Company's Mine (Drift). — Its property is situated in 
Sees. 3 and 4, T. 10 N., R. 11 E., on Wisconsin Flat, 3 miles N.E. of 
Placerville, and comprises 178 acres. It is working on the " blue lead" 
channel, which here has a course S. 60° E. It is capped by lava to a 
depth of 200 ft.; the lava in places, next to the gravel, showing a 
decided pink coloring, although there is no distinct line of demarkation 
between it and the gray lava. The gravel varies in thickness from a 
few inches to 12 ft., and is cemented, requiring a stamp mill. Where 
proved, the width of the channel has been found to be 300 ft., with 
benches of gravel on the sides. Most of the present work is being 
carried on at the east bench, 13 ft. above the main channel level. The 
bedrock is syenite. Under the present company none of the channel 
proper is being worked; under the former owners, 1,700 ft. of the main 
channel was worked. The present workings are being carried on through 
an incline shaft 4 by 7 ft., with an arched roof descending at an angle 
of 30°, furnished with T rails and steam hoist. The shaft is not tim- 
bered. The main gangway has 6 ft. posts; the gravel drifts 3 ft. posts; 
the breasts are timbered with full sets. The breasts are taken 30 ft. 
wide. The percentage of cobbles and bowlders is small, not over 5 per 



126 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

cent. Each man extracts daily 5 carloads of gravel, weighing 1,100 
lbs. Two shifts of four men each are employed. The gold, which is 
scaly, is .960 fine. The gravel is crushed in a 10-stamp mill, with 375 
lb. stamps, making 90 drops per minute, with 9| in. drop; discharging 
through a No. 10 steel wire screen, with a height of discharge of 2 in., 
and 6 in. of water in the battery. A great deal of the gold is rusty, for 
which quicksilver traps and Eureka rubbers are used, with 160 ft. of 
sluices with riffles. The water supply is from El Dorado Water and 
Deep Gravel Mining Company's ditch. Unity Mining Company, owners; 
G. W. Kimball, of Placerville, Superintendent. 

Valdora Mine (Quartz). — See our VHIth Report, p. 178. 

Vandalia Mine (Quartz). — Abandoned. See our VHIth Report, p. 
172. 

Van Hooker Mine ( Quartz ).— See our VHIth Report, p. 181. 

Vann Mine (Quartz). — This property is situated three quarters of a 
mile N. of Georgetown, in T. 12 N., R. 10 E. W. D. English and B. 
Baldwin, of San Francisco, owners. 

Webster Claim (Quartz). — It is in T. 13 N., R. 11 E., in Quartz Canon, 
S. of Volcanoville, and is 2,000 by 600 ft. The course of the vein is 
N. 15° E., with dip to the E. of about 55°, showing from 3 in. to 1 ft. of 
quartz between the contact of serpentine and slate. There are two tun- 
nels on the claim, in the slate, respectively 200 ft. and 300 ft. long, cut- 
ting the vein 200 ft. below the surface. From 3 to 4 in. of water issues 
from the tunnels, which are not timbered. D. C. Webster, of George- 
town, owner. 

Welch Gold Mine (Quartz). — It is situated in Bell's Ravine, half a 
mile N.E. from Greenwood. It is 1,500 by 600 ft., with the vein strik- 
ing N. 60° W. and dipping N.E. 55°. It is 6 ft. wide, between slate 
walls. Numerous surface cuts have been made and much of the ground 
sluiced profitably. An incline has been started in the vein, reaching a 
depth of 45 ft., but now partially filled with water. Worked by the 
owner. H. Welch, of Greenwood, owner. 

White Bear Mine (Quartz). — See our VHIth Report, p. 182. Idle. 

Wilmantic Mine (Quartz). — It is in the diorite, W. of the "Mother 
Lode." Shaft said to be 400 ft. deep. 

Wilton Gravel Mine (Drift). — Situated 8 miles E. of Georgetown, near 
Otter Creek. The channel courses southerly, with a width of about 
600 ft., and is opened by a bedrock tunnel running up the channel 
700 ft., and an upraise of 25 ft. into the gravel; from here gangways are 
run both E. and W., the bedrock in the former dipping rapidly. The 
present workings are 60 ft. below the surface. The water supply is 
derived through the Daggett ditch. Timber is plentiful. W. C. Green, 
of Georgetown, owner. 

Woodside Mine (Quartz). — This property is situated in Georgetown. 
The vein runs N. and S., in slate, and has yielded a large amount of 
gold; the works do not extend over 200 ft. in depth. The quartz body 
is large; prospects over $3 in free gold, and carries some sulphurets. 
Insufficient machinery to handle the water and lack of capital were the 
causes of suspension. C. M. Fitzgerald, of Georgetown, owner. 

Worthington Mine (Drift).— See Xlth Report, p. 206. Idle. 

W. W. Claim (Drift).— It is on Cement Hill, 4 miles N. of George- 
town, and is a mere prospect. A tunnel in slate bedrock is being run 
by two men to tap a channel supposed to cross the line of the tunnel in 



GOLD FRESNO COUNTY. 127 

a S.E. course. At present the tunnel is in 400 ft. No timbering required. 
The claim is 1,500 by 600 ft. R. S. Wilton, of Georgetown, owner. 

Zentgrafs Gold Mine (Quartz). — This property was described in our 
VHIth Report, p. 200, and is situated close to the North Fork of the 
American River, on Wild Goose Flat, 8 miles S. from Newcastle, in T. 

11 N., R. 11 E. The vein strikes N.W. and dips S.E. at an angle of 40°, 
between granite and slate walls. J. & G. Zentgraf, of Newcastle, owners. 

FRESNO COUNTY. 

Not only does Fresno County possess a well-earned reputation for pro- 
ductive orchards and vineyards and fertile lands, but her mountains 
contain numerous mineral deposits. Some of these are at present lightly 
esteemed, as they are situated in places difficult of access, but as facili- 
ties of transportation are extended and advances are made in manufact- 
ure and art, there is no doubt but that the minerals of Fresno will prove 
of great value. The mining interests are situated both in the Sierra and 
in the Coast Range. 

In the Sierra there are veins which yield gold, silver, copper, lead, and 
bismuth; and there is a deposit of iron ore which is said to be one of 
the largest and most valuable in the world. The Sierra is timbered 
almost from the foothills to the snow line, and nearly every canon has a 
flowing stream. 

In the Coast Range, on the western side of the county, there are deposits 
of coal, better in quality and equal in quantity to any found in the State, 
and there are formations which yield petroleum and gypsum. 

The principal mines in that portion of the Sierra which is included 
within the boundaries of Fresno County are situated in the Temperance 
Flat, Sycamore, and Big Dry Creek mining districts; there are some 
also in the vicinity of Sampson's Flat. Extensive ledges of silver- and 
copper-bearing ores are found high up near the snow line of the Sierra. 
The country rock in the mining districts of the foothill region is for the 
most part granitic, passing into gneissoid recks and mica slate. 

Barnes Mine (Quartz). — It is in Sycamore District. There are two 
tunnels, one 300 and the other 800 ft. in length; the vein varies from 

12 to 18 in. in thickness. The milling plant consists of a 3^ ft.' Hunt- 
ington mill and a McGlew concentrator. G. W. Barnes, of Toll House, 
owner. 

Big Sampson Mine (Quartz). — It is about 1 mile W. of Sampson's 
Flat. In the 50 ft. shaft and old workings it is said the vein shows a 
width of from 3 to 14 ft. between walls. See our VHIth Report, p. 207. 
It was idle in June, 1894. The milling plant consists of a Kendall 
rocker mill, with a capacity of 8 tons in twenty-four hours. Heirs of 
B. H. Sterns, deceased, of Visalia, Tulare County, owners. 

Black Jack Mine (Quartz). — This is a southerly extension of the Big 
Sampson. The developments consist of a 90 ft. shaft. A. Hammersly, 
of Bakersfield, Kern County, owner. 

Blue Rock (Midnight Star) Mine (Quartz). — It is in Big Creek Min- 
ing District, and is a southerly extension of the Champion. The devel- 
opments consist of an open cut and several small shafts on a ledge 4 to 
10 ft. wide. Mrs. M. Jensen, of Letcher, owner. 

Boyd & Slater Claim (Placer). — It is on Mill Creek, about 5 miles 
N.E. of Dunlap* In June, 1894, 6 men were engaged in sluicing on this 
claim. Boyd & Slater, of Dunlap, owners. 



128 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

Champion Mine (Quartz). — This claim, on patented land in Big Dry 
Creek Mining District, is a southerly extension of the Defiance. Devel- 
opments consist of a tunnel and shaft, partly caved. F. Gross, of 
Letcher, owner. 

Chipmunk Mine (Quartz). — See Fisk Mines. 

Confidence Mine (Quartz). — This claim is in Big Dry Creek Mining 
District, and is a southerly extension of the Blue Rock. Developments 
consist of two 60 ft. shafts, a 500 ft. tunnel, and several old workings. 
The ledge has a width of from 1 to 4 ft., and shows some sulphurets. 
See our Vlllth and Xth Reports, pp. 208 and 193. E. Loyd, of Letcher, 
owner. 

Crystal Springs Mine (Quartz). — It is in Big Dry Creek Mining Dis- 
trict, and is a northwesterly extension of the Defiance. The develop- 
ments consist of a 50 ft. tunnel, and the quartz shows sulphurets and 
free gold. Jo Vernette, of Letcher, owner. 

Defiance Mine (Quartz). — This claim is in Big Dry Creek Mining 
District. Developments consist of a 260 ft. tunnel and a 40 ft. shaft. 
The ledge varies in width from 8 in. to 5 ft. It dips about 80° N.E. and 
carries some sulphurets. F. Gross, of Letcher, owner. 

Discovery Claim (Placer). — It is on Mill Creek, about 3 miles W. of 
Dunlap P. O. J. L. Gregg et al., of Dunlap, owners. 

Emma (Yorton) Mine (Quartz). — This claim, situated in Big Dry 
Creek Mining District, is a southerly extension of the Mt. Sterling. The 
developments appear to be made on an extension of the second vein, 
about 1 ft. wide, mentioned in the description of the Mt. Sterling. The 
wall rock appears to be a gneiss, in which mica predominates. Hugh 
Nipper et al., of Letcher, owners. 

Fish Mines (Quartz). — These comprise the Luakala, Phantom, Yankee, 
Chipmunk, and Tamarac claims. They are at the junction of Triple 
Falls Creek and the Middle Fork of Kings River, and are about 4 miles 
N.E. of the Big Meadows on the Middle Fork of Kings River. The 
principal developments are on the Luakala Mine, where there is a 50 ft. 
shaft and a 50 ft. tunnel. The ledge is said to be 21 ft. in thickness, 
with a pay streak of about 2 ft., and carries sulphides of iron and silver. 
On the Chipmunk and the Tamarac, the ledge is said to be 30 ft. wide, 
with a pay streak of about 4 ft. 

Gilkie Mine (Placer). — It is situated at Sampson's Flat. S. C. Moore, 
of Dunlap, owner. 

Grub Stake Mine (Quartz). — This claim, in Big Dry Creek Mining 
District, is a northwestern extension of the Mt. Sterling. The vein is 4 
to 15 in. wide. Hugh Nipper et al., of Letcher, owners. 

Hercules Mine (Quartz). — This is situated at Sampson's Flat. The 
claim is opened by a 150 ft. tunnel, and the vein shows a width of from 
6 in. to 3 ft. S. C. Moore, of Dunlap, owner. 

Herron Mine (Quartz). — This mine is in Auberry Valley. The prin- 
cipal developments consist of an 800 ft. tunnel, with several stopes and 
one 30 ft. winze. There are also several old workings. The ledge varies 
in thickness from a few inches to 6 ft., its average width being about 3 ft., 
and the pay streak varies from a few inches to about 2 ft. The vein 
matter consists of clayey material and clean quartz showing sulphurets. 
The ledge dips 45° to 60° N.W. in granite. Adjoining the mine is a 5 ft. 
Huntington mill and two concentrators. See also our Xlth Report, 
p. 215. Shepperd Bros, and J. C. Hosie, of Fresno, owners. 








Steam-Power Arrastra, Kern County. 



GOLD — FRESNO COUNTY. 129 

Hancock Mine (Quartz). — This is a southeasterly extension of the 
Slocum. It is on Big Dry Creek, a tributary of Kings River, and in 
Sycamore District. There are four tunnels, varying from 50 to 200 ft. A 
rocker mill with a capacity of 5 tons in twenty-four hours is part of the 
plant. B. Hancock, of Letcher, owner. 

Hidden Treasure Mine (Quartz). — This claim is near Temperance Flat. 
In the small shaft the ledge is about 4 ft. wide, with a pay streak of 
about 1 ft. W. B. Brecken and Dr. J. Graham, of Fresno, owners. 

Homestake Mine (Placer). — On this mine, situated on Sampson's Flat 
Creek, work is usually prosecuted during the winter. It is said that the 
stratum of auriferous gravel, about 4 ft. thick, covers an area of about 10 
acres. J. N. Albin et al., of Fresno, owners. 

Inyo Mine (Quartz). — It is situated at Temperance Flat. Develop- 
ments consist of four tunnels, which are respectively 400, 150, 135, and 
105 ft. in length, with several stopes and old workings. The vein varies 
in width from a few inches to about 4 ft., showing an average width of 
about 2 ft. of pay ore. The vein dips about 30° N.W. The country 
rock is granitic. A No. 1 Kendall mill, run by steam power, is con- 
nected with the property. J. S. Johnson and N. Sullivan, of Auberry, 
owners. 

John Burnett Mine (Quartz). — This claim is on patented land, and in 
Sec. 20, T. 11 N., R. 23 E. There is a 30 ft. shaft; and the vein, showing 
free gold, varies in width from 1 to 6 in., and stands nearly vertical. J. 
McDonell, of Sentinel, owner. 

Keno Mine (Quartz). — In this claim at Temperance Flat, develop- 
ments consist of a 240 ft. tunnel, from which two levels have been run, 
about 300 and 110 ft., respectively; also a 136 ft. incline. The principal 
vein shows a width varying from 6 in. to several feet, and dips about 60° 
S. W. The ledge consists of clayey matter containing fragments of quartz. 
There are also two or three smaller veins in the mine. At this mine 
there is a 10-stamp mill. Fresno Milling and Mining Company, of 
Fresno, owners. 

Lemmon's Mine (Placer). — This is on Stevenson Creek, about 3 miles 
E. of the San Joaquin River. D. M. Lemmon, of North Fork, Madera 
County, owner. 

Little Monitor Mine (Quartz). — It is in Davis Flat. A. P. Davis and 
S. C. Moore, of Dunlap, owners. 

Luakala Mine (Quartz). — See Fisk Mines. 

Lucky Joe Mine (Quartz). — This claim, in Big Dry Creek Mining Dis- 
trict, is a northwesterly extension of the Crystal Springs. The develop- 
ments consist of open cuts, and the ledge varies from about 2 in. to 
1 ft. Charles Bayard, of Letcher, owner. 

McDonald Mine (Quartz). — This is a northwesterly extension of the 
Barnes, and is in Sycamore District. In the 20 ft. tunnel the vein shows 
a width of from 12 to 18 in. J. W. McDonald, of Fresno, owner. 

Mersaba Mine (Placer). — See Ohio Mine. 

Midnight Star Mine (Quartz). — See Blue Rock. 

Minnette Mine (Quartz). — This is on Upper Big Creek, in Sycamore 
District. In the 50 ft. tunnel the vein is said to show a thickness of 
about 18 in., dips about 45° N.E., and shows sulphurets and free gold; 
it is worked in an arrastra driven by water power. E. Minnette, of 
Fresno, owner. 
9m 



130 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

Morrow Mine (Quartz). — See Petrea. 

Mount Stirling Mine (Quartz). — This mine is situated between Fancher 
and Dog Creek. Developments consist of four 30 ft. shafts and one 160 
ft. shaft. The vein on which the principal workings are situated shows 
a width of from 6 in. to about 2 ft., and dips 80° N.E. The ore is sugar- 
grained quartz, showing free gold and a few sulphurets. On this claim 
there is a second vein, about 1 ft. wide, running nearly parallel to the 
other at a distance of about 150 ft. The ore has a coarser structure and 
is said to be of lower grade. M. V. Ashbrook, of Letcher, owner. 

Music Mine (Quartz). — See Providence. 

Ninety-nine Mine (Quartz). — This claim is in Sec. 10, T. 14 S., R. 26 
E. It is said that the developments consist of a 175 ft. and a 75 ft. 
tunnel, and a 100 ft. and a 20 ft. shaft; also that the vein varies in 
width from 1 to 3 ft. L. W. Howell, of Dunlap, owner. 

Ohio and Mersaba Mines (Placer). — They are situated on the San 
Joaquin River at the mouth of Fine Gold Gulch, and about 5 miles up 
the river from Pollasky. It is proposed to turn the water from a bend 
of the San Joaquin and work its channel. Ohio Gold Mining Com- 
pany, of Fresno, owners. 

Oro Fino, Nos. 1 and 2, Mines (Quartz). — These claims are at Davis 
Flat, about 2 miles N. from Sampson's Flat. There is a small shaft 
and short tunnel and also a large open cut, which has been formed by 
ground-sluicing. See our VHIth Report, pp. 207 and 208. A. P. Davis, 
of Traver, owner. 

Petrea {Morrow) Mine (Quartz). — It is on Little Dry Creek, in Sec. 7, 
T. 11 S., R. 23 E. A. W. Petrea, of Fresno, owner. 

Phantom Mine (Quartz). — See Fisk Mines. 

Protection Mine (Quartz). — In this claim at Temperance Flat, develop- 
ments consist of a 50 ft. shaft and open cuts. The veins show a width 
of between 3 and 4 ft., and dip about 40° N.W. J. Hosie and W. A. 
Shepperd, of Fresno, owners. 

Providence {Music) Mine (Quartz). — This claim is on Pine Ridge, in 
Sycamore Mining District. It is said that the developments consist of 
a 200 ft. shaft, two 500 ft. levels, and two that are about 300 ft. in length. 
The ore is worked in a Dodge pulverizer. See our Vlllth Report, p. 206. 
— Howard, of Toll House, owner. 

Quien Sabe Mine (Quartz). — This mine is about 1-J miles N.W. of 
Temperance Flat. Developments consist of a small shaft and a 600 ft. 
tunnel. D. H. Jackson, of Auberry, owner. 

Rattlesnake Mine (Quartz). — This claim, which is patented, is about 
1 mile W. of Temperance Flat. Developments consist of several tun- 
nels and shafts, which in May, 1894, were partly filled with water. See 
our VIHth Report, p. 215. D. H. Jackson, of Oakland, Alameda County, 
owner. 

Sampson Mine (Quartz). — See Big Sampson Mine. 

Sawyer & Murray Claim (Placer). — Situated on Mill Creek, about 5 
miles N.E. of Dunlap. In June, 1894, four men were sluicing. Sawyer 
& Murray, of Dunlap, owners. 

Slocum Mine (Quartz). — This is a southeasterly extension of the 
Barnes, and is in Sycamore District. The developments consist of a 30 
ft., a 50 ft., and a 100 ft. tunnel. — Slocum, of Reedley, owner. 

Smuggle Mine (Quartz). — This mine is at Temperance Flat. Develop- 
ments consist of a 25 and a 40 ft. tunnel. The vein shows a width of 



GOLD — GLENN COUNTY. 131 

about 5 in. and dips about 60° N.W. The walls are granitic; ore shows 
sulphurets. R. Welch and H. T. Harrison, of Auberry, owners. 

Speedy Mine (Quartz). — This claim, at Temperance Flat, is a south- 
westerly extension of the Wide- Awake. Developments consist of a 10 ft. 
shaft and open cuts. The vein shows a width of about 2 ft. The walls 
are granitic. H. Rauscher, of Auberry, owner. 

Tamarac Mine (Quartz). — See Fisk Mines. 

Temperance Mine (Quartz). — See Wide- Awake Mine. 

Thornton Mine (Drift). — This claim is 4 miles S.W. of Temperance 
Flat, on the east bank of the San Joaquin. Developments consist of 
more than 100 ft. of tunnels and drifts. During the winter, water for 
sluicing is obtained from creeks and gulches, and in summer it is 
pumped from the San Joaquin River. Four men are employed. See 
our Xlth Report, p. 215. O. B. Olfs et al., of Fresno, owners. 

Thorn Mine (Quartz). — It is in Big Dry Creek Mining District. 
Developments consist of a 120 and a 60 ft. tunnel, with stopes. The vein 
is said to have a width of from 6 to 18 in. T. Waxford, of Sentinel, owner. 

Valley View Mine (Quartz).— This claim is in Sec. 32, T. 11 S., R. 22 
E. Developments consist of a 40 ft. shaft and a 140 ft. tunnel. The 
vein varies from a few inches to about one foot. It stands nearly ver- 
tical and has a strike of S.E. and N.W. The sugar-grained quartz 
shows free gold. Chris. Petersen, of Sentinel, owner. 

Victoria Mine (Quartz). — It is at Temperance Flat. Developments 
consist of two 30 ft. tunnels; the vein shows an average width of about 
14 in. J. R. Whittaker et al., of Auberry, owners. 

Wakefield Mine (Placer). — This is in Dinkley Creek, a tributary of 
Laurel Creek, and in Sycamore Mining District. W. Wakefield, of Toll 
House, owner. 

Weatherby Mine (Quartz). — It is in Auberry Valley. Developments 
consist of a 100 ft. incline, with stopes, and a 140 ft. incline, from which 
two drifts have been run upon the vein for a distance of 100 ft. and 
60 ft., respectively. The width of the vein varies from 12 to 14 in., and 
dips 30° N.W. Logan Baird et al., of Garfield, owners. 

White Cross Mine (Quartz).— It is in Sec. 10, T. 14 S., R. 26 E. Devel- 
opments are said to consist of a 100 ft. tunnel and a 30 ft. shaft. See 
our VHIth Report, p. 208. T. L. Reed et al., of Reedley, owners. 

Wide-Awake {Temperance) Mine (Quartz). — In this mine, at Temper- 
ance Flat, developments consist of a 100 ft. tunnel, three 40 ft. stopes, 
and several workings. The vein varies in width from a few inches to 
about 2 ft., and dips about 30° N.W. The ore shows sulphurets, and 
the walls are granitic. W. Dolph and J. Golden, of Auberry, owners. 

Yankee Mine (Quartz). — See Fisk Mines. 

Yorton Mine (Quartz). — See Emma Mine. 

GLENN COUNTY. 

This county occupies a central position among the counties of the 
Sacramento Valley. The eastern and central portions of the county 
possess some of the finest wheat-growing lands in the State. Farther 
westward are foothills and valleys, where good crops are the rule. 
Orchards thrive without irrigation. There is a good range for stock at 
all seasons of the year. 

In the mountains on the western border of the county, there are 



132 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

extensive deposits of chromic iron, and " prospects " of cinnabar and 
gold-bearing ore are reported. There are also several valuable mineral 
springs. 

The Milsap Mine (Quartz). — This mine is situated between Grind- 
stone Creek and Milsap Creek. In August, 1894, two men were employed 
in prospecting the ledge, which is almost 4 ft. in width. 

HUMBOLDT COUNTY. 

Big Bar Mine (Hydraulic). — This claim was filled by high water in 
1890 and the ditches destroyed. No attempt has since been made to 
reopen the mine, although there are several acres of rich gravel left. 

Big Lagoon, Gold Sand at. — See our Xlth Report, p. 230. 

Bistel Mine (Hydraulic). — It lies along Trinity River, 1 mile below 
Brown Station, at the mouth of Willow Creek. About 500 in. of water 
is derived from Willow Creek, through 2 miles of ditch and 1,000 ft. of 
12 in. pipe to a giant with 3^ and 4 in. nozzles. The bedrock is soft 
blue slate and lies 10 to 25 ft. above the river. The banks are 25 ft. 
high, and average 8 ft. of pay gravel. The claim is on an old channel, 
which runs parallel to the channel of Trinity River for nearly 2 
miles, the whole of which is said to be rich in coarse gold. The claim 
has been idle for some time, on account of the dam and upper part of 
the ditch being washed out by the floods in Willow Creek. 

•Croton Bar Mine (Hydraulic). — It is on the Klamath River, 1^ miles 
above Orleans. It comprises 20 acres and has 2,000 ft. frontage on the 
river. The bedrock is micaceous slate and lies some 40 ft. above low 
water in the river. The bank is 50 ft. high and the gravel 30 ft. deep. 
About 500 inches of water is taken out of Wilson Creek by a ditch 
and flume, 18 by 14 in., 2 miles long, on a grade of 2^ in. per 12 ft. 
Half a mile of pipe is in use, 24 in., 18 in., 15 in., and 11 in. in diam- 
eter; also two giants, with 3-§ and 4 in. nozzles, under 150 ft. pressure. 
The sluices, 2 by 20 in., are 400 ft. long and have a grade of 9 in. per 
box. The water season is about six months; and about 1 acre was 
cleaned up last winter. E. Markerson, of Orleans, owner. 

Ferris Claim (Placer). — This is on the Klamath River, about 1 mile 
below Orleans. It contains 30 acres of ground and has 500 ft. frontage 
on the river. One mile of ditch collects water from a number of small 
gulches, and delivers about 100 in. for three months in the year. 
There are 600 ft. of 9 in. pipe and a giant with 4 in. nozzle under a 60 
ft. head, and 200 ft. of sluices, 18 by 18 in., with block riffles. A. Ferris, 
of Orleans, owner. 

Mr. Ferris is doing some sluicing on a bar in the Klamath River at 
present (September, 1894). A wooden dump car running on a wooden 
track is used to run the gravel to the main channel, where, by an 
ingenious arrangement of cheap wingdams, sufficient water is diverted 
to fill the sluices and keep them clear. There are 60 ft. of 12 by 12 in. 
sluices, and about 15 cu. yds. of material are washed per day. The 
gravel deposit on bedrock is about 3 ft. deep, and is said to be renewed 
every year by deposition of gold and gravel during high water. 

Graham Flat Mine (Hydraulic). — See Orleans Bar. 

Hoopa Valley. — It is the general belief that the bars along the river 
throughout the Reservation are very rich, but as the Indians object to 
having them worked, nothing is done. 



GOLD — HUMBOLDT COUNTY. 133 

Johnson Ranch, Gold Washing at the. — See our Xlth Report, p. 332. 

Klamath River. — The hydraulic mines along the river in Humboldt 
County derive their water from the tributaries, and can only be worked 
successfully during the rainy season and in the spring. 

Lower Gold Bluffs, Beach Washing at. — Is still carried on in a small 
way. See our Xlth Report, p. 232. 

Manapier Mine (Placer). — It is half a mile below Klamath Bluff. 
One quarter of a mile of ditch brings about 150 in. of water from Block - 
ser Creek, and 80 ft. of 6 in. pipe and a hose with a 2 in. nozzle are 
used. F. Sebastian, of Klamath Bluff, owner. 

Maston Claim (Placer). — It lies at the mouth of the North Fork of 
Trinity River, and comprises about 300 acres of gravel, said to be very 
rich. A ditch 8 miles long and nearly completed will furnish 1,000 in. 
of water under a 200 ft. head. J. J. Maston, Superintendent. 

Mettah Mine (Placer). — It is about 4 miles above Klamath Bluff. The 
gravel is on a low bar in the river and on the bank, and is worked in 
rockers. The claim is covered during flood stages of the river, and can 
be worked only during the summer. 

Morris' Claim (Placer). — This is on Willow Creek, S. of the Hoopa 
Reservation. The gravel in the bottom of the creek is from a few inches 
to 8 ft. deep. Wingdams are used to divert the water and expose the bed 
of the creek. The gold is coarse and angular, and is often attached to 
pieces of quartz, which may indicate that it has not traveled for any 
great distance. 

Orleans Bar Placer Mining Company's Mine (Hydraulic). — They own 
about 2,500 acres, partly patented, in and around the town of Orleans. 
They built a ditch 11 miles long, to bring the water of Camp Creek, 
which is quite a large stream, but in January, 1890, an unprecedentedly 
heavy fall of snow, followed by a warm rain, washed out a great part 
of it and it has not been repaired. 

The upper workings were formerly known as the Wilder Claim, and 
as it is supplied by an independent ditch from Little Wilder Creek and 
Sim's Gulch, work is carried on there every winter. The claim contains 
1,000 acres of patented land immediately above the town. The ditch is 
6 miles long and furnishes 300 in. of water under a 125 ft. pressure, 
eight months in the year. They use 600 ft. of 18 in. and 15 in. pipe, 
two "giants" with 4 in. nozzles, and 900 ft. of 26 in. sluices, on a 6 
in. grade, with block riffles. The gold, generally of the size of a pin 
head, is mostly caught with the first 150 ft. of the sluices, and this part 
is cleaned up every ten days. The bedrock is a soft micaceous slate, 
containing seams of quartz and iron sulphurets. The bank is 30 ft. 
high and shows about 8 ft. of pay gravel. 

The lower works are about 1 mile below the town, and were formerly 
known as the Graham Flat Claim. The bar embraces 28 acres of 
gravel, 30 to 50 ft. deep. About 2 acres were cleaned up here before the 
Camp Creek ditch broke, and it is said yielded satisfactorily. The 
sluices are 42 in. wide and 30 in. deep. The water is delivered through 
800 ft. of pipe under a 350 ft. head. The bedrock lies 30 ft. above the 
river, so that tailings are easily disposed of. Freight per pack train 
from end of railroad at Korbel to Orleans is 3 cents per pound, and it 
takes ten to twelve days for the round trip. Owned in London, England; 
Mr. P. L. Young, of Crescent City, Superintendent. 



134 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

Pearch Mine (Hydraulic). — It is on the Klamath, 1 mile above and 
opposite Orleans. It contains 80 acres and has about half a mile 
frontage on the river. A ditch 1 mile long from Pearch or Mill Creek 
furnishes about 900 inches of water. There are 700 ft. of 22 in. and 15 
in. pipe, delivering the water under a 125 ft. pressure to two "giants," 
with 4 in. and 6 in. nozzles. There are two sluices 300 and 700 ft. long, 
30 in. wide, with 6 in. grade. The banks are 50 ft. high and nearly all 
gravel. A sawmill on the claim furnishes the lumber; the 56 in. saw is 
driven by a 3-J ft. hurdy wheel, by water taken from the main pipe 
under pressure of about 100 ft. J. A. Pearch, of Orleans, owner. 

Red Cap Mine (Hydraulic). — It is on the right bank of Klamath 
River, opposite the mouth of Red Cap Creek. Water is derived from 
Little Red Cap Creek by a ditch 1^ miles long, using flumes 16 by 15 in. 
on a grade of 1^ in. in 12 ft.; 500 ft. of 11 and 7 in. pipe delivers the 
water, under a 150 ft. head, to a "giant" with 3 in. nozzle. A small 
reservoir is used to collect water enough to run three hours per day dur- 
ing the dry season. There are 600 ft. of sluices, 24 by 20 in., with block 
riffles and on a 7 in. grade per box. There remains about 10 acres of 
gravel unworked. Wm. Lord, of Orleans, owner. 

Redwood Creek, Beach Washing at the Mouth of. — See our Xlth Report, 
p. 232. 

Salstrom'' s Mine (Placer). — This is 1-J miles below Orleans, on the 
Klamath River and Camp Creek. The claim contains 80 acres, partly 
on a low shelf, which is submerged during flood stages of the river, and 
partly on the second shelf, where the bedrock lies 30 ft. above high 
water. A flume 36 by 16 in., one third of a mile long, delivers 800 in. of 
water from Salstrom Creek through 650 ft. of 14 in. and 10 in. pipe to a 
"giant" with a 3 in. nozzle, under 130 ft. head. The bank varies from 
25 to 50 ft. in height, and the pay gravel from 10 to 30 ft. There are 
400 ft. of sluices. As stated above, the lower shelf is covered with water 
when the river is high, and in the summer when the bar could be worked 
there is no water in Salstrom Creek. It is therefore necessary to build 
a ditch 3 miles long to bring water from Camp Creek, which has suffi- 
cient during the summer to permit work in a small way. Jonas 
Salstrom, of Orleans, owner. 

Trinity River. — All along the river prospectors are at work washing 
with rockers or sluices either in the bed or on the banks of the river. 
They are said to earn not less than a dollar per day. 

Two-Yoke Bar Mine (Hydraulic). — This is on the Klamath River, 2 
miles below Orleans. During high water in 1890 the claim was filled 
and the ditches destroyed. No work has been done since. 

Upper Gold Bluffs. — They are situated on the seashore, and extend 
south from Osagon Creek about 5 miles. The bluffs from which the 
property is named rise to the height of from 200 to 300 ft., and are com- 
posed for the most part of friable sandstone and conglomerate, the latter 
predominating. At the base of the bluffs the dip is about 15° N.E. In 
the upper portions of the bluffs the conglomerate is interstratified with 
well-defined strata of yellowish sand and light-colored sediment, which 
are practically horizontal. The only fossils are a few lignitized plant 
remains. The conglomerate is said to be auriferous and to supply the 
gold which is found on the seashore at the Gold Bluffs. This conglom- 
erate extends inland, and several years ago hydraulic mining was 
carried on, and 1,000 ft. of tunnel was run to divert water from Prairie 



GOLD INYO COUNTY. 135 

Creek. It is said that in 1879 the Upper Gold Bluffs property was sur- 
veyed so that the surface of the conglomerate or gravel was divided by 
survey lines which formed 180 intersections, which were equal distances 
apart; that prospect shafts were sunk at each intersection, and that 
auriferous gravel was found in every shaft. (A few panfuls of gravel 
from one of these shafts yielded several colors of rather coarse gold.) 
The present owner states that experimental washings, in several places, 
have shown as high as 20 cents in gold to the cubic yard. Edson 
Adams, of Oakland, Alameda County, owner. 

Uscellena Mine (Hydraulic). — It is on the Klamath River, 7 miles 
above Orleans. The bank is 60 ft. high, and shows 15 ft. of pay gravel. 
A ditch 3 miles long collects 300 to 400 in. of water from Mud Creek and 
several smaller streams. There are 500 ft. of 14 in. and 11 in. pipe; a 
giant with a 3 in. nozzle, under a 160 ft. pressure; and 350 ft. of 24 in. 
sluices, with block riffles. The ditches of this claim were injured to 
some extent during the high water of 1890 and have not been restored 
completely, so that the mine is worked only in a small way. L. Nelson, 
of Orleans, owner. 

White's Claim (Placer). — See Morris' Claim, which it adjoins. 

Weitchpec Mine (Hydraulic). — It is at the lower end of the village of 
the same name, opposite the mouth of Trinity River. It contains 25 
acres of gravel. Water is derived from a number of small reservoirs in 
Weitchpec Creek and carried through a ditch half a mile long with flumes 
32 in. wide, on a grade off in. to 12 ft. The water is delivered through 
500 ft. of 11 in. pipe to a giant with 4 in. nozzle, under 125 ft. pressure. 
The sluices are 400 ft. long and 24 in. wide. The bedrock is a very soft 
talcose slate, and is about 30 ft. above the river. The bank is 30 ft. high 
and shows 10 ft. of gravel. Many large bowlders are found and a large 
derrick is used to pile them to one side. The hoisting is done with a 
small wooden hurdy wheel, taking its water from the pipe immediately 
above the giant. This is the only mine on the Klamath River in 
Humboldt County which has water enough to run all summer. Wm. 
Lord, of Orleans, owner. 

Wilder Claim (Hydraulic). — See Orleans Bar. 

Young 1 s Mine (Hydraulic). — This is on the Klamath River, 10 miles 
above Klamath Bluff. Water is obtained from a number of small creeks 
by short ditches. There are 250 ft. of 11 in. pipe and a small giant 
under 100 ft. pressure. The bedrock is about 300 ft. above the river, 
and consists of a soft blue slate. The claim is nearly worked out, only 
a small patch of gravel remaining. Mr. Young, of Weitchpec, owner. 

INYO COUNTY. 

Inyo County is not a very large producer of gold, its output of that 
metal being less than its silver product. There are, however, several 
small gold camps from which there was a total output, in 1893, of 
$25,944, an increase over the previous year's record. 

Abe Lincoln Mine (Quartz). — See Lonella Mine. 

American Flag Mine (Quartz). — It is on the ridge between Craig's 
and Allen's canons, on the eastern slope of the Inyo range. The eleva- 
tion is about 7,000 ft. The ledge varies from 1 to 4 ft. in width, inclosed 
in granite, and is developed by a tunnel 45 ft. long. The greater portion 
of the vein carries a little gold, but there are in places very rich pockets 



136 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

of galena associated with coarse gold. The gold is sometimes found 
inclosed in the galena. Victor Trapier, of Lone Pine, owner. 

Argus Canon Gold Mines (Quartz). — Near the mouth of Argus Canon, 
on the western slope of the Argus range, are fifteen claims. The ledges 
are characterized by the excess of the gold contents over the silver, but 
in genera] appearance resemble the others in this part of Inyo County. 
They lie on both sides of Argus Canon, the southerly ones being quite 
flat, while the northerly ones are steeply inclined. The greatest develop- 
ment is on the South Inyo claim, on the north side of the canon. A 
tunnel has been run on the ledge 120 ft., showing a thickness of 1 to 
4 ft. The quartz is hard but honeycombed. One half mile north, on 
another claim, a tunnel has been run 80 ft. South of Argus Canon is a 
large vein, on which five locations have been made. W. C. Wilson, of 
Mojave, Kern County, owner. 

Baranca Mine (Quartz). — This mine is situated on the ridge south of 
Craig's Canon, on the eastern slope of the Inyo range; the altitude is 
7,000 ft. A number of veins occur on this claim, all of which have 
been more or less worked. The greatest development is a 250 ft. tunnel. 
Adjoining this mine are two other claims, on which some work has been 
done. 

Bonanza Mine (Quartz). — This mine is 25 miles S. of Darwin, in 
Mountain Spring Canon. The ledge is inclosed in granite, and is quite 
irregular, varying from mere stringers to 2 ft. in width. A depth of 200 
ft. has been reached on the incline, with drifts N. and S. Three other 
veins run parallel with the main one. The ore is milled in an arrastra. 
John Andrada, of Freeman P. O., owner. 

Briton & Porter Mine (Quartz). — It is situated on the north side 
of Robles Canon, at an altitude of 6,600 ft. - Although this is one of the 
oldest mines in the district, it has laid idle until recently. Work is 
now in progress upon a large vein of sugary quartz. The old incline, 
which followed the vein in, is 170 ft. long, and will be extended several 
hundred feet, if the indications are favorable. The vein is 2 to 7 ft. wide, 
and strikes E. and W., and dips 20° to 25° N. into a granitic spur of the 
Inyo range. 

Farther west on the same vein, and owned by the same parties, is the 
Bronco Mine, where a shaft has been sunk to a depth of 110 ft. The 
dip is 70°. The quartz carries free gold, and a little silver in galena, 
copper and iron sulphurets. The vein as a whole is one of the largest 
and most regular in the district. If the developments are favorable it 
is the intention to erect a 10-stamp mill at the junction of Robles and 
Hunter's canons, where there is nearly 20 in. of water. The ore can be 
sent to the mill on a tramway. J. J. Haley, of San Francisco, owner; 
W. L. Hunter, of Independence, Superintendent. 

Brown Monster (Eclipse) Mine (Quartz). — It is near the western base of 
the Inyo range, and S.E. of Independence. The vein lies in limestone, 
dips into the range at an angle of 15° to 20°, and averages 5 ft. wide. 
An incline for a double track has been sunk on the vein to a distance of 
400 ft. Although this is essentially a gold mine, there is frequently 
found a thin layer of silver-bearing galena on the hanging-wall. The 
most of the gold is found in iron streaks running through the quartz. 
In the stopes to the left of the incline the vein was found to be 12 ft. 
thick; in the bottom of the incline it is said to be 5 ft. thick, dipping 
25°. The ore was transported by a tramway to the river, where a 



GOLD — INYO COUNTY. 137 

20-stamp mill was operated for many years. See our Vlllth Report, p. 
263. A. W. Eibeshutz, of Independence, owner. 

Chilula, Gavilan, Montano, and San Antonio Mines (Quartz). — This 
group is situated near the head of Robles Canon, on the eastern part of 
the Inyo range. 

The Chilula lies partly in limestone and partly in granite. The lime- 
stone is found on the western end of the claim, and it is here that silver 
ore is found. On the eastern end of the claim a tunnel has been run 400 
ft. in granite. A rich shoot of ore was followed down from the surface to 
this tunnel. As the ledge passes from the granite to the limestone, the 
most of the gold content disappears and silver-bearing galena takes its 
place. 

The Gavilan is one of the few vertical veins in the district. It lies on 
the south side of the canon, which is quite precipitous at this point. The 
ledge was finely exposed vertically for a distance of 100 ft., and it was 
only necessary to blast it from the wall of the canon. It averages 5 ft. 
in width, and has been worked at least 200 ft. in depth. The strike is 
E. and W., and the inclosing formation granite. 

The Montano is a bunchy vein near by, which has been opened to 
about 50 ft. in depth. North of the canon is another of this group of 
mines, where a vein has been opened by inclines and considerable stoping 
done. It is 5 ft. wide in places and dips N., and is quite similar to and 
lies a little above the Bronco Mine. Wilson & Montano, of Lone Pine, 
owners. 

Garfield Mine (Quartz). — This mine is one of the oldest in the Fish 
Springs District. A large amount of work has been done on a small 
ledge, which tips W. at a small angle. The quartz is bunchy and pockety 
in character. This property was abandoned at one time, but has recently 
been relocated, and is now being worked. Jerry Moiers, of Independ- 
ence, owner. 

Georgia Mine (Quartz). — It is on the western slope of the White 
Mountains, 10 miles E. of Bishop Creek. In the granitic country rock 
are two sets of veins; the flat ones often contain gold-bearing quartz, 
while the other set, which are more nearly vertical, is barren. The flat 
ledges run N.W. and S.E. The vein on which the Georgia Mine is sit- 
uated has a width varying from a mere seam up to 20 in. The ore is 
high grade, the gold being mostly free. There is a small amount of iron 
and copper sulphurets. This mine is developed by 260 ft. of tunnels 
and 75 ft. of winzes. 

Gold Bug Mine (Quartz). — It is on Fish Springs Hill, 20 miles N. of 
Independence. The vein is small, and runs E. and W. on the contact 
of granite with a dark, fine-grained dike. A large amount of work has 
been done on this mine. There are three tunnels; the upper is 115, the 
middle 600, and the lower 200 ft. long. The sulphurets are abundant 
and rich, and the gold fine. 

Gold Gulch Mine (Quartz). — This is a recent discovery, situated in 
Gold Gulch, on the western slope of the Panamint range. Here four 
claims have been located on a vein running N.E. and S.W., and dipping 
45°; the hanging-wall being limestone. The vein is said to be IS in. 
wide and traceable for a thousand feet. Messrs. R. W. Mclntyre, M. F. 
Clute, Geo. Calwell, and O. W. Shafer, of Redlands, owners. 

Golden Reef Mine (Quartz). — It is in the Fish Springs District, 18 
miles N. of Independence. The vein is inclosed in a granitic rock, and 



138 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

strikes nearly N. and S. and dips about 45° E. It varies in width from 
a mere stringer to 20 in., and consists of iron and copper sulphurets, 
brown iron, and free gold. The free gold is obtained by crushing in an 
arrastra, and the tailings, which are rich, are saved for future treatment. 
J. McSorty, of Big Pine, owner. 

Hirsh Mine (Quartz).— It is situated on the western slope of the Inyo 
range and a little above the Brown Monster. It is developed by a 
tunnel 100 ft. long and a drift south on the ledge 200 ft. From the drift 
three winzes were sunk. The vein is 4 to 8 ft. wide, and consists partly 
•of gold-bearing quartz and partly of galena carrying silver. The galena 
occurs on the foot-wall , and at one spot was found to be 3 ft. in width. The 
ledge strikes N. and S. and dips 30° E. The most of the work in this 
mine has been done during the last three years, although it was opened 
many years ago. Nathan Rhine, of Independence, owner. 

Hope Mine (Quartz). — It is situated near the base of the Inyo range, 
15 miles N. of Independence. Considerable work was done here years 
ago. The vein, though somewhat bunchy, can be traced for nearly a 
mile. A number of shafts have been sunk upon it, the deepest being 
about 100 ft. The vein extends N. and S. in granite, and dips nearly 
vertical. The richer portions of the quartz near the surface are honey- 
combed, but below it undoubtedly will contain a large amount of iron 
sulphurets. Nathan Rhine, of Independence, owner. 

Josephine Mine (Quartz). — It is about 8 miles S.W. of Darwin and 1 
mile from the Mariposa. A great amount of work has been done here, 
as shown by the numerous long tunnels, shafts, and surface cuts. The 
vein runs S.E. and N.W., but is quite irregular in dip. The ore carries 
more copper sulphurets than the Mariposa, but otherwise is very simi- 
lar. Most of the ore taken from these mines was worked by Mexicans 
in arrastras years ago. At Coso, half a mile away, there is a 5-stamp 
mill. J. Wilson, of Lone Pine, owner. 

Keys Mine (Quartz). — It is situated on an eastern spur of the Inyo 
range, 20 miles E. of Independence. The vein occurs in granite, strik- 
ing E. and W. and dipping N. It is 12 to 20 in. wide. The ore is 
worked in an arrastra in a canon to the south. The developments here 
consist of two inclines, from which drifts have been run on the vein. P. 
Keys, of Independence, owner. 

Keynote Mining Group (Quartz). — They are the Beauty, Queen, Lone 
Pine, Mexican, King, and El Paso, and are situated on the sides of Key- 
note Canon, on the eastern slope of the Inyo range. The elevation is 
about 8,000 ft. The mine with the greatest development is the Key- 
note. The vein runs N. and S. and dips 40° W. It varies from a mere 
stringer up to 4 ft. in thickness, and carries free gold, a little galena con- 
taining silver, and copper and iron sulphurets. This is the deepest mine 
in the district, being opened 700 ft. on the incline. There are four tun- 
nels, the longest of which is 700 ft.; the longest upraise is 290 ft. In 
the lowest tunnel a good body of ore was being worked in 1894; the ore 
was packed 3 miles to the Laskey mill in Hans Canon. It was opened 
in 1880. The ore from these claims is similar. J. Laskey, of 1706 
Geary Street, San Francisco, owner. 

Laura and McAvoy Mines (Quartz). — The Laura Mine lies on the 
ridge S. of McAvoy Canon, on the eastern slope of the Inyo range. The 
vein is a bunchy quartz, apparently pockety in character, and has not 
been worked for years. North of the canon are a number of old mines 



GOLD — INYO COUNTY. 139 

which have not been worked for several years, and these deposits have 
also the appearance of being pockety. In the canon below the mines is 
a 5-stamp mill. 

Luella (Abe Lincoln) Mine (Quartz). — This mine is situated in the 
Alabama District, 5 miles N. of Lone Pine. A large amount of work 
was done here in years gone by, but it was finally abandoned, and it is 
■only recently that it has been relocated. The vein is very small, seldom 
6 in. in width, and is inclosed in a fine-grained granite. Most of the 
ore is free milling. The other small veins in this district have much 
the same character. See our Xth Report, p. 215. John Basto, of Inde- 
pendence, owner. 

Magnet Mine (Quartz). — This mine is situated on Fish Springs Hill, 
20 miles N. of Independence. The country rock is granite. The vein 
runs E. and W. with a nearly vertical dip, and is generally small, some- 
times, however, reaching a width of 2 ft. The property is developed by 
two tunnels, one 110 and the other 500 ft. The quartz carries free gold, 
and copper and iron sulphurets. It is milled in an arrastra situated 
about a mile distant. 

Mariposa Mine (Quartz). — This is a patented mine in the Coso Mount- 
ains, a little N. of the town of Coso. The quartz ledge does not outcrop 
prominently, but has been worked for nearly 1,000 ft. through five 
incline shafts, the deepest of which is said to be 250 ft. In the bottom 
the vein is said to be 4 ft. thick. It strikes very regularly N.W. and 
S.E. and dips 45° N.E. J. B. Haggin, of New York, owner. 

Mazourka Canon Placer Claims. — They are 7 miles E. of Independence. 
During the latter part of July, 1 894, a small cloud-burst caused to be 
revealed an abundance of coarse " colors " on a road in the canon used 
for years in hauling wood. The gravel is from 6 to 24 in. deep. The 
gold is coarse, from 10 cents to $10 nuggets; fineness, .876. There were 
from 70 to 80 men there September 1st, reported to be making from $1 50 
to $30 per day. Dry washers are used. 

Polita Mine (Quartz). — It is situated on the western slope of the White 
Mountains, 10 miles E. of Bishop Creek. The mine is at present being 
worked under a lease. The extensive developments shown here were 
made under the management of a company, and are a tunnel 400 ft. 
long, an incline of 250 ft. raised to the surface, and a winze sunk on the 
ledge 150 ft. The work recently done consists of the sinking of an incline 
on the ledge, which is well defined and 20 in. thick in the bottom. The 
vein strikes E. and W. and dips 35° N. The inclosing rock is limestone. 
The ore is decomposed and free milling, the quartz being honeycombed 
and often almost replaced by limonite. An arrastra has been recently 
erected in Redding Canon, 1 mile S., to work the ore. George Storey, of 
Bishop Creek, owner. 

Post Office Springs Mines (Quartz). — Two miles E. of Post Office 
Springs, and at an altitude of nearly 5,000 ft. on the Panamint range, 
are situated three claims on a series of gold-bearing quartz veins. These 
veins lie in limestone and have a N. and S. course and a dip of 40° to 
60° W. The limestone terminates in bold cliffs, 300 to 400 ft. high, 
facing the N., and exposing the veins. The latter vary from mere string- 
ers to 3 ft. in width. The whole hill in which the veins lie has been 
affected by the mineralizing agents and filled with minute interlacing 
quartz veins. Five veins have been opened by short tunnels and sur- 
face work. The ore is generally high grade. The quartz is honeycombed 



140 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

on the surface, but below undoubtedly much of the gold is contained in 
iron sulphurets. The most important veins are found on the northern 
claim, which is known as the Mineral Ranch. The limestone in which 
the veins lie is folded in a sharp synclinal, and does not extend to the 
bottom of the canon. 

Queen Mine (Quartz). — This mine is situated on the eastern slope of 
Fish Springs Hill, 20 miles N. of Independence. It is developed by a 
tunnel 225 ft. long. The vein runs E. and W. and dips 25° to 30° N., 
and is from 2 in. to 2 ft. wide. Antonio Couha, of Big Pine, owner. 

Rio Vista Mine (Quartz). — It is in the Fish Springs District and just 
below the Golden Reef. The gold has been found in a mineralized body 
of granitic rock, poor in mica, and termed by the miners "porphyry." 
This rock has been crushed, and on the surface appears reddened and 
honeycombed from the decay of the iron sulphurets. The deposit is 
apparently of considerable extent, but low grade. It has been opened 
by a shaft 68 ft. deep and by short tunnels. J. McArthy, of Big Pine, 
owner. 

Sanger Mining Company (Quartz). — The mines of this recently organ- 
ized company lie on the western slope of the Argus range, 30 miles S. 
of Darwin. The company controls 23 claims in a diameter of 8 miles.. 
The formation is mostly granite. The ledges are scattered in groups, 
but are much alike in regard to the character of the ore and in the propor- 
tion of the gold and silver. In several claims the value of the silver is 
said to be greater than the value of the gold. The quartz carries iron 
and copper sulphurets, gray-copper ore, and occasionally a little galena. 
Most of the veins are found in the vicinity of Stiles Canon, where it is 
the intention to erect a 5-stamp mill. Four tunnels have been run on 
as many different claims. Mills & Stiles, of Freeman, owners. 

Snow's Canon Gold Mines (Quartz). — They are the Last Chance, St. 
Paul, and others, and are situated on the eastern slope of the Argus 
range, 20 miles S.E. of Darwin. They are found on the north side of 
the canon, at an average elevation of 5,000 ft. There are many locations 
here on a series of veins which run N.W. and S.E. The formation is 
generally granite, which has been forced through the limestone that 
forms so much of the range to the north. The veins, though small, are 
generally quite regular and well defined. They vary in size from 
mere stringers up to 4 ft. The ores are quite similar in character, except 
toward the east, in the direction of the contact with the limestone, where 
there is a considerable proportion of silver. On the surface the gold is 
mostly free, but toward the water-line sulphurets of iron and copper 
partly replace it. In many places the ore is said to be very high grade. 
About ten years ago a 5-stamp mill was erected here. 

The St. Paul and Last Chance are the most developed, and are opened 
by tunnels and shafts, the greatest depth reached being 100 ft. Galena 
is present at times, and all the veins carry a little silver. A company 
has recently been organized to work a number of these claims. 

Tip Top Mine (Quartz). — It is situated on the summit of Fish Springs 
Hill. The vein is supposed to be a continuation of that of the Gold Bug, 
and has much the same character. Upton Tracy, of Big Pine, owner. 

Wooley Mine (Quartz). — It is situated on the southern side of Redding 
Canon, 10 miles E. of Bishop Creek. There are several narrow stringers 
of quartz inclosed in granite, and on which a considerable amount of 



GOLD KERN COUNTY. 141 

work has been done. The veins are generally quite flat. — Wooley, of 
Bishop Creek, owner. 

Yellow Jacket Mining Company (Quartz). — The property of this com- 
pany is situated 12 miles E. of Bishop Creek, in the White Mountain 
range. Four claims are located here on a vein running N. and S. and 
inclosed in slate. The claim on which the work is being done was 
located years ago and finally abandoned. The old workings consist of 
an incline 63 ft. deep. Two tunnels have been begun by the present 
owners. The vein, where it has been opened, ranges from 2 in. to 2 ft. 
in thickness. The ore is high grade and contains a large amount of 
sulphurets. 

KERN COUNTY. 

In Kern County there has been a resumption of mining in several 
localities, the hard times having directed attention to such opportunities 
for the employment of labor and capital as the mining regions afford. 
In more than one place extensive bodies of low-grade ore can be traced 
for several miles, and there are many smaller propositions which seem 
to offer a livelihood to industrious men. The Kern River flows through 
one of the principal gold-bearing regions, and presents an unfailing 
source of water power; it must also be borne in mind that the same 
stream might be utilized to supply even distant works with electro- 
motive force. There is also an abundant supply of timber throughout 
a great portion of the mining regions. 

The most important mineralogical event during the last two years in 
Kern County is the discovery of veins of comparatively pure asphaltum 
in the foothills of the Coast Range. A description of these deposits will 
be found elsewhere in this report. 

This county possesses a large area of mineral land and a wide extent 
of valley land, which, by a very complete system of irrigation, is fast 
becoming one of the most fertile portions of California. 

Agua Caliente Mining District. — This local name is used to designate 
the territory lying between the most southerly summits of the Pah Ute 
range and Caliente Creek, and derives its name from the hot springs 
situated on the Shipsey ranch. The prevalent formation is syenite, 
which is frequently porphyritic, and in some localities slate occurs. The 
characteristic geological feature of the district is the numerous trachytic 
dikes which traverse it. There are many mineral-bearing veins, some 
of which are worked. The altitude ranges from 2,500 ft. on Caliente 
Creek to nearly 7,000 ft. in the Pah Ute Mountains. Caliente Creek 
affords but very little water in the dry season. 

Amelia Mine (Quartz). — In the Agua Caliente District. The develop- 
ments are a tunnel about 60 ft. in length, and a winze about 20 ft. deep. 
The vein strikes N. 66° W., and dips N. 80°. An open cut, 150 ft. above 
the tunnel, exposes a vein over 4 ft. in thickness. C. Mohr, of Caliente, 
owner. 

Bald Eagle Mine (Quartz). — It is about 5 miles N.E. of Havilah. 

Ballard Mine (Quartz). — This is 5 miles S.W. of Glenville, in the 
White River Mining District. Burton & Sewell, of Glenville, owners. 

Ballard Mine (Quartz). — It is in the White River Mining District. 
The developments consist of a 100 ft. shaft, a 200 ft. drift, and stopes. 
The vein is about 2 ft. in thickness, and dips 25° N. The quartz shows 
sulphurets and free gold. D. B. James, of San Francisco, owner. 



142 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

Banner Mine (Placer). — This is in Grizzly Gulch, in White River 
Mining District. 

Beauregard Mine (Quartz). — It is on the west branch of the Big Blue 
vein. See our VHIth Report, p. 22. 

Beaver Mine (Placer). — It is in Grizzly Gulch, in White River Mining 
District. Wolf & Eby, of White River, Tulare County, owners. 

Bella Rufin (Berry) Mine (Quartz). — In 1893 work was resumed and 
a new shaft commenced. The vein has a strike of N. 65° W., dipping 
about 40° S.W. J. B. O'Connor et al., of Visalia, Tulare County, owners. 

Berry Mine (Quartz). — See Bella Rufin. 

Big Blue (Sumner) Mine (Quartz). — It is on the west bank of Kern 
River, about 1 mile N. of Kernville. It is a fissure vein, which extends 
through granitic and slate formations and has a general course of N. 20° 
E., and dips westerly, and it can be traced 4 miles, or from the southerly 
extension of the Nellie Dent to the northern limits of the Common- 
wealth. The apparent outcrop varies from 50 to 150 ft., and it is said 
that shoots over 50 ft. in width have been struck underground. Two 
tunnels have been run to strike the vein. The longer commences on the 
west bank of Kern River, about 250 ft. below the outcrop, and is about 
2,000 ft. in length, principally in granitic rock, with a little slate just 
before reaching the vein. A few feet below the vein there is a clayey 
gouge about 4 ft. in thickness, and then 8 ft. of barren silicious rock, 
which constitutes what is regarded as the foot- wall of the main lead, 
which at this point is about 120 ft. in width. The hanging-wall appears 
to be altered slate. It is reported that this mine has produced a large 
amount of gold, and an examination of the property leads to the con- 
clusion that there must be vast quantities of pay ore in the Big Blue 
which are yet untouched. The only work which has been done on this 
property for many years is a little tribute working. See our VHIth 
Report, p. 315. Prof. T. Price, of San Francisco, owner. 

Bob Lee Mine (Quartz). — It is about 2 miles W. of Kernville, and is 
on a fissure vein, dipping 35° N.E., in granite. The workings consist of 
three incline shafts, 140, 40, and 100 ft. deep, respectively, from which 
drifts have been run on the vein. The vein varies in width from a few 
inches to 2 ft.; its character is earthy, with decomposed clayey matter, 
interspersed with masses of hard quartz, which sometimes form a large 
portion of the vein. Nearly all the gold is free. In 1892 a 3^ ft. Hunt- 
ington mill was erected on a creek about half a mile distant from the 
mine. 

Bright Star Mine (Quartz). — This mine and its extensions are near 
the summit of Pah Ute Mountain. It is a fissure vein, which strikes 
S. 30° W.; the general trend of the vein through the different extensions 
is about S. 55° W. This variation in the strike appears to be caused 
by a series of southerly displacements, which probably occasioned the 
" pinching out" in the old workings. The country rock is metaphoric 
slate, which has a general northerly strike. The last attempt to reopen 
this mine was made in 1892 by a company organized in St. Louis, Mo., 
but they appear to have spent their funds without developing anything. 
Parke & Lacey, of San Francisco, owners. 

Brogan Mine (Quartz). — It is in the Agua Caliente District, at an 
altitude of about 2,800 ft. The workings consist of an open cut 15 ft. 
deep and a shaft 42 ft., from the bottom of which a level has been run. 



GOLD KERN COUNTY. 143 

on the lead about 60 ft. W. In September, 1893, this level was full of 
water. Shipsey Bros., of Caliente, owners. 

Buckhorn Mine (Quartz). — It is in White River Mining District. An 
80 ft. shaft on the vein shows 10 in. to 1\ ft. quartz in mica slate walls. 
W. R. Morris, of White River, Tulare County, owner. 

Bullion Mine (Quartz). — It is about 1 mile W. of Claraville. The 
vein varies from a few inches to 1-J ft. in width, and strikes N. 35° E., 
in granite. Albert Bartholone, of Onyx, owner. 

Bull Run Mine (Quartz). — It is on the west branch of the Big Blue 
vein. See our VHIth Report, p. 321. 

Canfield Company's Mines (Placer). — This is a recently organized 
company, located in Bonanza Gulch, 2 miles E. of Red Rock. Fifty-one- 
claims have been bought up, and it is the intention to work them 
systematically by means of water which will be pumped either from 
Cohen's Springs or from Red Rock. Canfield Company, of Los Angeles, 
owners. 

Clay Bank Mine (Quartz). — It is a patented claim at Havilah. 

Commonwealth Mine (Quartz). — It is a northerly extension of the 
Big Blue. 

Content Mine (Quartz). — It is a southerly extension of the Big Blue. 

Dolly Mine (Quartz). — It is a short distance N. of Caliente Creek, and 
contains three different veins. One of them strikes S. 6° W., and has 
been prospected by two short tunnels. Another strikes S. 14° W., and the 
workings consist of an upper and a lower tunnel. The third vein strikes 
S. 70° W., and has been prospected by a tunnel which is situated at a 
somewhat higher elevation than the tunnels previously mentioned. 
Both the hanging- and foot-walls are formed of decomposed porphy- 
ritic rock, which near the ore bodies is impregnated by silicious infiltra- 
tion. A. Souser, of Caliente, owner. 

Dreadnaught Mine (Quartz). — This is a western extension of the 
Grizzly. The developments consist of a 190 ft. tunnel, a 60 ft. and a 
35 ft. shaft, partly full of water. The vein varies in thickness from 6 
in. to 3 ft., the dip being 45° S. Sulphurets and free gold visible in the 
quartz. N. Williams et al., of White River, Tulare County, owners. 

Eclipse No. 1 Mine (Quartz). — Is in White River Mining District. 
Developed by a 75 and a 250 ft. shaft. The vein is 2 in. to 2-| ft. wide. 

Eclipse No. 3 Mine (Quartz). — It is in the White River Mining Dis- 
trict. The vein is 6 to 10 in. in thickness. H. M. Stanley et al., of 
White River, Tulare County, owners. 

Emerald Mine (Quartz). — It is about 10 miles S. of Pah Ute Peak, 
and is situated in the Agua Caliente District, at an altitude of about 
4,700 ft. Developments consist of a tunnel 200 ft. in length connected 
with a 60 ft. air shaft. The ore has been stoped 15 ft. beneath the tun- 
nel, but deeper working was impeded by water. The strike is N. 8° W. 
and dip nearly vertical. Shipsey Bros., of Caliente, owners. 

Eureka Mine (Quartz). — This mine is about 5 miles S.W. of Kern- 
ville, and in the Cove Mining District. The shaft was about 117 ft. in 
depth. The owner states that the vein, which was first about 3 in. in 
width, dipping 45° N.E., widened to 12 in. and became nearly vertical 
at the depth of 100 ft. 

Fairmount Mine (Quartz). — See our Xlth Report, p. 238. 

Frank Mine (Quartz). — On the west branch of the Big Blue vein. 



144 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

Gold Dollar Mine (Quartz). — It is near the summit of Pah Ute 
Mountain. The workings consist of two shafts about 35 ft. deep. The 
vein stands nearly vertical in slate walls, and is from 10 to 12 in. wide. 
Barney Collins et al., of Weldon, owners. 

Goler Consolidated Placer and Hydraulic Mining Company's Mines 
(Placer). — This company has bonded a large number of claims in the 
vicinity of the main Goler camp. Here, as in the other camps in this 
district, there are large areas of gravel for which water is necessary 
in order to make their working profitable. It is expected that water will 
be brought from Owens River. (See Preliminary Geological Report 
on Alpine, Inyo, and Mono Counties.) Goler Consolidated Placer and 
Hydraulic Mining Company, of Los Angeles, owners. 

Grizzly Mine (Quartz). — Is in Grizzly Gulch, in White River Mining 
District. The developments consist of a 600 ft. and a 300 ft. tunnel, a 
150 ft. shaft, an open cut, and several old workings. The vein varies in 
thickness from 4 in. to 4 ft. It dips 45° S.W. Bates & Duffy, of San 
Francisco, owners. 

Hanover (Hemp Williams) Mine (Quartz). — It is near the top of the 
most southerly ridge of the Pah Ute Mountains, and about 5 miles S.W. 
of Claraville. A tunnel about 65 ft. in length has been run on the 
vein, which varies from 4 to 10 in. in width; the rock is worked in an 
arrastra. J. Roper, of Weldon, owner. 

Haraldson and Sullivan Mines (Quartz). — Sixteen miles N.E. of 
Mojave, and on the southern slope of the mountains bordering the 
desert, a number of claims have been recently located on a body of 
mineralized granite. The gold-bearing area is said to be several thou- 
sand feet in extent from N. to S., and nearly a thousand feet from E. to 
W. It is very low grade, but it is expected it can be made to pay. In 
a canon near by it is estimated there is sufficient water for mill pur- 
poses. — Haraldson, of Tehachapi, owner. 

Harrison Mine (Quartz). — This is in Keyesville District, on a south 
extension of the Mammoth. The vein courses N. 45° E., with vertical 
dip, between granite walls, the quartz carrying galena and iron pyrites 
with free gold. At a depth of 20 ft., where the influx of water retarded 
further sinking of the several shafts, a horse of granite divided the 3 ft. 
of low-grade ore on the hanging-wall from 18 in. of high-grade quartz 
on the foot-wall. 

Havilah District. — Those who have worked what are locally known as 
the "old mines" of Havilah, are of the opinion that they are by no means 
exhausted. They are on a mountain side and might be drained and 
worked advantageously by tunneling, as the center stake of the Roche- 
fort claim is about 1,200 ft. higher than the roadway at Havilah, the 
distance being 1-J miles in an air line. Kern River, about 6 miles dis- 
tant, might be utilized to supply works at Havilah with electro-motive 
power. 

Hemp Williams Mine (Quartz). — See Hanover. 

Henrietta Mine (Quartz). — It is about 18 miles N. of Caliente, and it 
is worked intermittently. There are three shafts about 30 ft. in depth, 
and two tunnels, each about 100 ft. long. The quartz shows sulphurets 
and free gold. The vein courses nearly E. and W., and varies in width 
from 1 to 18 in. Both walls are granitic, and there is a clay gouge next 
to each wall. 



GOLD — KERN COUNTY. 145 

Hidden Treasure Mine (Placer). — It is in Gordon Gulch. C. Biggs, of 
White River, Tulare County, owner. 

Hubbard Mine (Quartz). — It adjoins the Emerald on the west, and 
has a tunnel 150 ft. in length. The vein strikes S. 64° W. and dips 30° 
S.E. About 50 yds. S.W. of the tunnel some work has also been done 
on another and parallel vein, which is about 1 ft. wide and strikes N. 
Shipsey Bros., of Agua Caliente, owners. 

Hugh Mann Mine (Quartz). — See Mace. 

Icon'oclast Mine (Quartz). — It is on Erskine Creek, in Sec. 25, T. 27 S., 
R. 33 E. The developments consist of two tunnels, with winzes in each. 
The vein strikes N. 45° E., dips 80° N.W., and varies in width from a 
few inches to 12 ft. The quartz is more or less decomposed, and is asso- 
ciated with ferruginous and clayey matter. About 100 tons of ore were 
on the dump. The country rock is slate, which has a strike N. 55° W. 
Stebbins & Porter, of Havilah (Hot Springs), owners. 

Isian Camp Mine (Placer). — It is in Grizzly Gulch, in the White 
River Mining District, in Sec. 10, T. 25 S., R. 29 E. A. J. Williams, 
of White River, Tulare County, owner. 

Jann Dosie Mine (Quartz). — This is in the Agua Caliente District, at 
an altitude of 2,975 ft. There are two shafts, 100 and 110 ft. deep, and 
two levels, one at 30 ft. and the other at the depth of 60 ft. The vein 
strikes S. 82° W. and dips 60° N.W., in granite. The vein increases 
from 6 in. at the surface to 5 ft. in width with depth. See our Xlth 
Report, p. 238. Stuter & McKay, of Caliente, owners. 

Jeannette Mine (Quartz). — See Mace. 

Jeff Davis Mine (Quartz). — It is on the west branch of the Big Blue 
vein. See our Vlllth Report, p. 321. 

Josephine Mine (Quartz). — It is situated in Josephine Canon, in White 
River Mining District. The developments consist of a 120 ft. incline, a 
40 ft. shaft, and a 40 and a 60 ft. level. The vein varies in thickness 
from 1 to 8 ft., and dips 65° N.E. The walls are mica slate. The quartz 
shows sulphurets and free gold. F. A. Bornette, of White River, Tulare 
County, owner. 

Kern River Valley District. — In the mountains forming the sides of 
this valley there are numerous auriferous ledges, some of which are 
quite extensive. The Kern River affords an unfailing source of water 
power. See our Vlllth Report, p. 320. 

Keyes Mine (Quartz). — It is in the Keyesville Mining District, and 9 
miles S.W. from Kernville. The main vein is very narrow at the sur- 
face, but increases to a width of 20 in. The country rock is granitic. 
S. Barton, of Kernville, owner. 

King Mine (Quartz). — It is at the head of Grizzly Gulch, in the 
White River Mining District. On this claim there is a mass of decom- 
posed granitic rock, permeated with ferruginous matter carrying gold. 
C. Newby, of White River, Tulare County, owner. 

Lady Bell Mine (Quartz). — It is on the west branch of the Big Blue 
vein. 

Last Chance Mine (Quartz). — It is a southwestern extension of the 
Josephine, in the White River Mining District. Developed by a 60 ft. 
shaft. The vein is 1 to 1-J ft. wide. 

Little Bonanza Mine (Quartz). — This is one fourth of a mile W. of 
the Mammoth. The vein is 1 to 6 in. wide, carrying a few sulphurets; 
the walls are granitic. 
10m 



146 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

Little Jim Mine (Quartz). — This is a westerly extension of the Occi- 
dental. 

Ma'ce and Jeannette Claims (Quartz). — They are 1 mile S.E. of Han- 
over, at an altitude of about 6,575 ft. The vein varies in width from 
a few inches to about 1 ft., and strikes N. 40° E.; there are several 
shafts of less than 100 ft. in depth yielding good ore. Hugh Mann, of 
Caliente, owner. 

Mamie Mine (Quartz). — It is about 5 miles S.W. of Kernville. There 
is a 60 ft. shaft on the vein, which is 2 ft. wide. 

Mammoth Mine (Quartz). — See our VIHth Report, p. 314. This mine 
was reopened in 1890, and worked to December, 1892. 

Mammoth Mine (Quartz). — This is in the White River Mining Dis- 
trict. The developments consist of a 400 ft. and a 200 ft. tunnel, with 
stopes. The width of the vein varies from 6 in. to 2 ft. The quartz 
shows sulphurets and free gold. Duke & Grover, of Santa Cruz, owners. 

Morning Star Mine (Quartz). — This is an eastern extension of the 
Grizzly, in White River Mining District. The developments consist 
of several old shafts and tunnels. The vein shows a thickness from 
6 in. to 4 ft. There is a 3-J ft. Huntington mill on this claim. Bates 
& Duffy, of San Francisco, owners. 

Mountain View Mine (Quartz). — This is a western extension of the 
Eclipse No. 1, in the White River Mining District. The developments 
consist of a 20 ft. tunnel and a 20 ft. shaft. The vein, only a few 
inches in width, is said to be rich. 

Nellie Dent Mine (Quartz). — See Big Blue. • 

New World Mine (Quartz). — It is in Havilah; patented. See our 
VIHth Report, p. 317. 

None Such Mine (Quartz). — This is in Grizzly Gulch, in White River 
Mining District. The developments consist of a 130 ft. tunnel and an 
open cut. The vein varies from 6 in. to 3 ft. The quartz shows sul- 
phurets and free gold. A. R. Sorrels, of White River, Tulare County, 
owner. 

Occidental Mine (Quartz). — Near Caliente Creek. There are two shafts 
about 30 ft. deep on the vein, which shows a thickness of 14 to 24 in., 
and is a decomposed quartz showing chloride of silver. Drifts have 
been run both E. and W. for 20 ft. The vein strikes N. 60° W. and 
dips 80° N. The slate walls are permeated by vein matter. The claim 
embraces another and smaller vein. 

Ophir {Old Bodfish) Mine (Quartz). — It is in the Keyesviile District, 
and 5 miles from Kernville by road. There is a 50 ft. shaft and a 25 ft. 
drift. The vein strikes N. 35° E. and dips N.W., and is about 5 ft. in 
width. Both walls are granitic. W. B. Walker et al., of Caliente, 
owners. 

Oriental Mine (Quartz). — It is in Agua Caliente Creek, in the Agua 
Caliente Mining District. Sauser & Windheim, of Caliente, owners. 

Pin-Hook Mine (Quartz). — This is a western extension of the Eclipse 
No. 1, in White River Mining District. It is said that the develop- 
ments consist of a 20 ft. tunnel and a 20 ft. shaft. The vein is only a 
few inches in width, but is said to be rich. P. Womack, of White 
River, Tulare County, owner. 

Polka Dot Mine (Quartz).— It is in Sec. 16, T. 27 S., R. 33 E., in the 
Valley Mining District, and about 5 miles S.E. from Hot Springs. E. 
Vaughn, of Havilah (Hot Springs), owner. 



GOLD— KERN COUNTY. 147 

Pomona Mill and Mining Company's Mines (Placer). — The claims 
owned by this company are situated in the Colorado Camp, about 3 miles 
N. of Goler. It is the purpose of this company to erect a mill here to 
pulverize the gold-bearing clays and sandstones. It is expected that 
sufficient water can be developed from a small spring in the gulch at the 
camp. Pomona Milling and Mining Company, of Los Angeles, owners. 

Queen Mine (Quartz). — It is at the head of Grizzly Gulch, in the 
White River Mining District. On this claim there is a mass of decom- 
posed granitic rock, which is permeated with ferruginous matter carry- 
ing gold. F. R. Crocker, of White River, Tulare County, owner. 

Rip-Rap Mine (Quartz). — It is about 3-| miles N.W. of the Emerald, 
at an altitude of 4,580 feet. Developments consist of a 70 ft. tunnel 
and a 40 ft. winze. In the winze the vein shows about 18 in. of hard 
quartz and 18 in. of granite mixed with quartz and clay. Both walls 
are granitic. The quartz breaks, on exposure, into small angular frag- 
ments, and carries about 1 per cent of sulphurets. A. J. Skinner, of 
Weldon, owner. 

Rochefort Mine (Quartz). — This is at Havilah. 

Sandstone Mine (Quartz). — It is in the White River Mining District. 
A 40 ft. shaft, partly caved, and an open cut; show a mass of decomposed 
granitic rock, traversed by numerous ferruginous and gold-bearing vein- 
lets. A. R. Sorrels, of White River, Tulare County, owner. 

Santa Fe Mine ( Quartz ).-r-In White River Mining District. The vein 
is said to be 14 in. in thickness. H. M. Stanley et al., of White River, 
Tulare County, owners. 

Sarah Jane Mine (Quartz). — It adjoins the Lady Bell. Developed by 
a shaft 90 ft. in depth, from the bottom of which levels extend N. and 
S. about 200 ft. Thede & Medina, of Kernville, owners. 

Side Issue Mine (Quartz). — It is S.E. of and adjoins the Iconoclast. 
Stebbins & Porter, of Havilah (Hot Springs), owners. 

Sovereign Mine (Quartz). — It is at Havilah. A small vein has been 
struck in a tunnel about 80 ft. in length, which will have to be extended 
to cut the main vein. The croppings vary from 6 to 12 ft. in thickness. 
Johns and Max Helmes, of Havilah, owners. 

Sumner Mine (Quartz). — See Big Blue. 

Surprise Mine (Quartz). — It is an eastern extension of the Eclipse 
No. 1. There are two shafts, 35 and 20 ft. deep. The vein is about 3 ft. 
wide, and consists of a soft gouge mixed with fragments of quartz. 
Beaver & Crocker, of White River, Tulare County j owners. 

Sycamore Spring Mine (Quartz). — It is in the White River Mining 
District. The developments consist of a 60 ft. tunnel and a 25 ft. shaft; 
the vein is about 8 in. wide and pitches about 45° S.W. A. W. Monroe, 
of White River, Tulare County, owner. 

Talc Mine (Quartz). — This is in the White River Mining District. 
Developed by a 400 and a 250 ft. tunnel, with stopes. The vein varies 
from a few inches to 1^ ft. There is a 3^ ft. Huntington mill at this 
mine. G. W. King, of White River, Tulare County, owner. 

Urbana Mine (Quartz). — It is on the west branch of the Big Blue vein. 

Veracity Mine (Quartz). — It is 1 mile E. of Claraville. In 1893 a 
40 ft. shaft was sunk and an 18 ft. drift run on the vein both E. and W. 
The vein strikes N. 67° E. and dips 65° E. of S., and is about 2 ft. wide, 
showing considerable free gold and some sulphurets. Both walls are 
granitic. The claim includes several other veins, from a few inches to 



148 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 



3 ft. in width, which traverse the granite both N. and S. of the one 
herein described. Barton & Patterson, of Weldon, owners. 

Warrington Mine (Quartz). — This is at Havilah. 

White Pine Mine (Quartz). — This mine is near Bodfish Creek, which 
furnishes during the winter and spring considerable water for power. 
It is a contact vein, the hanging-wall being crystalline limestone and 
the foot-wall granite, and ranges from 4 in. to 3 ft. in width, and dips 
30° S.W. Burton et al., of Kernville, owners. 

Woody Mine (Quartz). — It is in Josephine Canon, in the White River 
Mining District. The developments consist of three tunnels of 100 ft. 
and two shafts 50 and 35 ft. The vein is about 1 ft. in thickness. J. 
May field, of White River, Tulare County, owner. 

Yankee Bulloch Mine (Placer). — This is in Grizzly Gulch, in the White 
River Mining District. B. L. Tompkins, of White River, Tulare County, 
owner. 

LASSEN COUNTY. 

This county, from its position on the east side of the Sierra Nevada 
range, lies entirely outside of the California gold belt proper, and had 
never been considered as a mining county. Notwithstanding this fact, 
about twenty-five years ago, near the northern border, very rich veins 
and seams of gold-bearing quartz were found in altered sedimentary 
and eruptive formations, elevated above the surrounding lava-covered 
country, culminating in a hill named from one of its pioneer settlers, 
Hayden Hill. From this point about $2,000,000 has been extracted 
from a depth not exceeding anywhere 300 ft. A similar formation 
may be traced northward into a locality known as Happy Camp, in 
Modoc County, but nowhere, so far, have paying mines been developed 
along its course outside of Hayden Hill. Claims have been made that 
some of the veins in this locality carry platinum, and from the condi- 
tions presented it is not likely that a close search might show the pres- 
ence of gems that have aluminum oxide as their principal constituent. 
Large masses of a good quality of kaolin are found near the mines, 
but the distance from railroad communication makes them valueless for 
the present. 

Blue Bell Gold Mine (Quartz). — It is on the W. side of Hayden Hill, 
adjacent to the village, and comprises 1,500 by 600 ft. The main vein 
courses E. and W., dips N. about 60°, and is intersected by several 
cross-veins. The formation is considerably broken up, consisting of 
altered sandstones and slates. Developments consist of several shafts 
sunk to a depth of 80 ft.; also open cuts. At present only assess- 
ment work is being done. The ore is free milling, and extremely rich 
in places. E. B. Preston et al., of Hayden Hill, owners. 

Brush Hill Mine (Quartz). — This is E. of the village on Hayden Hill, 
and comprises 1,300 by 600 ft. The main vein, about 4 ft. wide, courses 
a little S. of W., dips about 55° N., and has conglomerate walls. A 
second vein runs through the ground N. and S. from the south side of 
the main vein, with an average width of 2 ft. The property is being 
worked at two points, through a shaft 45 ft. deep and an east drift 15 ft. 
long, where the N. and S. vein has been cut, while near the center of the 
claim a shaft is being sunk 250 ft. to cut the Brush Hill vein proper; 
this latter shaft (4 by 4-| ft.) is at present down 145 ft. The company 
own a 10-stamp mill on Willow Creek, 3 miles from the mine, run by an 






GOLD — LASSEN COUNTY. 149 

8 ft. hurdy wheel. The stamps weigh 650 lbs. and drop 68 times per 
minute, with a 7 in. drop and discharge. The mortar has front and 
back inside plates, and they use No. 12 slot screens. The duty is three 
fourths of a ton to the stamp daily. The apron is 6 ft. long, set on a 
If in. grade; no concentrators. See our Xlth Report, p. 241. F. Vander 
Elst, of Hayden Hill, owner. 

Diamond Mountain Mine (Quartz). — It is 7 miles S. of Susanville, and 
comprises 1,500 by 600 ft. on the east slope of Diamond Mountain, the 
vein coursing N.E. and S.W., dipping 45° E., in granite, with a width of 
12 in. The quartz is crushed in a custom mill. Developments consist 
of a shaft on the vein 60 ft. deep. 

Don't Care Mine (Quartz). — See Uncle Billy Mine. 

Evening Star Gold Mine (Quartz). — It is on Hayden Hill, and is 1,420 
by 600 ft. The property comprises several veins: the Evening Star, the 
extension of the Golden Eagle, and a vein running parallel with the 
latter. The Evening Star courses N. 10° W., with a nearly vertical dip, 
and an average width of 3 ft. The forks of the Golden Eagle extension 
have a course of N. 75° W. and N. 65° W., respectively, dipping about 
50°, and a width, before forking, of 8 ft. The vein parallel to the Golden 
Eagle extension has a N.W. course, a vertical dip, and is about 1-| 
ft. wide. The wall rocks are a brecciated felsite. The two latter veins 
have been traced to their contact with the Evening Star on the east 
side. The developments consist of a shaft on the Golden Eagle 
extension, sunk to a depth of 120 ft., with drifts extending west from 
the 80 and 120 ft. levels for a distance of 150 ft., the ground being stoped 
to the surface; a main hoisting shaft on the Evening Star, 246 ft. deep, 
with drifts on the 90 and 120 ft. levels. This shaft is tapped near the 
bottom by a drain tunnel nearly 1,000 ft. in length. The ground from 
the 90 ft. level to the south has been stoped to the surface. Several other 
shafts and cuts have been opened to varying depths along the line of this 
vein. The ore is free milling; the gold is worth $13 per ounce. Three 
miles from the mine, on Willow Creek, is a 5-stamp mill, run by a 30 
ft. overshot water wheel; the stamps weigh 650 lbs., and are run at a 
speed of 85 drops per minute, with 7 in. drop and discharge, using a No. 
12 slot screen. The apron is 8 ft. in length, set to a grade of If in. to 
the foot. The mine is under lease at present. W. Howard et al., of 
Hayden Hill, owners. 

Gold Belt Mine (Quartz). — See our Xth Report, p. 274. It is 7| miles 
S.W. from Susanville, and comprises 1,500 by 600 ft. along a vein 
coursing N.E. and S.W., with a vertical dip, in granite, averaging from 
1 to 3 ft. in width. The quartz is low grade, with a small percentage of 
sulphurets. Developments consist of a tunnel 180 ft. in length, on the 
vein. A 5-stamp mill, run by a 5 ft. hurdy wheel, crushes the ore and 
does custom work. The water power is taken from Gold Run Creek 
and delivered under 80 ft. pressure. The mill is run at a speed of 95 
drops per minute, with 5 in. drop and 4 in. discharge, using a No. 20 
steel wire screen. This gives a duty of 1A- tons in twenty-four hours per 
stamp. The apron is 38 by 28 in., set on a grade li in. to the foot, and 
below it a small iron pan with stirrers is used for a settler. 

Golden Eagle Mine (Quartz). — This is on Hayden Hill E. of the vil- 
lage, and comprises 1,225 by 600 ft. The 4 ft. vein courses a little N. of 
W., dipping 65° N., in brecciated rock. The vein matter consists of 
crushed quartz and clay. Between the foot- and hanging-wall is a horse 



150 REPORT OP STATE MINERALOGIST. 

of quartzite. The ore on the hanging side is of dark color, due to a large 
percentage of black oxide of manganese; the ore on the foot-wall is of a 
grayish color, being largely mixed with clay. The vein enlarges so that 
in places there are bodies of ore 12 ft. wide. The present workings are 
at the west end of the claim, and consist of a double-compartment shaft 
4 by 7 ft. in the clear, 304 ft. deep, supplied with a horse-whim, with 
main drifts at the 150 and 220 ft. levels, and several intermediate ones. 
The 150 ft. level runs W. over 175 ft., and the 220 ft. level extends W. 
75 ft., a small stope connecting them. Below the 220 ft. drift a winze 
has been sunk 50 ft. in solid pay of high grade. On Willow Creek, 2| 
miles from the mine, the company own a 5-stamp mill, run by water, 
and have also leased two others, a 5-stamp and a 10-stamp mill, situated 
on the same creek. These mills are run by overshot and hurdy wheels, 
under pressures varying from 26 to 58 ft., with a constant, unfailing 
water supply from Willow Creek. The company has also two 11 ft. 
arrastras for working the higher grades of ore. The mills carry 650 lb. 
stamps, working in double-discharge mortars, with the back discharge 
closed by a plank supplied with a large silvered plate. The motion 
varies in the different mills from 80 to U5 drops per minute, with 7 in. 
drop and discharge through No. 12 slot-cut Russian iron screens. In 
front of the mortar are 8 ft. aprons the width of the mortar, set on a 
grade of If in. to the foot, discharging into a drop box leading to 10 ft. 
of 20 in. sluices paved w T ith bark riffles. The duty of the stamps is 
nearly one ton to the stamp. The plates are scraped once a day, and 
the batteries cleaned up every two weeks. The loss of gold passing off 
with the muddy, clayey water is quite large, but accurate data through 
assays have not been obtained. Dr. Schlosser et al., of Hayden Hill, 
owners. 

Golden Eagle Extension (Quartz). — See Evening Star. 

Gopher Gold Mine (Quartz). — This is on Hayden Hill, one fourth of a 
mile S.E. from the village, and comprises 1,500 by 600 ft. on an E. and 
W. vein, dipping nearly vertical, several feet in width, between sandstone 
and breccia. Developments • consist of a shaft sunk on the foot- wall of 
the vein, exposing a pay seam 8 in. wide. W. Dale et. al., of Hayden 
Hill, owners. 

Hayden Gouge Claim (Quartz). — See Uncle Billy Mine. 

Hayden Hill Consolidated Tunnel Company (Quartz). — This is about 
half a mile E. from the village on Hayden Hill, and is a tunnel-right 
containing 3,000 ft., and four full mining claims. The tunnel has 
attained a length of 1,025 ft., timbered throughout, and is ventilated by 
a fire-blast. The formations passed through are sandstone and quartz- 
ite. Eight hundred feet from the mouth of the tunnel a mineralized 
belt 30 ft. wide was cut, carrying numerous quartz seams, having a 
general E. and W. course. Nearer the breast of the tunnel other small 
quartz seams have been cut. Hayden Hill Consolidated Company, 
owners; N. Bieber, of Bieber, Secretary. 

Juniper Gold Mine (Quartz). — This* is west of the town, on Hayden 
Hill, and comprises 1,500 by 600 ft. There are two veins on the claim, 
a N. and S. and an E. and W. vein, the developments being confined to 
the latter near the crossing with the former. The N. and S. vein has a 
width of about 1 ft. ; the other vein varies from 2 to 40 ft. between the 
walls, which are brecciated on the hanging and fine-grained rhyolite 
on the foot. The vein matter consists of quartz stringers mixed with 



GOLD — LOS ANGELES COUNTY. 151 

bowlders of the wall rock. The developments consist of a shaft 300 ft. 
deep, now caved. A second shaft at the east end 126 ft. deep has been 
drifted E. 125 ft. and W. 80 ft. under the cave. West of the main caved 
shaft, a clay dike dipping east cuts off the E. and W. vein. A small 
shaft on the west end of the claim has been sunk 60 ft. and drifted 30 ft. 
toward the east. Three miles from the mine, on Willow Creek, the com- 
pany own a water power and four arrastras 8 ft. in diameter. The mine 
is being worked under a lease at present. J. McFarling et al., of Calis- 
toga, Napa County, owners. 

McDonnell Claim (Quartz). — See Uncle Billy Mine. 

North Star Mine (Quartz).— This claim, 1,430 by 400 ft., is on the 
northwest side of Hayden Hill. The vein, 2-§ ft. wide, courses nearly 
N. and S., dips about 45° W., between brecciated walls. Developments 
consist of two shafts sunk on the pitch of the vein- 15 and 80 ft. deep; 
the latter drifted from, to the north. Only assessment work is done. T. 
Summers, of Hayden Hill, owner. 

Uncle Billy {Don't Care) Gold Mine (Quartz). — This is on the E. side 
of Hayden Hill, about one fourth of a mile from the village, and com- 
prises 1,500 by 600 ft. There are three veins: the Hayden Gouge, with 
a course S. 55° W.; the McDonnell, ranging S. 55° E., and the Dike, 
running parallel with the Hayden Gouge, but farther up the hill. The 
McDonnell cuts the other two, with a nearly vertical clip, carrying about 
4 to 8 in. of vein matter. The Hayden Gouge averages at places over 
6 ft. and dips 45° S. The Dike vein dips to the N. 45°, with a width 
of about 3 in. The present developments consist of a shaft sunk 80 ft. 
on the foot-wall of the McDonnell, and a drift of 60 ft. to its crossing 
with the Dike, where it turns 70 ft. on the latter. Former workings 
were carried on in the Hayden Gouge and the McDonnell at the same 
depth through a tunnel, not open at present. The hoisting is done with 
windlass. S. Owens et al., of Hayden Hill, owners. 

LOS ANGELES COUNTY. 

Oils and economic minerals occupy the first place in the mineral out- 
put of this county, although both placer and quartz gold mines are 
being operated. The late discoveries in oil in and around the city of Los 
Angeles are of especial interest, proving the existence of a much larger 
area of oil-bearing strata than had previously been known, and holding 
forth large inducements for the boring of numerous wells. 

The large bodies of gypsum found here have helped to build up the 
manufacture of plaster of Paris and kindred industries. The rock for- 
mations on Catalina Island are finding an increased use for sanitary, 
ornamental, and electrical purposes, besides furnishing suitable material 
for the breakwaters and piers that are being constructed at points along 
the southern coast. 

Gold-bearing veins are quite numerous in this county, but at present 
only a few of them are being worked. The quartz is mostly low grade, 
and a lack of water renders mining operations expensive. The prin- 
cipal districts are the Cedar and the Mount Gleason. 

Cedar Mining District. — It is 55 miles N.E. of Los Angeles, the rail- 
road station being Acton. See our VIHth, IXth, and Xlth Reports, pp. 
332, 191, and 246. 



152 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

Champion Mine (Quartz). — It is in Mount Gleason Mining District. 
See Mount Gleason, and our Vlllth, IXth, and Xlth Reports, pp. 332, 
195, and 247. S. Black, of Acton, owner. 

Eagle Mine (Quartz). — See Mount Gleason District, which it is in. It 
has a strike of 10° N. A 5-stamp mill was in operation in the spring 
of 1894. The water supply was too limited for more expensive opera- 
tion. See our Vlllth, IXth, and Xlth Reports, pp. 332, 195, and 247. 
E. Beckman, of Santa Barbara, owner. 

Last Chance Mine (Quartz). — It is in Cedar Mining District, 3 miles 
W. of Acton. E. Brough, of Acton, owner. 

Loris Mine. — It is on the southern slope of the Sierra Madre Mount- 
ains, 4 miles N. of Pasadena. The workings are chiefly in a ferruginous 
metamorphic rock, from 1 to 4 ft. wide. They are erecting reduction 
works at the foot of the mountain, 1,400 ft. below. Their process is 
secret, and all information concerning it was refused. Loris Gold 
Mining Company, owners; E. Kennedy, of Pasadena, President. 

Mount Gleason District. — It is 7 miles S.E. from Acton, on the S. P. 
R. R., 55 miles from Los Angeles. There are several claims on the two 
veins in the district, the Eagle and the Padre, which unite in the Padre 
claim. Geologically and mineralogically all the veins of this district 
have a marked similarity, occurring in granite, being nearly perpendic- 
ular. In width they range from 1 to 6 ft. The quartz is shattered and 
contains sometimes as much as 10 per cent of auriferous iron sulphurets. 
The rock near the surface is oxidized and porous, and is free milling. 
The granite is remarkable and of unusual interest because of the large 
amount of labradorite feldspar it contains and the small amount of 
mica and hornblende. 

Newhall Placers. — On each side of Soledad Canon, and E. of New- 
hall, are extensive deposits of gravel containing gold. They also extend 
W. along the Santa Clara River for miles. They lie in terraces, which 
mark the successive flood plains of an ancient river which flowed S. 
from the Mojave Desert. The gold is generally fine, but occasionally 
coarse. The gravel is partly cemented by a small amount of carbonate 
of lime and clay. The upper portion of the beds, from 1 to 6 ft., is iron- 
stained, and in places contains gold in paying quantities. In the small 
gulches cutting into this surface stratum good pay is frequently found. 
The top stratum pays from 5 to 25 cents per cubic yard. The material 
composing the gravel is all foreign, and is similar to that forming the 
great conglomerate deposits lying between Langs and Ravenna stations 
of the S. P. R. R. This conglomerate may also be the source of the gold. 
See our Vlllth, IXth, and Xlth Reports, pp. 333, 201, and 248. 

New York Mine (Quartz). — It is in Cedar District, 3 miles W. of Acton. 
See our Vlllth, IXth, and Xlth Reports, pp. 332, 192, and 247. Thos. 
O'Reilley, of Ravenna, owner. 

Padre Mine (Quartz). — It is in Mount Gleason District, 7 miles from 
Acton. See Mount Gleason, and our Vlllth Report, p. 332. Judge 
Nickel, of Acton, owner. 

Placerita Mines (Placer and Drift). — See our Vlllth, IXth, and Xlth 
Reports, pp. 333, 201, and 248. 

Reberg, Geo., Mine (Quartz). — It is in Arrastra Canon, about 10 miles 
E. of Newhall. The developments consist of several short tunnels and 
shallow shafts. The vein, although only a few inches in width, is rich 
in free gold; it is worked in an arrastra. 



GOLD — MADERA COUNTY. 153 

Red Rover Mine (Quartz). — It is in Cedar District, 3 miles W. of 
Acton. It has a shaft 400 ft. deep and an incline on the vein 200 ft., 
and is the most productive mine in the district. Operations were 
resumed in September, 1894, after a suspension of two years, the incline 
being retimbered throughout. The geological features of the mine are 
peculiar. The vein occurs in a dark green, massive crystalline rock. 
There are two main fissures, 10 to 20 ft. apart. All the rock between 
these fissure planes is crushed, and most of it altered and compressed 
into chloritic schist. This constitutes the lode, within which the shoots 
of gold-bearing quartz occur. These form on or near the foot-wall side 
of the lode and downward and along the lode to the west approaching 
the hanging-wall, but cut off before reaching it by a mass of country 
rock, which reaches from wall to wall of the lode. There is a succession 
of these shoots, each 40 to 65 ft. in height, the floors being 6 to 15 ft. 
thick. There are two separate series of shoots. The mine is equipped 
with steam hoist and a 10-stamp mill. See our Vlllth, IXth, and 
Xlth Reports, pp. 332, 191, and 246. E. B. Millar, of 141 Broadway, 
Los Angeles, owner. 

San Francisquito Mines (Placer). — See our Vlllth, IXth, and Xlth 
Reports, pp. 333, 201, and 248. 

Santa Paula Mine (Quartz). — It is in Cedar District, 1^ miles W. of 
Acton. It is a small vein that has been worked off and on for years. 
G. Cruger, of Acton, owner. 

Savage Mine (Quartz). — It is in Cedar District, 5 miles W. of Acton. 
The croppings consist of immense masses of ferruginous quartz, inter- 
stratified with a granular talc rock. The quartz bodies are from 10 to 
50 ft. wide, the whole mass being 120 ft. or more in width. A cross-cut 
tunnel, 40 ft. from the surface, passes through 30 ft. of solid quartz. It 
is said that all the quartz is gold-bearing. There is neither fuel nor 
water convenient. Mr. Savage, of Monrovia, owner. 

Soledad Placers. — See Newhall. 

Topeka Mine (Quartz). — It is in Cedar District, 3 miles W. of Acton. 
See our Xlth Report, p. 247. E. B. Millar, of 141 Broadway, Los Angeles, 
owner. 

Union Mine (Quartz). — It is in Cedar District, 5 miles W. of Acton. 
F. Chase et al., of Whittier, owners. 

MADERA COUNTY. 

The northeastern part of the county, or the Grub Gulch region, is 
once more the field of active mining operations. 

The mines in the southeastern portion of Madera County are in Hil- 
dreth, Fresno, and Potter Ridge mining districts, in Jackass Mountain, 
and in the Minarets. It is also reported that there are large bodies of 
ore near the borders of Mono County, and in the territory reserved as 
"The Extension of the Yosemite Park." 

Most of the mines in the portion of Madera County referred to are 
worked intermittently and in a desultory fashion. The ore is usually 
treated in a horse arrastra. The ore from some of the mines yields more 
than $25 a ton by this method. The sulphurets are disregarded, and 
probably a large portion of the precious metals which the ores contain 
is lost. It is possible that the u cyanide process " may be well adapted 
for the class of ores mined here. 



154 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

Abbey Mine (Quartz).— It is in Sec. 36, T. 9 S., R. 21 E., and has been 
extensively worked, the ore being treated in a 10-stamp mill and in 
chlorination works. See our VHIth and Xth Reports, pp. 202 and 194. 
G. W. Grayson, of San Francisco, owner. 

Achsah D. Mine (Placer).— It is in Fine Gold Gulch, in Sec. 25, T. 10 
S., R. 21 E. C. B. Holstead, of Pollasky, Fresno County, owner. 

Albion Mine (Quartz). — This mine is in Swede Gulch, Potter Ridge 
Mining District. The vein shows a width of about 12 in. in the open 
cut and prospect shaft. T. Keefe and J. Logan, of Coarse Gold, owners. 

Alexandra Mine (Quartz). — This is in Potter Ridge District. The vein 
is 18 in. wide. G. A. Krohn, of Coarse Gold, owner. 

Alpha No. £ Mine (Quartz).— This is in Potter Ridge District. The 
vein is reported to be 3 to 10 ft. wide. Developments consist of an old 
80 ft. shaft. Waterloo Gold Mining Company, of San Francisco, owners. 

Alvarita Mine (Quartz). — It is in Hildreth District. Workings con- 
sist of a short incline and an open cut on an 18 in. vein. W. Reed, of 
Pollasky, and Alva E. Snow, of Fresno, owners. 

Aurora Mine (Quartz). — It is in Potter Ridge District. F. Dirks, of 
Coarse Gold, owner. 

Baltimore Mine (Quartz). — It is at Jackass Mountain, and has a 400 
ft. tunnel with a 28 ft. winze and a 60 ft. air shaft. The vein is about 
2 ft. wide, with a pay streak 6 to 18 in. wide. It dips 70° N.W. Smith 
Norris, of Fresno, owner. 

Bandarita Mine (Quartz). — In Hildreth District. D. Pray and G. W. 
Dean, of North Fork, owners. 

Bass Mine (Quartz). — It is in Potter Ridge District. The vein is 6 to 
10 in. wide. D. R. McKenzie and F. Rhule, of O'Neals, owners. 

Bazinet (Morrow) Mine (Quartz).— It is in Sec. 25, T. 9 S., R. 21 E. 
Workings consist of a 200 ft. and a 275 ft. tunnel. The vein varies from 
1 to 2| ft. in width, and dips at an angle of about 45° S.W. See our 
Xth Report, p. 195. P. Bazinet, of Hildreth, owner. 

Belleview Mine (Quartz).— This claim is in Sec. 18, T. 10 S., R. 21 E. 
The 60 ft. and 150 ft. tunnels expose a 12 in. vein, which carries some 
sulphur^ts. — Besone, of Coarse Gold, owner. 

Berry Mine (Quartz). — This is in Hildreth Mining District. There 
are three shafts, 60, 70, and 140 ft. deep, nearly filled with water. The 
12 in. vein strikes S.W. in granite. L. V. Loomis and J. E. Falconer, of 
O'Neals, lessees. 

Bessie H. Mine (Quartz). — This is in Fine Gold Gulch, in Sec. 25, T. 
10 S., R. 21 E. E. Wright, of Pollasky, Fresno County, owner. 

Blind Orphan Mine (Quartz). — It adjoins the Stem winder on the west, 
at Jackass Mountain. In the 20 ft. shaft the vein is about 14 in. wide, 
and dips about 60° N.W. The quartz carries sulphides of iron and lead. 
G. D. Hitchcock and P. Sinas, of Madera, owners. 

Bowlder Mine (Placer).— This is on Fine Gold Creek, in Sec. 26, T. 9 
S., R. 21 E. J. M. Bowles, of Hildreth, owner. 

Buena Ventura Mine (Quartz). — It is in Potter Ridge District. The 
vein is 16 in. wide. Thos. Strombeck et al., of Coarse Gold, owners. 

Burney Mine (Quartz). — In Potter Ridge District. Developments con- 
sist of 180, 100, and 70 ft. shafts, with drifts from the bottom of the 
deepest, which are 220 and 60 ft. long. The vein is 18 in. wide. D. 
McClellan and C. Melvin, of Coarse Gold, owners. 



GOLD MADERA COUNTY. 155 

Butterfly Mine (Quartz). — This is three fourths of a mile W. of the 
Savannah, in mica schist. Four tunnels 100 ft. apart have been run on 
the vein, which strikes N. 50° W. and dips 50° N.E. A granitic dike 
accompanies the vein, both vein and dike cutting the inclosing slates 
in dip, but conforming closely with them in strike. The vein, quartz, 
about 14 in. wide, is crystallized, and contains quite a large percentage 
of iron sulphurets, which carry gold. W. A. Poole, of Grub Gulch, 
owner. 

Caledonia Mine (Quartz). — In Potter Ridge District. The vein, in 
the two open cuts, varies from 1 to 1\ ft., showing free gold. D. McClel- 
lan et al., of Coarse Gold, owners. 

Canady Mine (Quartz).— This claim is in Sec. 19, T. 10 S., R. 21 E. 
Two shafts, partially filled with water, expose a 3 ft. ledge, dipping 45° 
W. in granite. A. J. Cassidy, of Pollasky, Fresno County, owner. 

Caroline Mine (Quartz). — It is in Swede Gulch, Potter Ridge District. 
The prospect shaft and sundry open cuts show the vein is about 18 in. 
wide, carrying some sulphurets. J. Jones and F. C. Nimes, of Coarse 
Gold, owners. 

Central No. 2 Mine (Quartz). — On the North Fork of Deadwood 
Creek; is opened by an 80 ft. tunnel on a 10 in. vein, which shows sul- 
phurets. D. McClellan and C. Melvin, of Coarse Gold, owners. 

Chipmunk (Stargo) Mine (Quartz).— In Sec. 15, T. 9 S., R. 21 E. 
D. L. Pray, of North Fork, owner. 

Cliff Mine (Quartz). — This claim is at Jackass Mountain. Develop- 
ments consist of 40 and 60 ft. tunnels. The vein varies in width from 
a few inches to 4 ft. The quartz contains sulphurets, which are roasted 
in heaps and then worked in an arrastra. P. Ralph, of North Fork, 
owner. 

Colorado Mine (Quartz). — This is a N.W. extension of the Caroline. 
The 15 ft. shaft exposes a vein nearly 2 ft. in width. D. McClellan 
et al., of Coarse Gold, owners. 

Columbus Mine (Quartz). — This claim is on the North Fork of Fine 
Gold Creek, in Potter Ridge District, and is developed by open cuts. 
J. Morrison and F. Nimes, of Coarse Gold, owners. 

Combination Claim (Placer). — This is on Fine Gold Creek, and in 
Sec. 25, T. 9 S., R. 21 E. J. W. Strathan, of Hiidreth, owner. 

Contention (Rough and Ready) Mine (Quartz). — In Hiidreth District. 
Developments consist of a tunnel and drift more than 100 ft. in length, 
and a shaft 130 ft. in depth. The thickness of the vein varies from a 
few inches to about 3 ft., and pitches 30° S. The quartz is worked in a 
horse arrastra. The ore containing the most sulphurets is roasted in 
heaps. T. Keefe and T. W. Taylor, of O'Neals, owners. 

County Vieiv Mine (Quartz). — It has a tunnel 1,300 ft. long, and a 
26 ft. vein between the walls. See our VHIth Report, p. 213. D. Mc- 
Clellan and Chas. Melvin, of Coarse Gold, owners. 

Crabtree Mine (Quartz). — This is on the North Fork of Fine Gold 
Creek, Potter Ridge District. A small shaft and open cuts show a vein 
about 14 in. wide, carrying free gold. T. Jones, of Coarse Gold, owner. 

Crescent Mine (Quartz). — The open cut shows a vein about 2 -J ft. in 
width. G. Conklin and H. McCarthy, of Coarse Gold, owners. 

Cross Mine (Quartz). — Open cuts show a vein about \\ ft. in width. 
G. Conklin and H. McCarthy, of Coarse Gold, owners. 



156 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

Crystal Spring Mine (Quartz). — See our Vlllth Report, p. 214. I. M. 
Knox, of San Francisco, owner. 

Dagmar Mine (Quartz). — In Potter Ridge District. An open cut 
shows the vein 18 in. wide. Chris. Petersen and T. Jones, of Coarse 
Gold, owners. 

Defiance Mine (Placer). — This is at the Old Adobe crossing on the 
San Joaquin River. J. Petersen, of North Fork, owner. 

Diana Mine (Quartz).— This is in Sec. 18, T. 10 S., R. 22 E. There 
are three tunnels, the longest of which is more than 400 ft. in length. 
W. R. Hampton, of Pollasky, Fresno County, owner. 

Eighty-four Mine (Quartz). — In Potter Ridge District. A 20 ft. shaft 
has been sunk on the vein, which can be traced on the surface, and 
shows a width of 1 to 8 ft. D. R. McKenzie and F. Rhule, of O'Neals, 
owners. 

Eighty-six Mine (Quartz).— It is in Sec. 36, T. 9 S., R. 20 E. The 
workings consist of four shafts varying from 20 to 100 ft. in depth. The 
vein is said to be from 2^ to 7 ft. wide, and pitches about 50° N.E. A 
cross lead intersects the lode, and is about 5 ft. wide, within granitic 
walls. C. J. Beck, of Zebra, owner. 

Eliza Jane Mine (Quartz).— This is in Sec. 25, T. 9 S., R. 21 E. The 
developments consist of five tunnels, which aggregate probably 500 ft. 
in length, and an 80 ft. incline. The vein varies from 1 to 2 ft., within 
granitic walls. P. Bazinet, of Hildreth, owner. 

E. R. Daniels Mine (Quartz). — In Hildreth District. In the 15 ft. 
shaft the vein is about 1 ft. wide. E. R. Daniels and R. Higgins, of 
Pollasky, Fresno County, owners. 

Fine Gold Mine (Quartz). — It is in Fine Gold Gulch, about 3 \ miles 
N.E. of O'Neals P. O. Mark Anderson, of O'Neals, owner. 

Fine Gold Claim (Placer).— It is in Sec. 25, T. 9 S., R. 21 E. J. Kirby, 
of Hildreth, owner. 

First Venture Mine (Quartz and Placer). — These claims are situated 
in Sec. 21, T. 9 S., R. 21 E. I. L. Baker, of O'Neals, owner. 

Five Oaks Mine (Quartz). — This embraces three claims, viz., Sydney, 
Alpha No. 1, and Eclipse, which adjoin and. are in Potter Ridge District. 
Developments consist of two tunnels 400 and 170 ft. long and two shafts 
70 and 40 ft. deep. The vein is 25 ft. wide and dips 35° N.E. Five 
Oaks Mining Company, of San Francisco, owners. 

Fresno Banner Mine (Quartz). — In Hildreth District. J. Donahoe et 
al., of Fresno, owners. 

Fresno Enterprise Mine (Quartz). — It is 4 miles E. of Grub Gulch, on 
the south side of Fresno River, and on the east slope of a mountain 
called Potter Ridge. The vein occurs in mica slate, accompanied by 
granitic dikes. It strikes W. of N. and dips 80° E. The upper por- 
tion of the vein is bent over by the weight of the mountain, dipping to 
the W. The quartz is granular and glassy, and contains iron sulphurets. 
Gay Coats, of Pasadena, Los Angeles County, owner. 

On the same side of the mountain is a contact of diabase and mica 
slate which has never been explored. Southward are some small pros- 
pects where the rock is worked in arrastras. 

Grand Central Mine (Quartz). — In Potter Ridge District. Develop- 
ments consist of two shafts, one 40 and the other 18 ft. deep. The vein 
is 18 in. wide, showing sulphurets and free gold. D. McClellan et al., 
of Coarse Gold, owners. 



GOLD — MADERA COUNTY. 157 

Great Eastern Mine (Quartz). — In Potter Ridge District. The vein 
is about 15 in. wide. D. McClellan and Chas. Melvin, of Coarse Gold, 
owners. 

Grub Gulch Region. — The gold mines here occur in the belt of crystal- 
line schists which extends south into the granite from the Sebastopol 
Mine, 4 miles S.E. of the town of Mariposa, into Madera and Fresno 
counties. The west granite areas strike S. across the edges of the slates 
and schists; the direction of the line of contact is N. 65° to 70° W., and 
the strike of the slates N. 50° to 60° W., while still east of the area is 
another, in which the slates strike N. 45° W. The line of contact 
between these two metamorphic areas is well defined and marks the 
general course of the principal mineral lode or vein system of the 
district. The west area consists of mica slates, micaceous sandstones, 
mica schists, talcose and chloritic schists, and eruptive dikes of granitic 
character, and a mass of diabase of irregular form. The east series 
consists of an evenly laminated, firm mica slate, called the "Indian 
Peak " slate. The veins occur along and near the contact of the mica 
slates of the east series and the mica schists and magnesian rocks of the 
west series. Ordinarily the veins form in the west series and strike 
across the inclosing rocks to the contact, where they turn and follow it 
or pinch out entirely. The contact is usually accompanied by a crushing 
and splitting of the rocks along its course, and in this zone are found 
many seams and bunches of quartz rich in gold. A fact noticeable in 
this district appears of importance, viz. : That with the exception of the 
small, short shoots of gold-bearing quartz found in the micaceous and 
magnesian schists of the contact, no veins of value were found in the 
rock other than the mica slates. This phenomenon has been observed 
elsewhere. 

Hall Claim (Placer). — It is on the North Fork of the San Joaquin. 
W. Hall, of North Fork, owner. 

Hanover Mine (Quartz).— This claim is in Sec. 31, T. 9 S., R. 22 E. 
The workings consist of a shaft and two tunnels. The vein shows an 
average thickness of about 1 ft., in granitic walls. There is a 5-stamp 
mill, and hoisting works. See our Vlllth Report, p. 204. H. S. 
Williams, of Raymond, owner. 

Harrietta Mine (Quartz). — It is in Swede Gulch, Potter Ridge Dis- 
trict. An open cut exposes a 14 in. vein, showing sulphurets. H. 
McLeran, of Coarse Gold, owner. 

Hawkey e Mine (Quartz). — This claim is at the head of Swede Gulch, 
Potter Ridge District. The developments consist of a 200 ft. tunnel and 
a 60 ft. shaft. The vein varies from 1 to 16 in. in width. D. McClellan 
et al., of Coarse Gold, owners. 

Henrietta Mine (Quartz). — This is an easterly extension of the Lottie 
K, and is on the east bank of Fine Gold Creek, in the Hildreth Dis- 
trict. The workings are as follows: A lower tunnel 190 ft. in length, 
in which the vein varies from a few inches to 2 ft., and dips 40° N. of W. 
About 60 ft. above there is an incline 70 ft. in depth sunk on the vein. 
About 50 ft. above the incline there is a 40 ft. tunnel. In this tunnel 
the vein seen in the lower workings, and a smaller vein running parallel 
thereto, are exposed. The ore is clean quartz, showing a small amount 
of sulphurets. The walls are granitic. J. A. Harris and W. Reed, of 
Pollasky, owners. 



158 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

Hesper Claim (Placer).— This is situated in Sec. 25, T. 9 S., R. 21 E. 
J. P. Newman, of Hildreth, owner. 

Hildreth and Fresno Mining Districts. — The dividing line between the 
Hildreth and Fresno mining districts is Fine Gold Creek, and all the 
mines in Fresno Mining District are east of it. Many of the mines in 
these districts are situated near a dike coursing N.E. and S.W., which 
culminates in a mass of eruptive rock forming the crest of Crook's 
Mountain, at an altitude of about 2,000 ft. A review of the strike and 
position of the gold-bearing veins on the southeastern side of the dike 
shows that they run practically parallel to the dike, and are situated 
at no great distance from it. It is said that on the northwestern side 
of the dike the principal leads of pay ore have a course of about N. 74° 
E., and that although there are strong cross leads, they are usually 
barren, except at points of intersection, where bodies of high-grade ore 
are frequently discovered. Those who are acquainted with the deepest 
workings in the Hildreth District state that the silver value of the ore 
increases and the gold value wanes as a great depth is reached. In 
other portions of Fresno and Hildreth mining districts the veins occupy 
fissures in the granitic rocks; the latter sometimes present a gneissoid 
structure. 

Hildreth Mine (Quartz).— This is in Sec. 36, T. 9 S., R. 21 E. The 
developments consist of a 400 ft. incline, from which stopes extend for 
about 200 ft. E. The vein is somewhat irregular, and varies from a few 
inches to 3 ft. in width. The quartz shows but few sulphurets. Heirs 
of W. Dunphy, deceased, of Hildreth, owners. 

Hoboken Mine (Quartz). — In Potter Ridge District. The develop- 
ments consist of a 100. ft. shaft and 60 ft. drift; the vein is from 4 to 
6 ft. wide, carrying sulphurets and free gold. The Collector and Treasurer 
are extensions, having the same features, and all are owned by L. Krohn, 
of Coarse Gold. 

Homestake Mine (Quartz).— This is in Sec. 19, T. 10 S., R. 22 E., in 
Hildreth District. There are two inclines, said to be 115 and 160 ft. 
deep, respectively, with drifts and stopes leading therefrom; also a shaft 
80 ft. deep. The vein is 2 to 6 ft. wide, between granite walls, and dips 
45° N.W. Wise & Brennan, of Hildreth, owners. 

Hughes Mine (Quartz).— It is in Sec. 30, T. 9 S., R. 22 E. Develop- 
ments consist of tunnels, drifts, etc., probably 500 ft. of work in all. 
R. Williams, of Hildreth, owner. 

Indian Peak Mine (Quartz). — South of the Mammoth, and prospected 
by shallow cuts and trenches. Chas. Ward, of Grub Gulch, owner. 

Jackass Mountain Mines. — The surface of the country rock in the 
vicinity of Jackass Mountain presents a smooth and rounded contour. 
The depression in which Jackass Meadows are situated was no doubt 
at one time occupied by a chain of small lakes; indeed, a small lake 
still remains at the southern base of Jackass Mountain. The veins are 
gold-bearing fissures in granitic and granular quartzose rock, containing 
some mica, but in which little or no feldspar can be seen by macroscopic 
observation. 

Joe Mine (Quartz). — This property is a mile S. of Fresno River, on a 
high peak 600 ft. above the river. The vein consists of a zone of con- 
torted and shattered mica schists, into which has infiltrated a large 
amount of quartz in the form of stringers, lenses, and veins; some of 
the latter are 12 in. in width. The entire mass, 6 to 12 ft. in width, 



GOLD — MADERA COUNTY. 159 

contains gold. The workings in 1893 consisted of two shafts, one 200 
ft., the other 125 ft. deep; a connecting drift, 150 ft. in length, and a 
drift south of the main shaft at the 100 ft. level. Provided with arras- 
tras. J. Spencer, of Grub Gulch, owner. 

Josephine, Arkansas Traveler, and Gambetta Mines (Quartz). — They 
are on the west side of the metamorphic area, half a mile from Grub 
Gulch. See our VHIth and Xth Reports, pp. 213, 197, and 202. 

Keefe Mine (Quartz). — It is in Dead wood Gulch, Potter Ridge Dis- 
trict. There is a small shaft and several open cuts, showing a vein 6 in. 
wide, carrying free gold. T. Keefe, of Coarse Gold, owner. 

Keno Mine (Quartz).— This adjoins the Melvine, in Potter Ridge Dis- 
trict. An open cut shows a 15 in. vein. M. A. Kipperdan and G. G. 
Murray, of Coarse Gold, owners. 

Last Chance Mine (Placer). — This claim is at the Old Adobe crossing 
on the San Joaquin River. J. F. Hutchinson, of North Fork, owner. 

Last Chance Mine (Quartz).— This claim is in Sec. 14, T. 8 S., R. 21 E. 
Developments consist of an upper and a lower tunnel, each of which is 
about 700 ft. in length. In the upper tunnel, which is partly caved in, 
the vein is 1 to 5 ft. wide and pitches about 60° N.E. The lower tunnel 
does not appear to have been run on the vein. At this mine there is a 
10-stamp mill. See also our VHIth and Xth Reports, pp. 211 and 201. 

D. R. McKenzie and F. Rhule, of O'Neals, owners. 

Last Chance Mine (Quartz).— This is in Sec. 30, T. 9 S., R. 22 E. The 
vein is 1^ ft. in width, between granitic walls. C. Williams, of Hildreth, 
owner. 

Laura May Mine (Quartz). — In Deadwood Gulch and Potter Ridge 
District. Open cuts expose the vein 1 to 1\ feet in width. The Montana 
is an extension, with same characteristics. Both are owned by D. 
McClellan et al., of Coarse Gold. 

Lawsuit Mine (Quartz). — This adjoins the Bazinet, in the Hildreth 
District. The two tunnels are 200 and 260 ft. in length, and the vein is 
1 to 2 ft. wide and dips 45° S.W. P. Bazinet, of Hildreth, owner. 

Lewis Mine (Placer). — This claim is situated in Sec. 1,T. 10 S., R. 21 

E. B. T. M. Lewis, of Pollasky, Fresno County, owner. 

Lillie Mine (Quartz).— The mine is in Sec. 27, T. 9 S., R. 21 E. There 
is a shaft 400 ft. deep, with drifts and stopes running therefrom. The 
vein shows a width of from 2 to 3 ft. between granitic walls. The mill 
at this mine burned down in 1893. See our VIHth Report, p. 210. 
McDonald Bros., of San Francisco, owners. 

Lingo Mine (Quartz). — This is in Swede Gulch, Potter Ridge District. 
It is opened by two tunnels, 100 and 60 ft. in length. The vein is about 
12 in. wide. J. Lingo, of Coarse Gold, owner. 

Little Willie's Mine (Placer). — This claim is in Fine Gold Gulch, in 
Sec. 25, T. 10 S., R. 21 E. G. P. Gunter, of Pollasky, Fresno County, 
owner. 

Little Wonder Mine (Quartz). — In Potter Ridge District. There is a 
40 ft. incline. The vein varies from 8 to 14 in. in width. The Crown 
Point and Nondescript are the same in character, and all owned by D. 
McClellan and Chas. Melvin, of Coarse Gold. 

Lottie K Mine (Quartz).— This mine is in Sec. 14, T. 10 S., R. 21 E., 
on the west bank of Fine Gold Creek. The workings consist of three 
tunnels, the lowest of which is about 40 ft. above the creek, and is 180 
ft. in length. The ledge between the walls is rather more than 3 ft. 



160 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

wide, and dips 45° S.W., and there is a pay streak about 18 in. wide 
next to the hanging-wall. The middle tunnel is about 90 ft. above the 
creek, and is 160 ft. in length on the ledge. An incline connects the 
two tunnels. The middle tunnel has been run on a small vein with 
high-grade ore, and dips in a similar direction to that of the larger vein, 
but its angle of inclination is less. The upper tunnel is on the small 
vein; is about 140 ft. above the creek, and is 150 ft. in length. There 
is a spring of good water in the mouth of the upper tunnel. J. A. 
Harris et al., of Pollasky, Fresno County, owners. 

Lucky Day Mine (Quartz). — It is in Greason Gulch, Potter Ridge 
Mining District. A shallow shaft shows a vein about 1 ft. wide. T. 
Kipperdan, of Coarse Gold, owner. 

Lucky Star Mine (Quartz). — In Hildreth Mining District. R. Stay- 
ton et al., of O'Neals, owners. 

Mabel Mine (Quartz). — The workings consist of an open cut about 45 
ft. in width. W. F. Roddick et al., of Fresno, owners. 

Madera Mine (Quartz). — This claim is in Fresno Mining District. 
One of the owners states that the developments consist of a 90 ft. 
incline, and that the vein is about 4 ft. in width, showing sulphurets 
and free gold. A. Cadoza et al., of O'Neals, owners. 

Mammoth Mine (Quartz). — This is in King's Gulch, 1 mile N. of Grub 
Gulch, at the north end of the Mammoth lode. The main vein is 20 to 
25 ft. in width, striking N. 70° W. and dipping 45° N.E. On the foot- 
wall side are a number of smaller veins, 4 or 5 ft. in width, which 
strike into the main vein. The hanging- wall of the lode is mica slate; 
the foot-wall is a much decomposed granitic rock of fine texture, prob- 
ably granulite. A transverse fracturing of the vein is a very pronounced 
feature of this portion of the lode. It is probably due to the movement 
of the country subsequent to the formation of the vein. The Mammoth 
lode, on the northern end of which the Mammoth Mine is located, has 
been traced for 15,000 ft., and it may be longer. It is accompanied 
throughout its entire length by an intrusive granitic dike, the texture 
of which ranges from felsite to micro-granite and granulite, and south of 
Fresno River it approaches pegmatite in the coarseness of its crystalli- 
zation. This dike crosses the vein system in several different places. 
Since the visit of the field assistant this mine has been developed to a 
depth of 200 ft., and an electric plant, transmitting power from Fresno 
River, 1-J miles, is in operation. Charles Ward, of Grub Gulch, owner. 

Manzanita Mine (Quartz). — It is in Hildreth District. Developments 
consist of an 84 ft. incline and open cuts. The vein shows an average 
width of 1-J ft. The quartz shows some sulphurets, frequently occurring 
in bunches. R. P. Brownell, of Hildreth, owner. 

Margarite Mine (Quartz). — This mine is in Fine Gold Gulch, Hildreth 
District. Developments are an incline shaft 180 ft. deep, from which 
a 20 ft. drift has been run on the vein at a depth of 130 ft. The vein 
shows a width of from 6 to 18 in., and dips to the N.E. At the mouth 
of the shaft the angle of inclination is about 25°, but it increases to 60° 
at the bottom of the workings. The quartz is somewhat decomposed, 
and the harder portions show a few sulphurets. Chas. Baker et al., of 
O'Neals, owners. 

May Flower Mine (Quartz). — This claim is on the southeast branch 
of Fine Gold Creek, in Hildreth District. The tunnel is 200 ft. long, 
and the ledge is from 2 to 3 ft. wide. 



GOLD MADERA COUNTY. 161 

Miller & Holt Mine (Placer). — It adjoins the Hall claim on the north. 
Miller & Holt, of North Fork, owners. 

Miller, L. H., Mine (Quartz).— This claim is in Sec. 19, T. 10 S., R. 
21 E. It has an incline 40 ft. deep. The vein is about 18 in. in width, 
and dips 50° S.W. between granitic walls. L. H. Miller et al., of Pol- 
lasky, Fresno County, owners. 

Mint Mine (Quartz). — It is in Swede Gulch, Potter Ridge District. 
Chris. Petersen and T. Jones, of Coarse Gold, owners. 

Monitor Mine (Quartz).— This is in Cabin Gulch, in T. 7 S., R. 20 E. 
The shaft is only 25 ft. deep. Chris. Petersen and J. Krohn, of Coarse 
Gold, owners. 

Morning Star Mine (Quartz). — It is in Deadwood Gulch, Potter Ridge 
District. There are two shafts: one 30, the other 60 ft. deep. The vein 
is narrow, averaging 10 in. wide. J. Hitchcock, of Oakland, Alameda 
County, owner. 

Morrow Mine (Quartz). — See Bazinet Mine. 

Mountain Lily Mine (Quartz). — It is in T. 7 S., R. 21 E. Open cuts 
show a vein 2-| ft. wide. D. L. McClellan and C. Melvin, of Coarse 
Gold, owners. 

Mountain View Mine (Quartz). — This mine is situated in Sec. 6, T. 9 
S., R. 21 E., and has three shafts, varying from 50 to 100 ft. in depth, and 
drifts from the bottom of the shafts, the longest of which is 290 ft. The 
ore is gold-bearing quartz, some of which is heavily sulphuretted. The 
width of the vein varies from 2 to 6 ft. The Avails are granitic. See 
our Xth Report, p. 198. This mine was reopened in May, 1894, 14 men 
being employed. J. Donahoe et al., of Fresno, owners. 

Mud Springs (Wilson) Mine (Quartz). — This claim is in Sec. 26, T. 9 
S., R. 21 E. The workings consist of an incline 300 ft. deep. The vein 
has an average width of about 16 in. S. H. Wilson, of O'Neals, owner. 

Muhly Mine (Placer). — It is on the North Fork of the San Joaquin. 
T. Muhly, of North Fork, owner. 

Nellie Gray Mine (Quartz).— It is in Sec. 14, T. 9 S., R. 21 E. The 
vein is only a few inches in thickness, but the ore is very rich. The 
walls are granitic. J. H. Oester, of O'Neals, owner. 

Never Sweat Mine (Placer).— It is in Sec. 1, T. 10 S., R. 21 E. J. A. 
Harris, of Pollasky, Fresno County, owner. 

New Citizen Mine (Quartz). — It is in Deadwood Gulch, Potter Ridge 
District. It is opened by a 100 ft. shaft and a 180 ft. tunnel, the vein 
showing a width of about 5 ft. About a mile from the mine there is a 
stamp mill and two concentrators. C. A. Lea et al., of Plainsville, New r 
Jersey, owners. 

North Lillie Mine (Quartz). — An extension of the Lillie, in Hildreth 
District. F. Wetmore, of O'Neals, Fresno County, owner. 

Overlooked Mine (Placer).— It is in Sec. 31, T. 9 S., R. 22 E. J. H. 
Morris, of Hildreth, owner. 

Owl Mine (Quartz). — The mine is on Jackass Mountain. There is a 
tunnel about 400 ft. in length, and stopes from same. The vein shows 
a width of from a few inches to 2 ft., dipping 50° N.W. The clean quartz 
carries iron sulphurets and a little galena. See the Waterloo Gold Min- 
ing Company in our Xlth Report, p. 216. G. D. Hitchcock, of Madera, 
owner. 

Paymaster Mine (Quartz). — This claim is in Sec. 15, T. 8 S., R. 21 E. 
The tunnel is over 900 ft. long, but partly caved in; there is an 80 ft. 
11m 



162 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

shaft. The vein is said to be from 1 to 20 ft. in width, showing sulphu- 
rets. There is a 10-stamp mill on this claim. Waterloo Gold Mining 
Company, of San Francisco, owners. 

Paterson Mine (Quartz). — This is a westerly extension of the Mud 
Springs Mine, in the Hildreth District. There are two shafts, one 140 
ft. deep, the other 90 ft. J. Keating, of O'Neals, owner. 

Pine Grove Mine (Quartz). — This mine is about 7 miles E. of the 
North Fork of the San Joaquin River. The workings consist of a 130 
ft. tunnel, partly caved in, and several open cuts. The ledge in the 
tunnel shows a width of about 2 ft. In the open cuts the lead pitches 
N.E., but in the tunnel the vein has a S.E. pitch; the angle of inclina- 
tion, both in the cuts and in the tunnel, is less than 25°. The ore is 
decomposed quartz and clayey matter; it is worked in an arrastra 
operated by water power. The walls are disintegrated granitic rock. 
Jas. Lawson, of North Fork, owner. 

Plain View Mine (Quartz). — This claim is in Coarse Gold Gulch, 
Potter Ridge District. In the 8 ft. shaft and an open cut, the vein is 
18 in. wide. F. Mello and J. Elam, of Coarse Gold, owners. 

Pray Mine (Quartz). — It is in Fine Gold Gulch, Hildreth District. 
There is an open cut about 12 ft. deep. The vein, showing free gold, is 
about 6 in. wide and dips 60° N. It is a free-milling ore. The walls 
are granitic. D. L. Pray et al., of O'Neals, owners. 

Prospect Mine (Quartz). — This claim is in Swede Gulch, Potter Ridge 
District. The vein is 18 in. wide. Chris. Petersen and Theo, Jones, of 
Coarse Gold, owners. 

Prospect Mine (Placer).— This is in Sec. 35, T. 9 S., R. 21 E. Chris. 
Petersen et al., of Hildreth, owners. 

Providence Mine (Quartz). — The claim is in Deadwood Gulch, Potter 
Ridge District. One of the owners states that the developments consist 
of a tunnel more than 800 ft. in length, and that the ledge is 20 ft. 
between the walls. D. McClellan and Chas. Melvin, of Coarse Gold, 
owners. 

Quartz Mountain {Mine oVOr de Quartz Mountain) Mine (Quartz). — 
This mine is situated in T. 8 S., R. 21 E. There is a 60-stamp mill and 
hoisting works on the property. See our VHIth Report, p. 210. J. 
Dunn, of San Francisco, owner. 

Riffle Mine (Placer).— It is in Sec. 26, T. 9 S., R. 22 E. W. W. Poole, 
of Hildreth, owner. 

Riverside and Starlight Claims (Quartz). — These are S.E. of Indian 
Peak Mine, and half a mile E. of Grub Gulch. Considerable work has 
been done at the joining line of these claims. 'Six veins 1 to 4 ft. wide, 
striking into the contact, have been exposed in cuts and small shafts. 
One tunnel is run some distance into the mountain on the contact; a 
winze sunk in the tunnel is in the ore. Some of this quartz yields in 
the mill from $40 to $200 per ton. The hanging-wall is the " Indian 
Peak" slates; the foot-wall, mica schist. The main vein at contact is 
4 ft. wide; it dips with the hanging-wall slates. Southerly from this 
point are two claims on which no work was done. Chas. Ward, of Grub 
Gulch, owner. 

Round Tree Mine (Quartz).— This mine is in Sec. 6, T. 10 S., R. 22 E. 
The workings consist of a 30 ft. incline. The vein is about 8 in. wide. 
E. D. Topping, of Hildreth, owner. 



GOLD — MADERA COUNTY. 163 

Runaway Mine (Quartz).— This mine is in Sec. 30, T. 9 S., R. 22 E. 
Developments consist of a 100 ft. incline. The vein is from 2 to 4 in. 
in width. The walls are granitic. R. Williams, of Hildreth, owner. 

San Joaquin Mine (Quartz). — The claim is in Sec. 26, T. 10 S., R. 21 
E. The workings consist of an upper tunnel about 40 ft. long, and a 
lower tunnel, which is about 50 ft. long; a winze has been sunk to a 
depth of 30 ft. in the latter tunnel. The vein is about 18 in. wide and 
dips about 70° N.W. J. A. Harris et al., of Pollasky, Fresno County, 
owners. 

San Joaquin Mine (Quartz). This mine is in Sec. 7, T. 10 N., R. 22 
E. There are three tunnels; the lower is 480 ft. long. An upraise con- 
nects the middle and the upper tunnel. The ledge varies from 6 in. to 
2 ft. in width, and dips 50° N.W. Geo. Sym, of Hildreth, owner. 

Savannah (Atlanta) Mine (Quartz). — This is the first claim on the 
Mammoth lode south of the Fresno River, and is 1-| miles S.E. of 
Grub Gulch. The vein is 4 to 6 ft. wide, and lies entirely within the 
" Indian Peak " slates. The contact is here obscure. The vein dips 50° 
N.E. The dike of granulite in this claim cuts through the main shaft, 
displacing the vein. At the northern end of the claim the dike is 100 
ft. distant in the hanging-wall, and is nearly vertical. The vein does 
not appear to have faulted, being simply displaced by the dike. The 
quartz at the bottom of the 100 ft. shaft showed a distinctly banded 
structure, greatly resembling the cleavage of the inclosing slate. It is 
highly probable that this vein represents a silicification of the slates 
along the zone of fracture, the silicates of alumina and magnesia being 
replaced by quartz, iron sulphurets, and gold. The vein quartz often 
shows a quantity of chloritic matter, altered from the biotite mica of the 
slates. The quartz is granular and vitreous, but frequently shows gold. 
A 10-stamp mill was in course of construction in May, 1893. J. E. 
Spencer, of Grub Gulch, owner. 

S. E. Canady Mine (Quartz). — This is a southeastern extension of 
the Canady Mine. There is an open cut about 40 ft. in length and 
5 ft. deep. The vein, showing sulphurets, is about 8 in. in width, and 
dips 45° W. S. E. Canady & Bro., of Pollasky, Fresno County, owners. 

Seneca Mine (Placer).— This claim is in Sec. 25, T. 10 S., R. 21 E. 
Seymore May, of Pollasky, Fresno County, owner. 

Sequin Mine (Quartz). — This prospect is in Potter Ridge District. 
In the 12 ft. shafts and open cuts, the vein is 1 ft. wide. D. McClellan 
and Chas. Melvin, of Coarse Gold, owners. 

Smultz Mine (Quartz). — In Hildreth District. There is a tunnel 
about 80 ft. in length and a shaft 40 ft. deep. The vein averages about 
1 ft. in width, and dips 40° N.W. Smultz Bros., of Fresno, Fresno 
County, owners. 

Snow Flake Mine (Quartz). — This is a southwestern extension of the 
Baltimore. It is opened by a 375 ft. tunnel. The vein shows a width 
of from a few inches to about 2 ft. The vein dips 60° N.W. The ore is 
mixed with clayey matter, the harder portions showing sulphide of iron 
and a little galena. Smith Norris, of Fresno, owner. 

Standard Mine (Quartz).— The claim is in Sec. 14, T. 9 S., R. 21 E. 
Developments consist of a 135 ft. incline, a 25 ft. drift, and a tunnel 
35 ft. in length. The width of the vein varies from a few inches to 4 ft. 
The vein, which shows some sulphurets, dips 30° S. T. S. Baker and 
G. W. Keller, of O'Neals, owners. 



164 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

Standard No. 2 Mine (Quartz). — An extension of the Lingo Mine. 
The developments consist of a 60 ft. tunnel and open cuts. The vein, 
showing free gold, averages about 16 in. in width. D. McClellan and 
Chas. Melvin, of Coarse Gold, owners. 

Starbuck Mine (Quartz). — This is in Fine Gold Gulch, Hildreth Dis- 
trict. It is opened by a tunnel 40 ft. long and several open cuts. The 
vein is 6 in. wide and dips 30° N.E. The walls are granitic. Mark 
Anderson, of O'Neals, owner. 

Stemwinder Mine (Quartz). — This claim is on Jackass Mountain. The 
tunnel is about 35 ft. in length and the shaft 20 ft. deep. The vein is 
about 18 in. wide and dips 20° W. Smith Norris, of Fresno, owner. 

Sunol Mine (Quartz).— It is in Sec. 36, T. 7 S., R. 20 E., in Potter 
Ridge District. The shaft is 100 ft. deep and the ledge 2 ft. wide, dip- 
ping 45° E. The Antonia, Headlight, and Meta are extensions, and are 
owned by J. Krohn, of Coarse Gold. 

Surprise ( Old Jackass Brown) Mine (Quartz). — It is on Jackass Mount- 
ain. There is a shaft 40 ft. deep, a tunnel 100 ft. long, and open cuts. 
The vein shows a width of a few inches, and dips 60° S.E. B. Norris, of 
North Fork, owner. 

Swede Gulch Mine (Quartz). — This mine is in Swede Gulch, Potter 
Ridge District. The shafts are 20 ft. and 14 ft. deep. The vein shows 
a width of from 2\ to 3 ft. F. A. Cornell, of San Francisco, owner. 

Telles & Morton Mine (Placer).— The claim is in Sec. 12, T. 8 S., R. 
22 E. The claim is leased to a Chinese company. J. M. Telles and J. 
R. Morton, of North Fork, owners. 

Texas Flat Mine (Quartz).— This is in Sees. 7 and 8, T. 8 S., R. 21 E. 
See our VHIth Report, p. 212. J. B. Haggin et al., owners. 

Tiger Mine (Quartz). — It is half a mile S. of Grub Gulch. It is a 
small fissure vein, striking nearly E. and W. and dipping N. It varies 
from a small crevice to 3 ft. in width. A large dike of felsitic rock is 
always associated with the vein, though not always in contact with it. 
The vein contains large amounts of coarsely crystalline dolomite, and 
occasionally a green scaly mineral, similar in appearance to mariposite. 
The quartz is massive, and contains gold and silver, and sulphurets of 
iron, lead, and zinc. W. A. Poole, of Grub Gulch, owner. 

Triangle Mine (Placer).— In Sec. 26, T. 9 S., R. 21 E. J. D. Jones, of 
North Fork, owner. 

Unmitigated Mine (Quartz). — This adjoins the Columbus on the north. 
The shaft is 50 ft. deep. The vein varies from 8 to 14 in. in width. J. 
Morrison and F. C. Nimes, of Coarse Gold, owners. 

Viana Mine (Quartz). — In the Hildreth Mining District. There is a 
400 ft. tunnel on the property. W. R. Hampton, of Pollasky, Fresno 
County, owner. 

Vienna Mine (Quartz). — In Potter Ridge District. The work consists 
of open cuts. F. Dutchman et al., of Coarse Gold, owners. 

Volcano No. 1 Mine (Quartz).— This is at Hildreth, in Sec. 26, T. 19 S., 
R. 21 E. There is a 130 ft. incline, with drifts from same. The vein 
shows about 12 in. and dips N.W. A new tunnel has struck the vein 
at a lower elevation than that of the old workings. The quartz shows 
a few sulphurets, and prospects well in the horn. W. Beck and Chas. 
O'Neal, of O'Neals, owners. 

Washington Mine (Quartz). — This is in Deadwood Gulch, Potter Ridge 
District. It is opened by cuts, from which a large amount of decom- 



GEOLOGY OF MADERA AND MARIPOSA COUNTIES. 165 

posed quartz has been "sluiced out"; also by a 20 ft. shaft. The vein 
is about 2 ft. wide, and shows free gold. D. McClellan et al., of Coarse 
Gold, owners. 

Willow Creek Mine (Quartz).— This claim is in Sec. 21, T. 9 S., R. 21 
E. Developments consist of shafts and open cuts, which in May, 1894, 
were partially filled with water. The vein is claimed to be 4 ft. wide; 
the walls are granitic. Charles O'Neal, of O'Neals, owner. 

Wilson Mine (Quartz). — See Mud Springs. 

Zebra Mine (Quartz). — It is in Fresno District. Developments con- 
sist of tunnels and shafts, in all about 1,000 ft. of excavations. The 
vein shows a width of from 10 in. to 2 ft.; the walls are granitic. See 
our Vlth, VHIth, and Xth Reports, pp. 210 and 199. Zebra Mining 
Company, owners. 

GEOLOGY OF A PORTION OF MADERA AND MARIPOSA COUNTIES. 
By W. H. Stokms. 

The geology of the region lying a few miles on either side of the 
Madera-Mariposa county line is unusually interesting, as in this section 
the great ''Mother Lode" finds its southern termination and a new 
series of mineral zones takes its place southward. 

The broad belt of slates and schists, commonly called the " auriferous 
slates," which flank the western slope of the Sierra for more than 200 
miles, in Mariposa County split up into comparatively narrow arms, 
which extend southeastward far into the granite, the great masses of 
which replace the massive intrusions of diabase and diorite which occur 
northward^ 

All along the granite contact the slates and schists are found greatly 
disturbed, indurated, and contorted into folds, with greatly varying 
strike and dip. 

There are five distinct belts of slaty and schistose rocks reaching 
southeast into the granitic area. On the west is that from the vicinity 
of Hornitos through the Buchanan copper district toward Hildrethville 
and beyond. This belt varies from 12 miles at the north end to 3 or 4 
miles at the south. Its western boundary, as far as exposed, is the 
Quaternary deposit of the San Joaquin plain. Eastward a granite zone 
8 to 12 miles wide separates this west slate belt from that which reaches 
from 4 miles southeast of the town of Mariposa through to Grub Gulch, 
in Madera County, and south into Fresno County. The eastern border 
of this second slate area is greatly disturbed, the slates and schists being 
interstratified with broad and narrow dikes of granite, diabase, and 
other eruptive rocks. These granite dikes unite on the north, and the 
granite sends an arm several miles to the north reaching to Mount 
Bullion. Still farther east a third zone of schists extends from Buck- 
ingham Mountain, in Mariposa County, through Potter Ridge, in Madera 
County, into Fresno County. This belt is not more than a mile in 
width. Eastward again is found granite in a narrow belt; it is highly 
metamorphic, commonly showing a gneissoid and sometimes a por- 
phyritic structure. East of this lies the belt of black slates, schists, 
and limestone of the Hite's Cove region. A large lens-like mass of 
granite has been thrust into these rocks on the north side of the Middle 
Fork of the Merced River. It is about 1 mile in length and half a mile 



166 



REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 




GOLD — MARIPOSA COUNTY. 167 

wide. It appears to be entirely surrounded by the schists. The Hite's 
Cove metamorphics extend several miles to the southeast through the 
Silver Peak region and beyond. East of these is a succession of 
granitic and highly metamorphic areas, which include many broad 
masses of diorite, which have their neucleal mass in Mount Raymond. 

The details of this complex geological field would be best illustrated 
by a map showing these formations. 

The u Mother Lode " ends in the southern part of Mariposa County, 
a description of the detailed geology of which will be found in our Xth 
Report, p. 25. Each of the arms of slaty and schistose rocks which 
extend south includes a series of mineral veins having well-defined 
characteristics, and differing in every particular from the veins of the 
"Mother Lode." 

The veins appear to have been formed subsequent to the intrusion of 
the granite. Dikes of granitic type, viz., felsite, felstone, granulite, aplite, 
and pegmatite granite, commonly accompany the veins of this region, 
and in some cases may be traced directly to the large granitic masses of 
the neighborhood. It is not improbable that the intrusive mountain 
masses and smaller dikes of diorite and diabase are also subsequent to 
the eruption of the granite. 

It is generally supposed, and has frequently been asserted, that the 
metamorphic rocks of the auriferous series represent an unbroken for- 
mation; that the cleavage planes and sedimentary planes are identical. 
The occurrence of conglomerate rocks would suggest unconformability, 
though none has ever been observed 

At the old townsite of Carson, in Mariposa County, are acres of slaty 
tailings of the early placer mining. Everywhere may be found slates 
with fine cleavage, on the smooth faces of which may be seen what 
are undoubtedly lines of sedimentation. These lines cross at nearly 90°; 
southward, however, this angle is somewhat less. This would indicate 
that Carson is about the axis of the fold. 

MARIPOSA COUNTY. 

Though the mineral resources of this county, chiefly gold, are large, 
this industry is not in a flourishing condition, owing to the fact that the 
greater portion of the mining territory is covered by two vast private 
properties, viz.: The Mariposa, or Fremont Grant, and the Seth Cook 
estate, and that still another large tract embracing mineral land — the 
Yosemite Park — retards mining operations. Within the past two years, 
however, the Mariposa estate mines have been investigated by the owners 
with a view of resuming operations, and negotiations for the transfer of 
the Cook estate are said to be pending. The indications now are that 
" old Mariposa" is on the eve of a mining boom. 

Barley Field Mine (Quartz). — It is 4 \ miles N.E. of Mariposa, near 
the Champion. The vein occurs in granite. 

Bandarita Mine (Quartz). — It is 12 miles E. of Coulterville, on the 
North Fork of Merced River, and is on the "East Lode." Geologically 
it is similar to the Hite Mine. C. L. Mast, of Coulterville, Superin- 
tendent. 

Bondurant Mine (Quartz). — It is on the "East Lode," 11 miles N.E. 
of Coulterville. See our Xth Report, p. 345. Idle. Bondurant Gold 
Mining Company, of St. Louis, Missouri, owners. 



168 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

Blade Bart Mine (Quartz). — It is situated on a spur of the Buckthorn 
Mountain, 11 miles E. of Coulterville. The fissure strikes E. and W., 
dipping 25° N. It occurs in splintered diabase, and is accompanied by 
a light-colored, granular dike rock. The quartz varies from a seam to 

3 ft. in width. It is often found interstratified with the dike. The 
miners find, by experience, that the softening of the dike, together with 
the appearance of much iron and scales of chloritic mineral, are indi- 
cations of the proximity of a "pocket" of gold. There are several 
claims on this vein, but this was the only one working in 1893. S. B. 
Sample, of Coulterville, owner. 

Cam.podonica Mine (Quartz). — It is 1 mile E. of Hornitos. Campo- 
donica Mining Company, of Hornitos, owners. 

Champion Mine (Quartz). — Described in our Xth Report, p. 303. 
Jas. Ridgeway, of Mariposa, owner. 

Cherokee Mine (Quartz). — This claim is 9 miles E. of Coulterville, 
and contains two parallel veins, 30 ft. apart. Jas. Shimer, of Coulter- 
ville, owner. 

Congo Mine (Quartz). — It is 4 miles E. of Coulterville. A cross-cut 
tunnel 300 ft. in length has cut the vein 200 ft. from the surface. The 
vein is in slate, near diabase, and strikes N.W., dipping 50° N.E. John 
Metzer & Co., of Coulterville, owners. 

Coulterville District. — Two great veins branch out in the Pine Tree and 
Josephine mines and extend northwestward to and beyond Coulterville. 
These veins are locally known as the Pine Tree or " Mother Lode," and 
the Josephine or " West Lode." See our Xth Report, p. 35. The prin- 
cipal claims on the "Mother Lode" between the Pine Tree Mine and 
Coulterville are the Daliah, Louisa, Mary Harrison, and Virginia. On 
the "West Lode" are the Tyro, Malvina No. 1 and No. 2, and the 
Potosi. 

Cranberry Mine (Quartz). — It is on the North Fork of Merced River, 

4 miles N. of Hite's Cove. See our VIHth Report, p. 348. 

Daliah Mine (Quartz). — It is on the "Mother Lode," 2-J miles S.E. of 
Coulterville. See our VIHth and Xth Reports, pp. 346 and 41. Gen- 
eral Boyd, of San Francisco, owner. 

" East Lode. v — About 16 miles east of the " Mother Lode," and extend- 
ing for a distance of 80 miles N.W. from Hite's Cove, is a gold-bearing 
belt or lode system of great importance (having produced about 
$10,000,000), locally known as the " East Lode." The principal mines 
in this belt are the Ferguson, Hite, and Kanaka mines, in Mariposa 
County; Buchanan, Dead Horse, Eureka, Keltz, and Soulsby in 
Tuolumne County; Sheep Ranch, in Calaveras County, and Clinton 
Mine, near Pine Grove, in Amador County. These mines, and many 
others, occur in a zone a mile or more in width. The southern end is 
entirely in slate and the northern portion entirely in granite. The 
veins have a greatly varying strike and dip; the general trend of the 
veins, however, is to the W. of N., and the dip to the E. In some parts 
of the lode the fissure is represented by one main crevice with many 
branches, while in other portions there are two or three separate fissure 
systems, as in the North Fork of Tuolumne River, between the Buchanan 
and Eureka mines. The lode is distinguished by the branching char- 
acter of the fissures, the inclusion of slaty material in the quartz, and 
usually by a banded structure of the veins. These mines have nearly 
all been described in former reports of the State Mineralogist, particu- 



GOLD — MARIPOSA COUNTY. 



169 



lar reference to which has been made elsewhere. The Hite Mine has 
been selected as a type of the mines of the " East Lode," and also as 
one embracing many features that are common to fissures found in mica 
slates and micaceous schists. 

Elizabeth Mine (Quartz). — It is on the Mariposa estate, 4 miles S.W. 
of Bear Valley P. O. The vein occupies a crevice in a dike of basic 
rock. It strikes N. and dips 50° E. Mariposa Estate, owner. 

Evans Mine (Quartz). — This is 1 mile N.E. of the town of Mariposa, 
near Missouri Gulch. A very interesting geological cross-section is found 
here. On the W., in diabase, is the Missouri Gulch vein, which enriched 
every gulch crossing it or leading up to it. The superficial placer deposits 
were worked out years ago, and a large amount of gold has since been 
taken from the vein in the form of " pockets. " The strike of the vein is 
N. and dips 70° E. The diabase of the hanging-wall is succeeded east- 
ward by black slates, which in turn give place to a dike or mass of 
decomposed rock, which is probably of the granite family. On the east 
side of this dike the black slates are again found, and still beyond these 
a diabase. In the eastern slate belt is a well-defined fissure vein strik- 
ing N.W. and dipping 45° S.W. In the eruptive dike occupying the 
center of this area is found a system of fissures filled with quartz con- 



C/fOSS SECT/ON OF EVANS H/LLS. 
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SH/N/NG POCKET LEDGES 






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taining gold. The surface of the soft, decomposed dike was long since 
sluiced off with large profit. What relation these several fissures bear 
to one another is not apparent in the present stage of development. 

Farmer's Hope Mine (Quartz). — It is C> miles N. of Mariposa. See our 
Xth Report, p. 308. 

Ferguson Mine (Quartz). — It is on the " East Lode," 17 miles N.E. of 
Mariposa. 

Green Gulch Mine (Quartz). — It is on the Mariposa estate, half a mile 
W. of Princeton. Mariposa Estate, owner. 

A Gold Belt extends along the ridge overlooking the South Fork of 
the Merced River, 2 miles S.W. of Site's Cove. The slates are hard 
and dense, and are traversed by dikes of felsitic rock, great and small. 
They are highly charged with iron oxides, but appear never to have 
been prospected. As the gulches leading up to this belt, which is a 
mile in width, have produced coarse gold in considerable amount, it 
seems a promising field for energetic prospecting. Wood and timber 
are abundant, but water is rather scarce, though small springs occur 
quite commonly in gulches near this belt. 

Hasloe Mine (Quartz). — It is 12 miles E. of Coulterville, in Gentry's 
Gulch. It has been considerably developed. John Morgan, of San 
Francisco, owner. 



170 



REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 



Hayseed Mine (Quartz). — It is 6 miles N.E. of Mariposa, adjoining the 
Farmer's Hope. Idle. See our Xth Report, p. 308. 

Hite Mine (Quartz). — This is situated on a rugged ridge between the 
South and Middle Forks of the Merced River, 16 miles N.E. of Mariposa. 
The altitude at the river near the mine is 1,900 ft. The surrounding 
hills rise 1,600 to 4,000 ft. above the canon bottom. The rocks are all 
of a slaty or schistose nature, but are much contorted, faulted, and 
indurated by pressure. Dikes of dioritic and felsitic rocks are found 
cutting through these metamorphosed rocks. The great fissures of the 
Hite Mine strike along the ridge N. 70° W., crossing it at an altitude of 
3,500 ft., and continuing on its northern side. The fissure maintains a 
remarkably straight course for a long distance. The main, or hanging- 
wall, crevice dips 75° to 80° N. The principal workings on this system 
of fissures are in the Hite Mine. A limited amount of prospecting has 
been done on other portions of the vein. The veins for the most part 
lie between walls of black slate, which in every physical feature 
resembles the slates of the " Mother Lode." The main fissure is accom- 
panied by a dike of light gray felsitic rock, which usually lies in contact 
with or near the vein on the hanging-wall side. The normal con- 






CROSS SECT/ ON OE H/TE M/A/E 

Mar/posa Co. 




dition of the slate is that of an easily cleavable, dark, grayish slate, 
classed as argillite. Whenever this rock presents a perfect, slaty cleav- 
age, it is always at some distance from a fissure, but on nearing a crevice 
the slate becomes foliated, soft, black, and shining, but no degree of 
foliation or contortion in the slates indicates pay rock, for these con- 
ditions obtain when no quartz at all, or perhaps barren quartz, is found. 
The Hite fissure is a branching crevice, with spurs thus far developed 
chiefly in the foot-wall. A segment of slate, split off from the main fis- 
sure on the foot-wall side* has the form of the lower half of a great 
plano-convex lens having a base of about 600 ft. and a maximum thick- 
ness of 45 ft. This segment of slate is surrounded by quartz. Neither 
the hanging-wail fissure nor that in the foot-wall slate is continuously 
filled with quartz. At times these fissures contain only barren quartz, 
or crushed slate with no quartz. In width the veins range from a mere 
seam to 12 ft., and at the point of convergence in depth there was found 
pay quartz of 25 ft. in width. 



GOLD MARIPOSA COUNTY. 171 

Going eastward from the main workings a long drift has been run, 
which frequently shows the vein to split and send off shoots or crevices 
into the hanging-wall side; indeed, it is sometimes difficult to say which 
is the main fissure. The quartz commonly includes more or less slaty 
material, and in places exhibits a banded structure, and rock of this 
character was uniformly good. These appear to be the chief character- 
istics of the Hite Mine, and they are common to most of the mines of 
the " East Lode," and in fact to most mines in the slate rocks elsewhere. 

The developments were described in our Vlllth Report, p. 344. For 
some distance down the incline winze, the vein continued large and 
massive; lower it stratified and was lost, only the fissure filled with 
crushed black slate remaining. A drift was run eastward on this 
crevice at the bottom of the winze, 900 ft. from the surface. Some dis- 
tance from the station a cross-cut into the hanging-wall disclosed 14 ft. 
of solid quartz and no wall. This rock was very low grade, but it was 
also a long way east of the pay shoot which had been followed down 
from the surface and which pinches westward, its lower limb passing 
just below the station level at the top of the winze. 

It has been shown in a number of instances in mines in the slate 
rocks of Amador County that the disappearance of pay quartz at any 
point between the surface and 1,000 ft. does not prove that the lower 
levels are destitute of pay rock. This fact is particularly exemplified 
in the Kennedy and Hardenburgh mines, in Amador County. John 
Hite, of San Francisco, owner. 

Hornitos District lies in that belt of crystalline schists which extends 
from the plains of the San Joaquin into the first low-lying foothills, in 
the western part of Mariposa County. The mining industry, once prom- 
inent, is now almost at a standstill, only one mine being in operation. 

Josephine Mine (Quartz). — It is on the Mariposa estate. See Pine 
Tree and Josephine. Mariposa Estate, owner. 

Juniper Mine (Quartz). — This is 1-J miles W. of Bear Valley. It 
occurs at a contact of slate and diabase on the surface, but in depth the 
fissure passes into the slates. The quartz is hard and massive, and 
carries sulphides of iron, lead, and zinc. A dike of felsitic rock accom- 
panies the vein. 

Kanaka Mine (Quartz). — It is 7 miles E. of Groveland. It is equipped 
with a 10-stamp mill. In operation in 1893. Louis Casretto, of Grove- 
land, owner. 

Ijacy (Talc) Mine (Pocket). — It is 7 miles N.E. of Mariposa. See 
Xth Report, p. 304. Working in 1893. Geo. Lacy, of Mariposa, owner. 

Louisa Mine (Quartz). — This is on the east side of Maxwell Creek, 
just below the town of Coulterville. It appears to present all those 
features which characterize this portion of the " Mother Lode " as far 
north as Carson Hill, in Calaveras County. Where the lode crosses the 
creek it has a width of 300 ft. The lode consists of a great mass of 
ankerite and mariposite, including a reticulated mass of quartz veins, 
large and small. On the east or hanging-wall side of the lode is 
massive diabase, and on the foot-wall side a dike of diabase separating 
it from a belt of black slate a mile or more in width. On the east bank 
of Maxwell Creek is exposed a mass of quartz, 19 ft. wide, 25 ft high, 
and 300 ft. long. It does not appear on the surface on the opposite side 
of the creek. A shaft sunk on the vein 60 ft. deep shows its thinning 
out at that depth; southward from this large mass a small vein branches 



172 



REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 



out from the main vein and strikes diagonally into the hanging-wall. 
It increases in size northward. Through the center of the lode is seen 
a large vein, 10 to 20 ft. wide, and west of it another well-defined but 
smaller vein. The western portion of the ankerite-mariposite area is 
filled with a net-like system of small veins and bunches of quartz. 
These small stringers also occur in greater or less abundance in those 
parts of the lode included between the larger veins of quartz. 

HORIZONTAL SECTION OFTHE MOTHER LODE 
AT TH£ LOUISA M/NE near COULTERVILLE 




The feature of the greatest interest is the occurrence of two large veins 
near the center of the lode, connected by a third vein which crosses the 
lode diagonally, forming a letter "N." The two large veins are about 
120 ft. apart. Southeastward all the large veins appear to trend toward 
a common point, forming a large exposure of quartz nearly 100 ft. wide 
at the top of the hill. Considerable gold can be seen in the quartz of 
the " N "-shaped system of veins. Gold also occurs in the mariposite 
and ankerite in shoots, accompanied by veinlets and bunches of quartz. 
When the ankerite is solid, without quartz or a brecciated appearance, 
the quantity of gold contained is too small to pay. General Boyd, of 
San Francisco, owner. 

Malvina Mines Nos. 1 and 2 (Quartz). — They are on the "West Lode," 
\\ miles S.W. of Coulterville, and are the south extension of the Potosi. 
On the No. 2 the shaft was retimbered in 1893, but no development was 
done. See our Vlllth and Xth Reports, pp. 347 and 39. Cook Estate, 
Coulterville, owner. 

Mariposa Estate Mines (Quartz). — These are all idle and have been 
for several years past. The principal mines are the Elizabeth, Green 
Gulch, Josephine, Mariposa, Mount Ophir, Mexican, Pine Tree, and 
Princeton. See our Vlllth and Xth Reports, pp. 343, 33, 37, and 309. 
Mariposa Mining and Commercial Company, San Francisco, 224 Cali- 
fornia Street, owners. 

Attention is called to an important difference between the mines along 
this portion of the "Mother Lode" and those in portions of Calaveras 
and Amador counties. In Mariposa County the veins occur entirely 
in the black slates, accompanied by dikes of diabase or dikes of granitic 
type. Northward the mines are associated with great masses of diabase. 



GOLD — MARIPOSA COUNTY. 173 

In the greater portion of Calaveras County the veins occur entirely in 
the diabase; in the southern part of Amador County, at the contact of 
diabase and slate; and in the northern part of Amador County in the 
slate area, with small dikes similar to those of the southern part of 
Mariposa County. In this southern section no great mines are found 
at the contact of diabase and slate like those at Jackson, Sutter Creek, 
Amador City, and Drytown. A few "pocket veins " only occur at the 
"contact" in Mariposa. Gold-bearing veins occurring entirely within 
the diabase area in Mariposa County usually have a course nearly at 
right angles to the strike of the "Mother Lode." 

Mariposa Mine (Quartz). — It is in Mariposa. Caved and inaccessible. 
Belongs to the Mariposa Estate. 

Mary Harrison Mine (Quartz). — It is on the " Mother Lode," 2 miles 
S.E. of Coulterville. See our Vlllth and Xth Reports, pp. 346 and 41. 
Cook Estate, of Coulterville, owner. 

Martin-Walling Mine (Quartz). — It is 8 miles E. of Coulterville. P. 
P. Mast, of Springfield, Ohio, owner. 

McAlpine Mine (Quartz). — This is on the "Mother Lode" near the 
Tuolumne County line. See our Xth Report, p. 44. General Boyd, of 
San Francisco, owner. 

Mexican Mine (Quartz). — It is 1 mile S.W. of Bear Valley P. 0., on 
the Mariposa estate. Mariposa Estate, owner. 

Mexican's Mine (Quartz). — It is 1^ miles W. of Bear Valley P. 0., and 
is the west extension of the Sirocco. It was being worked in a small 
way in 1893. 

Missouri Gulch Mine (Quartz). — It is 1 mile N.E. of Mariposa, on the 
Mariposa estate. (See Evans Mine.) Mariposa Estate, owner. 

Mount Ophir Mine (Quartz). — It is on the "Mother Lode," 1 mile N. 
of Princeton, and belongs to Mariposa Estate. See our Xth Report, pp. 
26 and 33. 

Nevada Mine (Quartz). — This is one of a system of fissures in the 
diabase of the east slope of Bear Valley Mountain, not far from the sum- 
mit, and half a mile south of the Bear Valley and Hornitos road. In 
character the vein resembles that of the Sirocco. It occurs in slaty dia- 
base, much split up, the quartz inclosing masses of the country rock, usu- 
ally altered to chloritic schist. On these portions of the vein the gold 
occurs in " pockets," ranging from a few dollars to more than $500. Hall 
& McFadden, of Bear Valley, owners. 

No. 9 Mine (Quartz). — This is 2\ miles E. of Hornitos. It was worked 
to a depth of 400 ft., but is now idle. The hanging-wall is mica schist, 
the foot-wall a felsitic dike. There are still large quantities of low-grade 
quartz in sight. E. P. Casterline, of Hornitos, owner. 

Oso Mine (Quartz). — It is on the Mariposa estate, half a mile W. of 
Bear Valley P. O. Mariposa Estate, owner. 

Peregory & Heiser Mine (Quartz). — It is 5^ miles N. of Mariposa. 
See our Xth Report, p. 308. Idle. 

Pine Tree and Josephine Mines (Quartz). — These are at present the 
only largely developed and accessible properties on the Mariposa estate, 
and though previously referred to in our Xth Report, p. 35, they appear 
to merit more particular description. 

Within the limits of these claims the great " Mother Lode " forks, one 
branch — the Josephine, or "West Lode" — striking to the northwest- 
ward, the Pine Tree, or " Mother Lode," having a somewhat more north- 



174 



REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 



new aspect, and 
under different 



erly course, and continuing with its well-marked characteristics through 
Mariposa and Tuolumne counties to Carson Hill, in Calaveras County, 

beyond which it splits up, 
takes on a 
continues 
conditions. 

The Pine Tree vein is char- 
acterized by its massiveness 
and the entire absence of slaty 
material. Where exposed in 
the workings it occurs at a 
contact of the ankerite and a 
much altered massive rock, 
which lies to the east of it, 
the character of which has 
never been satisfactorily de- 
termined. At its point of con- 
vergence with the Josephine 
vein both are included within 
the ankerite. Northward the 
hanging-wall of the Pine 
Tree vein becomes a light- 
gray, coarsely granular rock, 
, and still farther northward 
it is serpentine. 

The Josephine, like the 
Pine Tree vein, has the an- 
kerite on either side, but 
northward passes out and lies at a contact of ankerite and black 
slate. Farther northward a long, slender, wedge-like mass of gray 
talcose schist lies between the vein and the ankerite, while the foot-wall 
is black slate. How far the gray talcose schist continues is not known, 
but at some distance northward the Josephine vein lies entirely within 
the slates. 

The hanging-wall portion of the Josephine vein is usually more 
massive than that of the foot-wall, which is characterized by the inclu- 
sion of a large amount of slaty material, and often by a banded 
structure. The vein varies from 20 to more than 50 ft. in width. 
Cross-cuts show one ore shoot to range from 48 to 51 ft. in width for a 
distance of more than 200 ft. The shoot, it is believed, pitches north- 
ward. The foot-wall of the Josephine vein is not always well defined, 
the quartz at times becoming more and more slaty, the slate finally 
occurring in excess of the quartz. The limit of the shoot is determined 
by the amount of gold contained in the rock. As a rule, the slaty foot- 
wall portion is richer than the more massive quartz on the hanging- 
wall side. 

The occurrence of erythrite (hydrous cobalt arsenate) in the Josephine 
Mine has been noted by H. W. Turner, of the United States Geological 
Survey, and others. The pink-colored efflorescence (cobalt bloom) of 
this mineral was observed by the assistant in the field of the Mining 
Bureau in a drift running east from the Josephine toward the Pine Tree 
vein. An examination of the rock on which the erythrite occurs (a talc 







GOLD — MARIPOSA COUNTY. 175 

schist) resulted in the discovery that it contained the rare mineral 
danaite (cobaltic mispickel), a cobalt-bearing arsenical pyrite. 

Pinon Blanco Mines. — See our Xth Report, p. 43. 

Pocket Lode. — Is 7 miles E. of Mariposa, in a small mining camp 
called Mono, which is the southern limit (as far as known) of a granitic 
dike which extends in a southeasterly direction 15 miles from Buck- 
thorn Mountain. In texture this dike ranges from felstone and granu- 
lite at the southern end and in its smaller branches, to a coarse-grained, 
mica- bearing granite of rather coarse texture northward, where it is 60 
to 100 ft. wide. Its characteristics are described in our Xth Report 
under the caption "The Talc Mines," p. 304. Northward this belt is 
called the " Porphyry Mines." 

Porphyry Mines. — See Pocket Lode. 

Potosi Mine (Quartz). — It is on the " West Lode," 2 miles W. of Coulter- 
ville, adjoining the Malvina. See our Vlllth and Xth Reports, pp. 
347 and 39. Cook Estate, of Coulterville, owner. 

Princeton Mine (Quartz). — It is at Princeton, and belongs to the Mari- 
posa Estate. Has been very productive, but suspended work at the 400 
ft. level. In character it resembles some of the Amador County mines, 
near Plymouth. 

Quail Mine (Quartz). — It is 10 miles E. of Coulterville. Provided 
with a mill and is worked when there is water in the gulches. F. Bruschi, 
of Coulterville, owner. 

Quartz Mountain Mine (Quartz). — This is 2 miles S. of Hornitos. The 
vein strikes N. 30 u E., dipping 28° S.E. The erosion of the hanging- 
wall from the upper portion of the vein has left a large exposure of 
quartz. The hanging-wall is chloritic schist; the foot-wall diorite schist. 
The main incline has reached a depth of 200 ft.; levels were run 150 
and 200 ft. from the surface, and a stope opened between them. A 10- 
stamp prospecting mill is on the mine and is run week daj^s only. The 
sulphurets are concentrated on two Frue vanners. M. L. Rogers, of 
Hornitos, owner. 

Red Cloud Mine (Quartz). — It is in the slate area 10 miles N.E. of Coul- 
terville. See our VIHth Report, p. 345. Geologically it is very simi- 
lar to the Hite Mine. In operation in 1893. Red Cloud Mining and 
Milling Company, of Boston, owners. 

Red Hill Mine (Quartz). — It is near the " Mother Lode," 4 miles S.E. 
of Coulterville. It occurs on the contact of serpentine and diabase. 
The ore is gold-bearing copper sulphurets. See our Xth Report, p. 41. 
G. Commissiona, of Coulterville, owner. 

Sebastopol Mine (Quartz). — It is 4 miles S.E. of Mariposa, on the Hart 
ranch. See our Xth Report, p. 305. The vein is accompanied by a dike 
of aplite (a granite without mica). This mineral belt, with its granitic 
dikes, extends southeasterly into Madera and Fresno counties. — Hart, 
of Mariposa, owner. 

Sherlock Mine (Quartz). — It is 5-J miles N. of Mariposa. See our 
Xth Report, p. 306. 

Sirocco Mine (Quartz). — This is 1-J miles W. of Bear Valley P. O., 
just outside the limits of the Mariposa estate. The vein is a fissure, 
striking E. and W. in diabase, which along the fissure is altered to 
chloritic schist. The gold is found in quartz, which occurs somewhat 
irregularly, including many lens-shaped bunches of the country rock. 
Some of the schist is also rich in gold. The property is equipped with a 



176 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

steam hoist. Work was resumed in July, 1893, after a period of idle- 
ness. Burt & Bach, of Bear Valley P. O., owners. 

Star Mine (Quartz). — It is 12 miles E. of Coulterville. P. P. Mast, of 
Springfield, Ohio, owner. 

Talc Mines. — See Pocket Lode. 

Tyro Mine (Quartz). — It is on the " West Lode," 1^ miles S. of Coulter- 
ville. It is equipped with a steam hoist and a 10-stamp mill, all under 
one roof. In July, 1893, the shaft had reached a depth of 420 ft. The 
vein varies from 4 to 7 ft. in ' thickness. The quartz contains about 3 
per cent of sulphurets. For geological description, see our Xth Report, 
p. 39. Tyro Mining ' Company, owners; Thos. Haven, Secretary, 110 
Montgomery Street, San Francisco. 

Vanderbilt Mine (Quartz). — This property is on the southern end of 
Buckingham Mountain, 8 miles E. of Mariposa, and in the mica schists, 
having granite both E. and W. of it. This belt extends southeastward 
to Potter Ridge, in Madera County. The Vanderbilt Mine comprises a 
number of large bunches and vein-like masses of glassy quartz associ- 
ated with granitic dikes, one of which contains gold. Considerable work 
has been done on the property, but it was idle in 1893. The hanging- 
wall is granulite and the foot-wall mica slate, which, near the contact 
with the granitic dike, has developed crystals of feldspar of considerable 
size. Judge Condon, of Mariposa, Superintendent. 

Virginia (Coe) Mine (Quartz). — It is on the " Mother Lode," 4 miles 
S.E. of Coulterville. See our Xth Report, p. 41. Virginia Mining Com- 
pany, of Springfield, Ohio, owners; J. S. Crowell, Secretary. 

Washington Mine (Quartz). — It is 2-§ miles N.E. of Hornitos. For- 
merly a large producer, but is now idle. It is 1,500 ft. deep; strikes N. 
40° W., and dips 70° S.E. The vein, 6 to 12 ft. wide, is inclosed in mica 
and hornblendic schists. A dike rock of light color and felsitic texture 
accompanies the vein, occurring on the foot- wall side of the vein at the 
north end and on the hanging- wall side at the south end. Considerable 
masses of rock resembling the ankerite and mariposite of the " Mother 
Lode " occur in the Washington Mine. M. L. Rogers, of Hornitos, owner. 

A further description of the geology of the region about Hornitos will 
be found in our Xth Report, p. 26. Large quantities of beautifully 
radiated pyrophyllite are found on a prominent butte 2-J miles from 
Indian Gulch P. O., and north of the road to Merced. 

Whitlock Mine (Quartz). — It is 5 miles N. of Mariposa. The vein is 
from 4 to 10 ft. wide, and is developed by several hundred feet of tunnels 
and shafts. See our Xth Report, p. 33. Ward Bros., of Mariposa, 
owners. 

Wilson Estate Mines (Quartz). — They are 1 mile E. of Hornitos. Miss 
Rose McCann, of Hornitos, owner. 

MENDOCINO COUNTY. 

The gold mining interests of this county are comparatively unim- 
portant, very few mines being opened or worked. 

Boy Edgar Mine (Quartz). — It is on top of the ridge and to the west 
of the trail from Ukiah to Lost Valley. There are five small openings 
made, and in every one a quartz vein is exposed. The largest one is 
15 in. wide, strikes about N. of E., and stands nearly vertical. The 



GOLD — MENDOCINO AND MONO COUNTIES. 177 

walls are micaceous slate. The quartz is said to assay $4 75 in gold. 
C. H. Staut, of Ukiah, owner. 

Red Mountain Mining District lies on the western slope of the high 
ridge which divides the waters of Russian River from those of Clear 
Lake and Cache Creek, and extends from Doolan Canon about 14 miles 
S. The country rock consists of serpentine and highly metamorphosed 
slates and sandstone. Gold in small quantities has been found in the 
gravel and debris of the lower foothills. Veins of gold-bearing quartz 
and of copper are found near the summits of the range, and several 
prospectors are at work on them. 

Van Allen Mine (Quartz). — It lies on the slope of the high ridge of 
mountains w T est of Ukiah. The workings consist of an incline 20 ft. 
deep, and a tunnel, just started, farther down the hill. The ore consists 
of small stringers and irregular masses of quartz, showing sulphurets. 
The veins have a strike of 64° S. of E., and dip 45° N. The country 
rock is a tough, blue glaucophane schist. Win. Van Allen, of Ukiah, 
owner. 

MONO COUNTY. 

The gold deposits of Mono County are found in a number of districts, 
the most important of which are Bodie, Jordan, and Homer districts. 
As a general thing most of the gold ores carry more or less silver. At 
Bodie they occur in hornblende andesite, and in Homer District in 
granite. Most of the work in the gold mines of this county is at present 
confined to Bodie and the region about Lundy. There are other sections 
where there are deposits of prospective value lying idle. 

Basset Mine (Quartz). — This mine is situated in the old Mono Dig- 
gings, 12 miles W. of Bodie and half a mile S. of the Columbia Mine. 
The vein opened here runs N.E. and S.W. and has a thickness of about 
a foot. It dips S.E. at a low angle. The property is developed by three 
drifts, 90, 30, and 40 ft. long, respectively. H. T. Trewethan, of Lundy, 
owner. 

Bay Queen Mine (Quartz). — It is situated near the summit of Mount 
Scowdan, 3 miles S.W. of Lundy. It is developed by a shaft 120 ft. 
deep. The vein stands very steep and is inclosed in granite. Finley 
Cameron, of Bodie, owner. 

Bryant Mine (Quartz). — It is situated in the Homer Mining District, 
3 miles S. of Lundy. The vein is a continuation to the S. of that on 
which the May Lundy and Lakeview are situated. It is developed by 
an incline 147 ft. deep, and by a drift from the bottom S. 180 ft. and N. 
120 ft. A drift has also been run from the surface on the southern end 
of the claim. The character of the ore and position of the vein is very 
similar to that of the mines on the north. See our VIHth Report, p. 
371. H. B. Gleaves and H. P. Morrill, of Portland, Maine, owners. 

Charleston Mines (Quartz). — This group of mines is situated on the 
north side of a small canon a little south of Mill Creek, and immediately 
overlooking Mono Lake. Here are eight claims, of which the Illinois 
and Charleston are the only ones on which much work has been done. 
The Illinois is situated on a ledge running N.E. and S.W., with nearly 
vertical dip. It is developed by a shaft 50 ft. deep and by a tunnel 125 
ft. long. The vein is somewhat bunchy, sometimes reaching a width of 
5 ft., and is free milling. The Charleston lies at an elevation of 8,700 
ft. It is developed by a tunnel and cross-cuts amounting to about 400 
12m 



178 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

ft. A heavy body of quartz in a silicious slate was met a short distance 
within the tunnel. An excellently appointed 5-stamp mill, run by water 
power, has been erected below the Illinois claim. See our VHIth Report, 
p. 385. J. P. Hammond, of Mono Lake P. O., owner. 

Columbia Mine (Quartz). — It is in Mono Diggings, 12 miles W. of 
Bodie. The vein runs nearly N. and S., being inclosed in granite, and 
is generally very flat. The greatest width is about 10 in. It is developed 
by two tunnels, the lower 160 ft. and the upper 125 ft. long. From the 
upper one the vein has been stoped to the surface. The ore is free 
milling and rather high grade. T. Albright, of Lundy, owner. 

Dark Horse Mine (Quartz). — This mine is situated on the western 
slope of the White Mountains, 10 miles N. of Bishop Creek. The ore 
body has the form of a bunch or kidney instead of a vein, and consists 
of sugary quartz, in places white, in others deeply stained with iron 
oxide. The property is opened by a shaft 110 ft. deep, and by tunnels 
and cross-cuts having a total length of about 700 ft. As shown by the 
workings, the ore body descends nearly vertically, but appears to become 
smaller. The inclosing rock is limestone. J. H. Bulpit, of Bishop 
Creek, owner. 

Duarte Mine (Quartz). — It is situated 5 miles N.E. of Laws Station, 
and just above the Southern Belle. Here are two claims, on each of 
which there is found a small vein. The lower is opened by an incline 
56 ft. deep and the upper by surface work. The ore in the latter is high 
grade. The inclosing formation is slate. — Duarte, of Laws P. O., 
owner. 

Dunderberg Mine (Quartz). — This mine is situated in the Castle Peak 
District, 12 miles S. of Bridgeport. Here are seven claims on one vein 
running south from Green Creek, and dipping at a high angle to the 
west. The claim on which the developments have been made lies in 
the middle. A cross-cat tunnel 700 ft. long has been run from the east, 
cutting the vein. From this tunnel drifts run N. and S., the former 
being 200 and the latter 150 ft. long. From these drifts considerable 
stoping has been done. Except near the surface the gold is contained 
almost wholly in iron sulphurets. The vein varies from 2 to 8 ft. wide, 
the ore being rather high grade. This property has recently been 
placed under a working bond. A mill was operated here years ago, but 
much difficulty was found in saving the gold. A. F. Bryant, of Bridge- 
port, and G. K. and B. F. Porter, of San Francisco, owners. 

Faulk Mine (Quartz). — This mine is situated in Lake Mining District, 
and joins the Mammoth on the north. It is developed by three tunnels, 
the lower and middle said to be 1,600 ft. long, and the upper 240 ft. 
These tunnels open a large vein of low-grade quartz from the north 
end of Mineral Hill. The vein dips about 70° E. near the surface, but 
in the deeper workings is said to dip west. The Mammoth Mine was 
worked chiefly through these tunnels. The vein is said to average 12 ft. 
in thickness, and with the exception of rich pockets of free gold the ore 
is mostly iron sulphurets. D. C. Albright, of Bishop Creek, owner. 

Goleta Mine (Quartz). — It is on the eastern base of the Sierra Nevada 
Mountains, 6 miles N.E. of Lundy. It is one of a series of mines on an 
immense ore deposit running N. and S. This has not yet been opened 
sufficiently to show its pitch; the eastern wall is limestone, the western 
a porphyry-like rock. On the eastern side of this deposit is a vein of 
copper ore (malachite), 6 to 20 ft. in width, and averaging 8 per cent 



GOLD MONO COUNTY. 179 

of metallic copper. The copper carbonate impregnates an exceedingly 
crushed and decomposed rock. On the west is the gold and silver vein. 
This is much decomposed on the surface and in most of the work- 
ings, the quartz being honeycombed and in places almost replaced by 
the decomposed rock-mass and iron oxides. The quartz is evidently 
a replacement of the rock along the mineralized zone. The deposit is 
opened by two tunnels. The lower one is 1,190 ft. long and has not yet 
cut the ore body. The upper tunnel is 359 ft. above, and has a length 
of 360 ft. The copper vein has been drifted on N. 156 ft. and S. 182 ft. 
The upper tunnel runs through the quartz vein 67 ft. without striking 
the western wall. A drift has been run N. 40 ft. and S. 30 ft. From 
the south drift a winze has been sunk 56 ft. There are two cross-cuts 
on the vein from the north drift, 23 and 47 ft., without reaching the 
western wall. From the south drift two other cross-cuts have been run, 
respectively 38 and 49 ft. long. In places the decomposed ore is replaced 
by hard quartz, carrying iron sulphurets. The value of the ore is about 
equally distributed between gold and silver. On the same mine to the 
south and 400 ft. above, a shaft has been sunk 65 ft. on the vein. At 
this point the vein is 24 ft. wide. This is perhaps the largest ore deposit 
in the county, being traceable for over 7,000 ft. See our Vlllth Report, 
pp. 364 to 365. Goleta Mining Company, 330 Pine Street, San Fran- 
cisco, owners. 

Gorilla Mine (Quartz). — This mine is situated on the northern slope 
of Mount Scowdan and west of the Wolverine. The vein runs N. and 
S. and dips 80° W. The property is developed by two tunnels, from 
which a large amount of stoping has been done. The vein is supposed 
to be the same as that cut in the Erie tunnel. The ore was sent down 
the mountain by means of a tramway 2,700 ft. long. See our Vlllth 
Report, p. 370. Gorilla Mill and Mining Company, of San Francisco, 
owners. 

Gray Eagle Mine (Quartz). — This mine lies 1 mile S.W. of Lundy, 
on the northern slope of Mount Scowdan. The quartz crops quite 
prominently nearly the whole length of the claim, ranging from a few 
inches to 3 ft. in thickness. The ore is honeycombed and shows some 
sulphurets. Considerable galena is present. Along the croppings the 
ledge is almost flat. F. Pierce, of Lundy, owner. 

Harrison Mine (Quartz). — This mine is situated 1 mile S.W. of 
Lundy, on the northern slope of Mount Scowdan. The elevation is a 
little over 9,200 ft. The mine is the eastern one of a series located on a 
vein which has in general an E. and W. course and dips into the mount- 
ain at a low angle, 15° to 20° S. The vein reaches a thickness in places 
of 20 in. The ore is reported to carry nearly equal amounts of gold and 
silver in places, but the gold generally predominates. The silver is found 
in stringers and bunches of galena. The mine is opened by several short 
tunnels, from which some stoping has been done. A. L. Butterfield, of 
Lundy, owner. 

Homer Mill and Mining Company (Quartz). — The property of this 
company, consisting of three patented claims, is situated on the north- 
western slope of Mount Scowdan. The work done here consists of a 
tunnel 500 ft. long, run southerly on a bunchy vein. From the end of 
this tunnel one cross-cut runs W. 300 ft., and another E. 80 ft. The 
country rock is a dark feldspar porphyrite, in places heavily mineral- 
ized with iron sulphurets. No ore has been milled from this mine. 



180 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

See our Xth Report, p. 342. Homer Mill and Mining Company, 330 
Pine Street, San Francisco, owners. 

Homestake Mine. — This property lies in Silverado Caiion, on the east- 
ern slope of the Sweetwater range. The ore is very rich in places, 
carrying gold and silver in about equal amounts. But little work has 
been done here for some time. See our VHIth Report, p. 360. Andy 
Sayers, of Bridgeport, owner. 

Jackson and Lakeview Mining Company (Quartz). — The mines of this 
company are situated on the eastern slope of Mount Scowdan, at an ele- 
vation of nearly 11,000 ft. They include the May Lundy, Lakeview, and 
Jackson. The first two are located on an easterly series of veins, and the 
other to the west a little higher up the mountain. The May Lundy 
veins run N. and S. and dip at an angle of 30° to 74° W. At a vertical 
depth of 200 ft. the main vein has a pitch of 40°. There are three tun- 
nels on the May Lundy Mine; the lower being 1,150, the next 600, and 
the upper 160 ft. long. Several winzes have been sunk below the lower 
tunnel, the deepest being 170 ft. On the incline of the vein this gives a 
depth of 750 ft. The east vein runs from 14 in. to 6 ft. in thickness. 
The ore is high grade. Occasionally a little galena, rich in gold, is 
found. In the bottom of the workings the amount of iron sulphurets 
has been found to increase greatly, and the free gold to decrease. The 
west vein on the May Lundy has not been worked. This vein is less 
than a foot in thickness, but rich. The Lakeview has been opened by a 
cross-cut tunnel cutting both veins. On the east vein a tunnel has been 
driven north connecting with the May Lundy. To the south a drift has 
been run 420 ft.; on the west vein drifts have been run N. 120 ft. and 
S. 56 ft. From this level a winze has been sunk, and the ore found to con- 
sist almost wholly of sulphurets. Above it was mostly free gold. The 
ore is conveyed 1,000 ft. to the mill by means of a wire tramway. See 
our VHIth Report, p. 371. R. T. Pierce, of Lundy, Superintendent. 

Johnnie and Rose of the West Mines (Quartz). — They are situated 16 
miles S. of Benton. Here are found two veins running parallel and 600 
ft. apart. The course is N. and S., and dip 45° W. The ore consists of 
free gold and sulphurets. The vein is said to average 1 ft. in thickness. 
John King, of Benton, owner. 

Last Chance Mine (Quartz). — It is situated on the summit of Mount 
Scowdan, at an elevation of nearly 11,500 ft. Three veins are found here; 
two running N. and S. and dipping 70° E., and one running E. and W. 
and standing about vertical. The ore is free milling, and said to be high 
grade, particularly that of the E. and W. vein. The vein lying to the 
west is widest, being nearly 4 ft.; the others vary from a few inches up 
to 1^ ft. The veins are in granite and lie above the May Lundy series. 
The work done consists of three short tunnels. W. F. McKenzie, of 
Lundy, owner. 

Lota Mine (Quartz). — It is in the Yellow Jacket Mining District, 10 
miles S. of Benton. Here occurs an E. and W. vein, extending between 
the Neal and Tower mines. The ore carries lead, silver, and gold, and 
is said to be high grade. An incline shaft has reached a depth of 90 ft. 
The pay streak is from 4 to 6 in. wide. 

Lucky Mort'an Mine (Quartz). — This mine is situated nearly 3 miles 
S. of Lundy, and joins the May Lundy Mine on the north. Two winzes 
have been sunk, each 40 ft. Frank Todd, of Calais, Maine, owner. 



GOLD — MONO COUNTY. 181 

Mabel Mine (Quartz). — It is situated on the western slope of the 
White Mountain range, 11 miles N. of Bishop Creek. On this claim 
are a number of deposits of irregular vein form, extending N.W. and 
S.E. in limestone. The ore consists of a friable sugary quartz, in places 
white, and in others deeply stained with iron oxides, which almost 
replace the quartz at times. The deposits outcrop prominently on both 
sides of Warm Spring Canon, and are opened by tunnels and cross-cuts 
to the amount of about 400 ft. The ore is generally low grade, the 
deeply iron-stained portions generally being poorer than the lighter 
colored quartz. There are five claims in this group; three lying over 
the hill on the south side of the gulch, and containing silver and galena. 
The Excelsior claim has 400 ft. of tunnels and cross-cuts, though but 
little ore has been met. Owen Neylon, of Bishop Creek, owner. 

Mammoth Mine (Quartz). — This mine, situated in Lake Mining Dis- 
trict, was thoroughly described in our Vlllth and Xth Reports, pp. 373 
and 341. Bank of California, of San Francisco, owner. 

Mineral Chief Mining Company. — The property of this company is 
situated near the eastern base of the Sweetwater range, in the Patterson 
District. Here are four claims on a series of veins running a little E. 
of N. and W. of S. A great amount of movement has taken place along 
this fissure system, judging from the heavy clay seams and the broken 
condition of the ledge near the surface. The property is developed by 
one tunnel 750 ft., another 300 ft. long, and by a double-compartment 
shaft 200 ft. deep. Several veins have been cut, but so little work has 
been done on them that their character is not definitely known. T. C. 
Sharp, of Clinton, owner. 

Mono Mine (Quartz). — It is situated on the northern slope of Mount 
Scowdan, on the western extension of the Gray Eagle. But little work 
has been done here. The characteristics of the vein and ore are similar 
to the Gray Eagle. See our Vlllth Report, p. 396. R. G. Montrose, of 
Lundy, owner. 

Monte Cristo and Headlight Mines (Quartz). — These mines are situated 
in Lake Mining District, and a little south of the Mammoth. They 
are developed by a joint tunnel, which has been run a distance of 1,600 
ft. from the west side of Mineral Hill. A vein was struck, but no ore 
has ever been extracted. See our Vlllth and Xth Reports, pp. 360, 371, 
373, 375, and 341. Hon. P. Reddy, of San Francisco, owner. 

Montecito Mine (Quartz). — It lies 6 miles N.E. of Lundy, and joins 
the Goleta on the south. On this claim two tunnels have been run, 38 
and 80 ft. long, respectively, cross-cutting the vein, but without reaching 
the western wall. A shaft has been sunk 40 ft. The character of the 
ore is the same as the Goleta. D. E. Jones, of Lundy, Superintendent. 

Native Wonder and Mono Queen Claims (Quartz). — These properties 
were discovered the past year and have been only slightly developed. 
The Native Wonder is situated on the north side of a steep canon, west 
of Mono Lake, while the Mono Queen is opposite, on the south side of 
the canon. The Native Wonder runs nearly E. and W., and has been 
opened by a short drift showing a vein 18 in. in thickness. The Mono 
Queen is a blanket vein, and has been opened by a tunnel 70 ft. long. 
The ore is honeycombed, and is said to be high grade. E. C. Mattly, of 
Mono Lake, owner. 

Neat Mine (Quartz). — It is 6 miles S.W. of Benton, at an elevation of 
8,000 ft. Here occurs a large vein of quartz, which, it is said, can be 



182 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 



traced for several miles both N. and S. The vein dips at an angle of 
70° W., and shows very regular walls, the inclosing formation being 
granite. This mine was opened in 1878, but has been in litigation until 
recently. The developments consist of a tunnel 156 ft. long, and a 
cross-cut on the vein, where it is 27 ft. wide. From the end of the tunnel 
a shaft has been sunk 47 ft., with a cross-cut, toward the hanging-wall, 
of 17 ft. The great body of the ledge is low grade, but in the middle and 
on the foot- and hanging-walls there are rich seams. Along the walls 
the ore is much crushed and decomposed. The surface croppings are 
very prominent. Hon. P. Reddy, of San Francisco, owner. 

New Enterprise, Bishop, Blackrock Consolidated, Adrian, and Oro 
Mines (Quartz). — These properties are situated in the town of Bodie. 
For a number of years they have lain idle, but a company has recently 
been organized by Messrs. Cain, McCone, and Kelly, of Bodie, to reopen 
them. See our VIHth Report, p. 398. 

Noonday Mine (Quartz). — This mine is situated one half mile south 
of Bodie. The property is at present being worked under a lease. No 
new developments have been made since the publication of our VHIth 
Report. See our VIHth Report, p. 396. Reese, Cameron, Kelly & 
Graham, of Bodie, owners. 

Ontario Syndicate (Quartz). — The claims of this company, ten in 
number, are situated on the northern slope of Mount Scowdan. It is 
intended to develop them by means of a tunnel which has been com- 
menced at an elevation of 400 ft. above Mill Creek. The tunnel has 
been run as a cross-cut for 100 ft., and from that point follows the course 
of a vein S.E. for 760 ft. The vein varies from a mere seam up to 6 ft. 
in thickness. In addition, considerable work has been done on the sur- 
face. Ontario Syndicate, of Lundy, owners. 

Parrott Mines (Quartz). — They are situated on the N.W. slope of 
Mount Scowdan, at altitudes ranging from 9,000 to 9,600 ft. The veins 
occur in blocky argillite, feldspar-porphyry, and other hard, silicious 
rocks forming bold cliffs several hundred feet high. The Grand Prize 
claim lies to the west and includes several veins having a N. and S. 
direction, and dip to the W. The veins are generally small, sometimes 
reaching a width of 18 in. No underground developments have been 
made. The eastern claim is known as the Bonanza. Several veins are 
found on it. Enough work has been done to show that in places the 
ore is very rich. — Parrott, of Lundy, owner. 

Rattler Mine. — This mine is situated on the north side of Ferris 
Canon, in the Sweetwater Mountains. Here are two veins: one but 
slightly developed and carrying gold; the other, silver and gold. The 
latter runs N. and S. and dips about 50° W. This vein varies in width 
from a few inches to 3 ft. In many places it is high grade, the gold 
forming about one sixth of the value. The quartz is peculiar in showing 
numerous drusy cavities and in containing fluor-spar disseminated 
through it. The vein is opened by four tunnels, exposing it vertically 
for over 300 ft. The inclosing rock is a white porcelain-like porphyry. 
See our VIHth Report, p. 362. Foulk, Kilpatrick '& Brown, of Sweet- 
water P. O., Nevada, owners. 

Rattlesnake Mine (Quartz). — It is situated in the Mono Diggings, 12 
miles W. of Bodie. The country rock is granite. The vein runs N. and 
S. and dips at an angle of 25° W. In thickness it ranges from a mere 
seam up to 13 in. It has been stoped out on the incline to a depth of 



. 



GOLD— MONO COUNTY. 183 

133 ft. A two-compartment shaft has recently been sunk, cutting the 
vein at a depth of 155 ft. The ore. is free milling and medium high 
grade. See our VHIth Report, p. 363. M. J. Cody, of Lundy, owner. 

Sacramento Mine (Quartz). — It is situated on the western slope of the 
White Mountain range, 15 miles N. of Bishop Creek. The vein occurs 
inclosed in granite, having an E. and W. course and northerly dip of 
20° to 30°. The main portion of the ore shoot varies from 1\ to 4 ft. 
in thickness. The gold is found fairly evenly distributed and is mostly 
free. The mine has been worked in an irregular way for several years. 
It is opened by one tunnel about 250 ft. long. Higher up the hill a 
large amount of ore has been stoped out and one incline sunk on the 
vein to a depth of 300 ft. J. H. Bulpit, of Bishop Creek, owner. 

Southern Belle Mine (Quartz). — It is situated at the western base of 
the White Mountains, 5 miles N.E. of Laws Station. The vein of gold- 
bearing quartz and limonite runs E. and W. in a magnesian slate, and 
dips at an angle of 35° N. The ore is generally soft and decomposed 
and easily milled. The pay streak varies from 8 in. to 2 ft. in width. 
The main tunnel is 225 ft. long. From the point of discovery an incline 
has been sunk on the ledge for a distance of 400 ft.; 270 ft. of this 
incline lies below the tunnel. The ore is raised this distance by wind- 
lass and then run in cars to the mouth of the tunnel. The ore is 
crushed in a 5-stamp mill, situated 1 mile N., and run by water power. 
Four other claims on different veins are owned by this company. O. 
E. Duenwig, of Laws P. O., Superintendent. 

Spartan Mine (Quartz). — This mine lies S. of that part of the Ster- 
ling Company's mine which was formerly known as the Detroit Copper 
Mine. Two tunnels have been run to cross-cut the vein. The upper is 
120 ft. long, of which 90 ft. is in mineralized vein matter. The other 
tunnel, 180 ft. below, has at present a length of 245 ft., and is being run 
through limestone. The vein matter is partly a mineralized limestone 
and partly a porphyry. M. R. Burus, of Lundy, owner. 

Standard Mine (Quartz). — This mine is situated on the summit of the 
hill directly E. of Bodie. No new developments have been made in this 
mine since the publication of our VHIth Report, in which it was care- 
fully described. The work now going on is confined to that portion of 
the mine between the 300 and 500 ft. levels. An electric plant has been 
recently added, and is now in successful operation. (See special article 
on "Electrical Transmission" in this report.) The power is supplied by 
Green Creek, and the electricity is transmitted a distance of about 12^ 
miles. It is used at present to operate the mill only. A cyanide plant 
is in process of construction by the company for the purpoee of working 
the tailings. The capacity is to be 100 tons per day. See our VHIth 
Report, p. 385. Standard Consolidated Mining Company, of Bodie, 
owners; Thos. H. Leggett, Superintendent. 

Sterling {Detroit Copper) Mine (Quartz). — The property of the 
Sterling Company lies about 6 miles N.E. of Lundy. One claim lies 
north of the Goleta, and on the same ore body, and the other south of 
the Montecito. The claim on the north has been opened by a shaft 1 15 ft. 
deep. That on the south was formerly known as the Detroit Copper Mine, 
and was described in our VHIth Report, pp. 364 to 365. In past years 
a large amount of work was done on this mine in an attempt to extract 
copper from an E. and W. vein. Sterling Mining Company, No. 330 Pine 
Street, San Francisco, owners; D. E. Jones, of Lundy, Superintendent. 



184 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

Syndicate Mine (Quartz). — This mine is situated 1 mile E. of Bodie, 
being the most northern of the Bodie group of mines. The mine is 
being worked under a lease at present. No new ore bodies have been 
found, and the work is confined to that left by the company. This 
mine, in connection with the others in the vicinity, was described in our 
VHIth Report, pp. 382 to 401. See our VHIth Report, p. 387. Parr 
& Tyack, of Bodie, owners. 

Wild Rose Mine (Quartz). — This property is situated 8 miles S.E. of 
Benton. The vein runs N. and S. and dips W. The country rock is 
granite. It has been opened by a tunnel 300 ft. long, connected with 
the surface by a 150 ft. upraise. Below the tunnel three winzes have 
been sunk, 25, 36, and 125 ft., respectively. In the bottom the ore 
became more base, water being encountered 25 ft. below the tunnel. In 
the lower part of the workings silver is reported to have predominated 
and to be accompanied by a little galena. The ore is high grade. 
Where the vein has been worked it is said to be from 4 to 6 ft. wide. The 
mine has been abandoned for some time, but it is now the intention to 
open the old workings. See our VHIth Report, p. 378. McNamara & 
Dowd, of Benton, owners. 

Wolverine Mine (Quartz). — It is situated on the northern slope of 
Mount Scowdan, at an elevation of 9,700 ft. The vein is inclosed in 
granite, runs E. and W., and dips into the mountain at an angle of 
25° to 30°. It is developed by an incline 70 ft. deep and by a tunnel 70 
ft. long, connecting with the bottom of the incline. Some stoping has 
also been done. The width of the vein varies from a few inches up to 
3 ft. The ore is free milling, though containing some sulphurets of iron. 
Lake Lundy Mill and Mining Company, of San Francisco, owners; R. 
G. Montrose, of Lundy, Superintendent. 

MONTEREY COUNTY. 

In this county there is only one group of gold mines. These mines 
are in the Los Burros District, in the Santa Lucia Mountains. These 
are the only gold deposits of any special value in the Coast Range south 
of Lake and Colusa counties. At the time of the examination of these 
properties by the Bureau representative, very little w r ork was being done. 

Grizzly Mine (Quartz). — This mine lies about three fourths of a mile 
to the east of the main camp of Los Burros District. The vein is 
inclosed in sandstone, and courses E., and dips N. It is rather bunchy, 
like the others in this district, due, of course, to the broken character of 
the country rock. The ore is high grade, running $60 to $100 per ton. 
The greatest depth reached is 160 ft. The ore is different from the other 
mines in the vicinity, the gold being very fine and not generally visible 
to the eye. Iron and arsenical pyrites and zinc-blende are also present. 
The vein varies from 10 in. to 4 ft. in width. See our Xlth Report, p. 
260. H. C. Dodge, of Mansfield, Superintendent. 

Last Chance Mine (Quartz). — See our VHIth, Xth, and Xlth Reports, 
pp. 405, 580, and 260. The only work going on here at the time of our 
inspection in 1893 was the sinking of an incline on one of the veins. 
The old workings were not accessible. The inclosing rocks are sand- 
stone interstratified with thin seams of shale, the whole so crushed that 
the bedding is hardly apparent. 



GOLD — NEVADA COUNTY. 185 

NEVADA COUNTY. 

In all essentials for making the business of mining profitable this 
county is particularly favored. It has railroad facilities, water power, 
adequate timber supplies, good wagon roads, and in the main mining 
centers a most delightful climate. It has been the cradle of quartz min- 
ing and milling in this State, and it is in this county that the depres- 
sion which has been hanging over the mining industry shows the first 
evidence of being raised. Not only are several of the enjoined hydraulic 
mines making preparations to resume, in part, their former activity, but 
numbers of quartz mines that were compelled to suspend operations 
under the old methods of mining have been resuscitated under the new 
conditions, and apparently have a long lease of prosperity in . store. 
Foreign capital has been brought into this county during the past year, 
and more is preparing to come, assuring business activity for the future, 
and an increased gold production. 

Badger Hill Mine (Hydraulic and Quartz). — This property is situated 
in Cherokee District, 1 mile S.E. of Cherokee, and work is being carried 
on in a quartz vein that has been uncovered in the pit, known as 
" The English Mine." The vein courses N. and S., dipping E., in slate 
bedrock, with a width of 18 in. A shaft 12 by 4 ft. has been sunk 100 
ft., at which depth drifting both ways on the vein has been commenced. 
The hoisting plant is run by water on a 4 ft. Pelton wheel under 150 ft. 
pressure. The quartz is dark colored, with about 6 per cent of sulphu- 
rets and arsenical pyrites. Should the vein continue as favorable in 
sinking the next 100 ft. a mill will be erected on the property. Badger 
Hill Gold Mining Company, of North San Juan, owners. 

Baltic Mine (Quartz). — This property is situated in Sees. 34, 35, and 
27, T. 18 N., R. 11 E., God's Country Ravine, in Eureka District, 7 
miles from Washington and 5 miles S. of Graniteville. The property 
has been idle for some time, but a patent has lately been applied for, 
and as soon as issued the mine will be developed. The claim consists 
of 4,500 by GOO ft. on the vein, which courses N.E. and dips at about 
45° E. A 378 ft. tunnel has cross-cut the vein at 35 ft. perpendicular 
depth; this block of ground has been stoped. Two pay shoots are 
known, 290 and 125 ft. long. The 20-stamp steam mill has a large- 
sized Blake crusher and roller, self-feeders. The grizzly is constructed 
of 1\ by 4 in. scantling, cut beveled on the long side, and covered with 
heavy strap iron; the bars set 1^ in. apart. The mortars are extra 
wide above the dies, flaring, both in front and back, about 2 in. A 
back silvered plate 6 in. wide is used, and the lip of the mortar is 
covered with plate. The aprons are 5 by 5 ft., set on a grade 1 in. to 
the foot. The ore has to be hauled half a mile, at a cost of 60 cents per 
ton. The cost of milling by steam is $2 per ton, requiring a 40 horse- 
power engine. Cordwood costs, delivered, $2 25 per cord. The ore 
carries comparatively no sulphurets. See our VHIth Report, p. 451. 
J. McBean et al., owners; W. H. Mead, of Washington, Superintendent. 

Belle Fontaine Mine (Quartz). — This property is on Deer Creek, 3 
miles E. of Nevada City, in Willow Valley District. The vein strikes 
N. 35° E., and dips W., in a granitic formation. The claim is 1,200 by 
350 ft., and along the upper end several incline shafts and tunnels have 
been opened, exposing three or four ore bodies, pitching apparently to 
the south, with quartz from 4 in. to 1 ft. between walls. The quartz 



186 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

carries 1^ per cent of sulphurets. A tunnel now being run near the 
lower end of the claim, 10 ft. above Deer Creek, along the hanging-wall 
of the vein, is 200 ft. perpendicular below the former workings, or 600 
ft. on the pitch of the vein. Pay rock was encountered 230 ft. from the 
mouth of the tunnel, from 4 in. to 1 ft. wide. Opportunity for water 
power is found in the Manzanita and Snow Mountain ditches, both of 
which pass above the claim; timber is also plentiful. Belle Fontaine 
Gold Mining Company, of Nevada City, owners. 

Brunswick Consolidated Mining Company (Quartz). — This property 
was described in our VHIth, Xth, and Xlth Reports, pp. 431, 381, and 274. 
The mine is located in Sec. 25, T. 16 N., R. 8 E., 2 miles S.E. from Grass 
Valley, and is working on a N.E. vein dipping to the S.E., between slate 
walls, with an average width of 2 ft. The quartz is of ribbon structure, 
with a good percentage of sulphurets (galena, zinc-blende, iron, and 
arsenical pyrites); as far as developed the vein appears to make in 
bunches or very short shoots. The mine is opened by a three-compart- 
ment, double-tracked incline shaft to a depth of 700 ft. on a 43° pitch for 
the first 300 ft., below which it straightens up to 80°. The last hundred 
feet of the shaft is narrowed down from 14 by 6 to 10 by 6 ft. in the clear. 
It is timbered throughout with sawed timbers and close planked. The 
mine is wet, requiring an 8 in. Cornish pump running six strokes per 
minute in summer and ten strokes in winter. The present workings 
consist in drifting west on the 700 ft. level and carrying an upraise to 
the 600 ft. level near a bunch of good-looking ore. Brunswick Consoli- 
dated Mining Company, of San Francisco, owners. 

Cedar Mine (Quartz). — This property is in Bear River District, 14 
miles from Grass Valley, in Sees. 20 and 29, T. 14 N., R. 8 E. The 
croppings of the vein can be followed for 4,600 ft. on its course N.E. 
across Wolf Creek. The vein dips W. between slate and diabase walls; 
to the east, in close proximity, runs a serpentine belt. Near the banks 
of Wolf Creek a 40 ft. shaft has been sunk and drifts run, disclosing a 
23 ft. vein. The quartz carries a large percentage of copper sulphides, 
oxides, and native copper, with the gold. Numerous surface prospect- 
holes have been made along the croppings. J. R. Nickerson, of Auburn, 
Placer County, owner. 

Centennial Gold Mine (Quartz). — This property was described in our 
Xlth Report, p. 280. It is the south extension of the Osborne Hill 
vein, and claims 2,200 ft. on the ledge. The mine is now under bond; a 
new steam hoisting and pumping plant is being erected, and as soon as 
the water is pumped out a crew will be set to work. The vein has a N. 
and S. course, in syenite walls, pitches to the W., and is not very wide. 
H. Sylvester, of Grass Valley, owner. 

Central Gravel Mining Company (Drift). — This property is on the 
Washington Ridge, 10 miles E. of Nevada City. A bedrock tunnel has 
been run on a S.E. course into the ridge, from the Deer Creek side, a 
distance of 900 ft., where the course is changed to the N., the expectation 
being that about 30 ft. farther it will tap the channel coming down the 
ridge. The tunnel has been run through slate at a cost of $4 50 per ft. 
The gravel is free, carrying washed gold worth $17 40 per ounce. The 
company have free water; more can be had by buying water from the 
South Yuba Ditch Company, and with 300 ft. pressure. They use 25 
boxes (12 ft. long) set on a 4 in. grade per box, and supplied with slat 



GOLD — NEVADA COUNTY. 187 

and Hungarian riffles. Central Gravel Mining Company, of Sacra- 
mento, owners. 

Central North Star Gold Mine (Quartz). — This property was described 
in our Xlth Report, p. 277, and is situated in T. 15 N., R. 8 E., 3 miles 
S. of Grass Valley. There are three veins in the claim. The main works 
are on what is supposed to be the extension of the North Star vein, in 
diabase, with an average width of 2 ft., coursing E. and W., and dipping 
at an angle of 52° N. There are two shafts, about 400 ft. apart, one 
vertical and the other an incline (52°). A drain tunnel 400 ft. long 
carries off the surface waters. At the incline shaft a steam hoist and a 
6 in. bucket pump, to make six strokes per minute, are being erected. 
J as. Bennallack, of Grass Valley, Superintendent. 

Central Pacific Mine (Quartz). — This property is situated three fourths 
of a mile S.W. from Rough and Ready. The claim comprises 1,500 by 
600 ft., and carries a vertical vein, coursing N. 10° E., from 6 in. to 1 ft. 
wide, between syenite walls. Moody & Gayety, of Gold Run, Placer 
Count}', owners. 

Champion Mine (Quartz). — This property has been fully described in 
our VHIth, Xth, and Xlth Reports, pp. 420, 386 and 286. The mine 
is located in Sees. 11 and 12, T. 16 N., 

R. 8 E. Since issuing our Xlth Report, , — <JJh> — <^ ^jh — A — —^ 

the shaft has been sunk to the 1,200 I *"" 

ft. level, and new substantial hoisting 

and compressor plants put in place, GR i 7ZL y ^CHAMP/OWM/ME. 
enabling the workings to be carried to 

a depth of 3,600 ft. The capacity of the mill has been increased 
by the addition of 10 stamps. New grizzlies have been placed, with 
the bars set on edge. The stamps make 100 drops of 6 in., and have 
a 7 in. discharge through a No. 4 sheet-tin perforated screen, which 
lasts three weeks. The steel shoes last 100 days, with an average duty 
of 2| tons per twenty-four hours. The guides are of the best white oak; 
the sequence of the stamps is 1, 5, 2, 4, 3, feeding from No. 3. The 
sides of the mortars are supplied with linings and the front has an 8 in. 
silver plate. Two thirds of the amalgam is retained in the battery. 
The aprons, 14 ft. long, are set on a grade of If in. to the foot. The 
apron is scraped every other day, but the whole apron is dressed daily. 
The battery and battery-plate are cleaned up once a month. Between 
the battery-apron and the apron proper is a distributing box and quick- 
silver trap with an inclined bottom, in which any loosened amalgam is 
retained, while permitting the pulp to pass through onto the lower apron. 
The accumulated quicksilver is drawn off at the lowest point without 
stopping the battery. The rock carries 6 per cent of sulphurets, which 
are gathered from six single and one double Frue concentrator. These 
are worked in the company's chlorination works, which are arranged 
for saving gold, silver, and copper. About 110 men are employed, 86 
underground. Champion Mining Company, of San Francisco, owners. 

Conlon Gold Mining Company (Quartz). — This property is on Osborne 
Hill, 2| miles S.E. from Grass Valley, and about 500 yds. W. of, and 
parallel with, the Osborne Hill Mine. The vein courses nearly N. and 
S., dipping 42° W., and carrying an average width of 26 in., with sye- 
nite wall rocks. The mine is being operated partly through an incline 
shaft, 9 by 5 ft. in the clear, with double compartments, 190 ft. deep, 
or 105 ft. perpendicular. A second opening is through a tunnel 237 ft. 



188 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

long, which cuts the vein at a vertical depth of 50 ft. Two levels are 
being started from bottom of incline. Two air shafts connect with the 
tunnel, and the incline is ventilated by a blower using 4 in. air pipes. 
There are two shoots of ore pitching S.W. The timbering is done with 
sawed spruce, costing $19 per thousand. An 8 in. bucket pump keeps 
the mine free from water. A 10-stamp mill, under the same roof with 
the hoist, contains a Hercules rockbreaker, Hendy self-feeders, 750 lb. 
stamps dropping 6 in. 90 times a minute, and supplied with iron shoes 
and steel dies costing 6 and 11 cents per pound. The stamps crush 2 
tons each per day through No. 35 brass wire screens; all the water being 
applied on the inside of the battery. The plates consist of one inside 
the battery, one on the lip of the mortar; the battery apron plate, 1 ft. 
wide, set on a 1^ in. grade; a second apron plate 5 ft. long with a grade 
of If in. to the foot, and a third apron plate 1 ft. narrower, set on a 2 
in. grade; between each of the aprons is a distributor with -J in. holes. 
The proportion of the amalgam saved in the batteries is given as 20 
per cent, which is accounted for by the narrow mortars. The power is 
furnished by a 25 horse-power engine for the mill and pump, and a 
15 horse-power for hoist and fan, together consuming 3 cords of wood 
daily, at a cost of $3 50 per cord. Fifteen men are employed, at an 
average of $3 per day. Conlon Gold Mining Company, of Grass Valley, 
owners. 

Culbertson Gold Mine (Quartz). — This property is situated in the 
Eureka District, 2 miles from Granite ville; it is a prospect started on 
the extension of the National Mine. A tunnel has been started and 
buildings are being erected. D. J. Moore, of Graniteville, owner. 

Delhi Mine (Quartz). — This property has been described in our VUIth 
and Xlth Reports, pp. 444 and 305. Since then the mine has been idle, 
as the expense of handling the 65 miner's inches of water that the mine 
makes has become too expensive. Delhi Mining Company, of North 
Columbia, owners. 

Derbec Blue Gravel Mining Company (Drift). — See our VUIth and 
Xlth Reports, pp. 456 and 311. It comprises 647 acres. At present the 
company is working on the back channel, which shows a width of 75 ft. 
at the point of present operation; 45 men are employed. Theodore Wet- 
zel, of North Bloomfield, Superintendent. 

Diamond Creek Consolidated {Eagle Bird) Gold and Silver Mining 
Company (Quartz). — See our Vlth, VUIth, and Xth Reports, pp. 51, 
440, and 389. It is in Washington District, in the Yuba Canon, 28 miles 
E. of Nevada City. The several locations extend from the Yuba River 
to beyond the summit of the ridge toward Bear Valley. A peculiarity 
of this ledge is the intrusion of a dike into the vein, and on the pitch of 
the ore shoot, without any apparent faulting. The ore extracted at 
present comes from between the 400 and 600 ft. levels; about 40 tons is 
the daily yield. Forty-five men are employed, 30 underground. Dia- 
mond Creek Gold and Silver Mining Company, of San Francisco, owners. 

Diamond Mining and Development Company (Quartz). — This property 
is on the Leeman ranch, 2 miles E. of S. from Grass Valley. The claim 
comprises 1,500 by 600 ft., with a N. and S. vein dipping about 30° E. 
The shaft, 4 by 8 ft., is 130 ft. perpendicular; at the bottom a drift has 
been driven 45 ft., and some stoping done. The wall rocks are syenite, 
and show near the vein a certain degree of stratification. Little timber- 
ing is required and not much blasting. A Cornish pump, with 5 ft. 



GOLD— NEVADA COUNTY. 189 

stroke, runs six hours out of twenty-four. The hoisting and pumping 
are done with a small temporary steam plant. The quartz carries a fair 
percentage of sulphurets, mostly near the foot-walls, and for the present 
is crushed in a custom mill. Diamond Mining and Development Com- 
pany, of Sacramento, owners. 

Eagle Bird Mine (Quartz). — See Diamond Creek Consolidated. 

Empire Gold Mine (Quartz). — See our VHIth, Xth, and Xlth Reports, 
pp. 46, 426, 371, and 272. The mine has been worked continuously for 
thirty-nVe years, and has produced over '$5,000,000. At present it 
employs 80 men. G. Starr, of Grass Valley, Superintendent. 

English Mine (Quartz). — See Badger Hill. 

Ethel Mine (Quartz).— It is in Sec. 34, T. 18 N., R. 11 E. 5 in Eureka 
District, and is a prospect. Location is 1,500 by 600 ft. on a vein about 
4 ft. wide in granite, running parallel to the Baltic, with a N. and S. 
course. An incline shaft has been sunk on the vein 40 ft. M. H. Meade, 
of Washington, owner. 

Federal Loan Mining Company (Quartz). — This property was described 
in our Xlth Report, p. 290. Since then the shaft has been sunk from 
the 400 to the 600 ft. level on the pitch of the vein, and 500 ft. of a drift 
has been run E. at the 400 ft. level, and 100 ft. in length has been stoped. 
The ore shoot pitches E. A crossing makes into the ledge in the 300 ft. 
level W. and follows the vein down without faulting; crossing the incline 
and continuing to the E. it appears to affect favorably the mineralization 
of the shoot to the E. of it, the same widening rapidly as it goes down. 
In the bottom of the shaft where a station is being started, the vein 
shows 4 ft. wide, highly mineralized. On the 400 ft. level E. a heavy 
stream of water enters the drift under pressure, and a second heavy 
stream issues from the bottom of the shaft. It requires a 10 in. plunger 
pump, one of 8 in., two 6 in. bucket pumps, and a 4 in. pump, to keep 
the mine clear of water. The ground stands well with little timbering. 
The sinking of the shaft below the 400 ft. level has cost $15 a foot. Vin- 
cent & Brand, of Nevada City, owners. 

Filibuster Mine (Drift). — See Lupine. 

Gambrinus Mine (Quartz). — This property is in Eureka District, on 
Mill Ravine, 5 miles from Washington. It comprises a full claim of 
1,500 by 600 ft., and is patented; also 25 acres for a mill site. The vein 
runs N. and S., between slate and granite, with an almost vertical dip, 
and has an average width of 4 ft. A tunnel starting from Mill Ravine, 
650 ft. long, cross-cuts the vein 130 ft. below the surface. Former work- 
ings were carried down 80 ft. from the surface on the vein. A 5-stamp 
mill, run by water power, is to be moved to the mouth of the tunnel. 
See our VHIth Report, p. 451. J. McBean et al., of Washington, 
owners. 

Gold Flat (Potosi) Mining Company (Quartz). — This property is 
situated in Sees. 24 and 13, T. 16 N., R. 8 E., 2-J miles N. from Grass 
Valley and one fourth of a mile from Town Talk. The vein courses 
N. 10° E., dipping 45° E.; the vein is in slate, but near the contact of 
the same with the granite on the north. The average width is from 18 
in. to 2 ft. A double-compartment shaft, 9 by 5 ft., has been sunk on an 
incline of 45° to the depth of 300 ft. At 212 ft. a level has been run S. 
about 830 ft. under the old Potosi shaft, cutting three pay shoots; the 
one nearest the shaft is 75 ft. long, the second 150 ft., and the third 
undetermined; at present it shows 200 ft. of pay ore. Along thib course 



190 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

several crossings from E. to W. cut through and throw the vein to some 
extent. At a depth of 60 ft. from the surface the old drain tunnel of the 
Potosi cuts the shaft, but as it is caved it no longer answers its purpose. 
The walls are solid, requiring little timbering. A 10 in. Cornish plunger 
pump with an 11 in. water pipe makes five strokes per minute; this and 
the hoist are worked by a 4 and a 6 ft. Pelton wheel; the latter, with 
330 ft. pressure, runs the pump. Gold Flat Mining Company, of Grass 
Valley, owners. 

Gold Hill (Nevada City) Mining Company (Quartz). — See our Vlth, 
VHIth, and Xlth Reports, pp. 49, 418, and 288. It is situated in Sec. 
11, T. 16 N., R. 8 E., li miles W. of Nevada City. The mine is still 
working above the drain tunnel, and is employing 38 men. A new 
hoist and mill are in contemplation. Gold Hill Mining Company, of 
New York, owners. 

Grant and Canada Hill Mining Company (Quartz). — This property 
is in Sec. 17, T. 16 N., R. 9 E., If miles from Nevada City, and is being 
operated under bond at present. They are working on the extension of 
the Grant vein. The main Canada Hill is filled with water. A shaft 
is being sunk to the south on the Grant vein, which runs through the 
Canada ground. W. Veal, of Nevada City, lessee. 

Harmony Gold Gravel Mining Company (Drift). — See our Xlth Report, 
p. 298. It is 2-| miles N.E. from Nevada City. The property includes 
280 acres, with 3,000 ft. along the course of the channel, and is opened 
through an incline shaft 340 ft. long on a 32° pitch, from whence a 
tunnel turns up the channel 1,800 ft. The main channel is 150 ft. 
wide, largely quartz gravel. The bedrock tunnel is in swelling granite. 
Twenty-five men are employed on two shifts, taking out 20 carloads of 
gravel of 1,500 lbs. weight per day. Since our last report a 10-stamp 
mill has been built and all the gravel passes through the mill. The 
power for the same is obtained from the Snow Mountain ditch, 30 in. of 
water being applied to a 4 ft. Pelton wheel, at a cost of 18 cents per 
inch. Harmony Gold Gravel Mining Company, of Nevada City, owners. 

Hartery Consolidated Gold Mining Company (Quartz). — This property 
was described in our Xth and Xlth Reports, pp. 378 and 283. It is on 
Wolf Creek, 1\ miles S.E. of Grass Valley. Hartery Consolidated Gold 
Mining Company, of Grass Valley, owners. 

Home Gold Mine (Quartz). — This is a new undertaking, located 1^ 
miles W. of Nevada City, on Deer Creek, adjoining the Providence Mine 
on the west. Peck's Ravine, on the west of the Providence Mine, 
plainly marks the contact between the granite and the diabase, and the 
Home company have commenced to develop a quartz ledge that crosses 
Deer Creek at this point, where, in an early day, some rich rock was 
taken out. — Moore, of Nevada City, Superintendent. 

Idaho Mine (Quartz). — See Maryland. 

Jack Rabbit Mill and Mining Company's Mine (Quartz). — The prop- 
erty was mentioned in our Xlth Report, p. 278. Since then the incline 
shaft has been carried down to 270 ft., and two levels have been run below 
the drain tunnel, 75 ft. apart, and about 125 ft. long. The croppings 
indicate two veins, of which the one where the shaft has been sunk 
appears to be a west feeder to the main fissure, necessitating a cross-cut 
of at least 130 ft. to reach the main vein. No large ore shoots have as 
yet been developed, but active prospecting is being carried on. Jack 
Rabbit Mill and Mining Company, of San Francisco, owners. 



GOLD NEVADA COUNTY. 191 

Knickerbocker Gravel Mine (Drift). — This property is on Cement Hill, 
in Sees. 1 and 2, T. 16 N., R. 8 E., 1 mile N.W. from Nevada City, and 
appears to contain a part of the old river channel that comes from 
Sugarloaf Hill. The workings consist of a tunnel starting N.E., partly 
in the cement, carried so narrow and deviating so often from the original 
course, that, though 1,200 ft. in length, nothing definite is known about 
the channel sought for. It is said to be still 300 ft. to the north. Large, 
hard granite bowlders are frequently encountered on the bedrock, and in 
places pay gravel has been found in small bunches carrying coarse gold. 
Two men make 3 ft. per day drifting, taking out 4 tons of gravel besides. 
The gold is worth $17 per ounce. No timbering is done in the mine. 
L. D. Craig et al., of San Francisco, owners. 

Live Oak Mine (Drift). — See Odin. 

Live Oak and Minuet Mine (Quartz). — This property is on Grizzly 
Ridge, 2| miles N. from Columbia Hill, and three fourths of a mile W. 
of Delhi. The vein runs N. and S., dipping about 75° E., and varies in 
width from 2 to 12 ft., between slate walls. The developments consist 
of several tunnels driven on the vein from the river side. The upper- 
most one is 125 ft. long; 112 ft. below is No. 2, 212 ft. long; and again 
66 ft. lower, No. 3 has been driven 140 ft., giving a perpendicular depth 
on the vein of 450 ft. The lowest tunnel, No. 4, 80 ft. long, is 200 ft. 
farther down the hill, and is intended for the main working tunnel, 
being in the vicinity of an eligible mill site. One pay shoot, pitching 
north, has been developed. The quartz carries from 1^ to 2 per cent of 
iron pyrites, galena, and arsenical pyrites. Little timbering is required, 
and no water to speak of has been encountered. Water power under 
500 ft. pressure is obtained by extending the Delhi ditch. McMahon 
& Jennings, of Columbia Hill, owners. 

Lupine Gravel Mine (Drift). — It is on Washington Ridge, in Sec. 21, 
T. 16 N., R. 9 E., in Nevada City District. The present developments 
indicate that the gravel cut into is from an ancient ravine that leads to 
the main channel under the ridge. The gravel is angular, while the 
gold found with it is rounded, washed gold. A high rim rock on the 
flank of the mountain close to the Lupine tunnel, and pitching into the 
hill, and a second rim rock traced near the top of the ridge, indicate the 
course of the main channel. There are two claims, the Filibuster and 
the Lupine, making a total area of 320 acres. The developments con- 
sist of a 94 ft. perpendicular shaft, and below this is a bedrock tunnel in 
slate running N. toward the shaft, 254 ft. long. An upraise of 14 ft. 
cuts into ravine wash carrying washed gold. The course of this ravine 
is S. 10° E. A cut is being made diagonally across the wash to decide 
its width and depth. The elevation at the tunnel mouth by aneroid is 
3,715 ft., and on the bedrock above the upraise 3,735 ft. That part of 
the ground included in the Filibuster has been hydraulicked partly. 
Judge Caldwell et al., of Nevada City, owners. 

Manzanita Gravel Mining Company (Drift). — See our VIHth and 
Xlth Reports, pp. 458 and 302. It is situated half a mile N. of Nevada 
City, and comprises 160 acres. Two years ago it was started as a drift 
mine, having previously been hydraulicked. The incline shaft has, at 
the mouth, an elevation of 2,680 ft., and in its length of 260 ft. falls 56 
ft. The tunnel running N. from the bottom of the shaft is 1,250 ft. 
long, and cuts into the channel about 3 ft. above the lowest part of the 
trough. The breast of the drift, which is still being driven ahead, is in 



192 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

pipe-clay, and is closely lagged. The output per hour at present is 8 
carloads of 27 cu. ft. each. The gravel drifts are timbered with 4 ft. 
posts and 6 ft. caps, and closely lagged, as a layer of sand forms part 
of the roof. The gravel is all small, no rock weighing over 10 lbs. being 
met with, and is nearly 2 ft. deep. The washing is done through 300 
ft. of sluices 2 ft. wide, furnished with slat and Hungarian riffles; the 
first 80 ft. is cleaned up every week, the remainder once a month. The 
company own a water-right on Deer Creek, and conduct the water from 
near Scott's Flat through 7 miles of ditch. The gold is fine and sells 
for $17 50 per ounce. Manzanita Gravel Mining Company, of Nevada 
City, owners. 

Maryland and Idaho Gold Mine (Quartz). — The Idaho Mine was de- 
scribed in our Vlth, VHIth, and Xlth Reports, pp. 45, 425, 372, and 
271; it is situated 1-| miles E. of Grass Valley. These properties, for- 
merly separate mines, have now been brought under one management 
by purchase. The present workings are being carried on between No. 13 
and No. 15 levels at the east end of the Idaho, and extending into the 
Maryland ground; this depth very nearly approaches sea-level. Only 
half of the stamps and concentrators were working. The aprons are 
scraped every day and the batteries are cleaned twice a month. The 
amalgam saved in the batteries is 66 per cent. The mine is ventilated 
through an air shaft in the Maryland ground, which is connected 
through chutes with the back end of No. 15 level, in the Idaho, and 
through which an exhaust fan 10 ft. in diameter draws the foul air, 
making the main working shaft a down-cast. Employes number 110; 
of these, 80 work underground. S. P. Dorsey, of Grass Valley, owner. 

Mayflower Mine (Quartz). — See our VHIth and Xlth Reports, pp. 453 
and 295. The property lies on the contact of granite and slate, where 
it changes from an easterly to a northwesterly course. Six ledges are 
included in the location, two N. and S. and four E. and W.; the two 
former with a dip of 45° E., the four latter with a dip varying from 20° 
to 70° S. With one exception all the veins are incased in slate walls. 
The Grant vein has both granite and slate walls. The property con- 
tains, besides the quartz veins, a considerable body of gravel that was 
worked under the hydraulic system; arrangements are now being made 
to drift on part of it. The different veins are designated as the May- 
flower, Butterfly, Beckman, North Star, Big Blue, Floyd, and the Grant. 
They are opened up by tunnels: No. 1 being 1,700 ft.; No. 2, 400 ft.; No. 
3, 1,000 ft.; and No. 4, 700 ft. long. These last two tunnels are on the 
Mayflower vein. The greatest perpendicular depth attained in the mine 
is not over 75 ft., but on the dip of the vein the depth is 250 ft. The 
greatest amount of development is on the Beckman vein, which lies 
very flat and follows the foldings of the slate; it carries a high grade of 
quartz, with a good percentage of sulphurets. The ore is reduced in a 
4-stamp water-power mill; weight of stamps, 950 lbs.; these drop 95 
times a minute, with 6 in. drop and 4 in. discharge, through No. 6 
round-punched screens, crushing If tons to the stamp. The pulp passes 
over two aprons, the upper one o\ by 4 ft., the second 3^ by 9 ft., and 
then from a distributor to a shaking-table, with side shake, and this 
yields a larger amount of amalgam than the second plate. The aprons 
are given a pitch of li in. per foot, the shaking-table J in. per foot. 
From the shaking-table the pulp passes over Frue and Triumph con- 
centrators. The quartz carries 1\ per cent of sulphurets. The plates 



GOLD NEVADA COUNTY. 193 

are scraped every day, and the battery cleaned up once a month. The 
power is derived from several Pelton wheels: an 8 ft. for the mill, a 2-J 
It. for the crusher, an 8 in. for the concentrators, and a 5 ft. for the 
hoist, requiring 30 in. of water in all. Martin Bros., of Nevada City, 
owners. 

Merrimac Gold Mine (Quartz). — This property was described in our 
Xlth Report, p. 279, and lies in T. 10 N., R. 8 E., 2 miles N.E. of Grass 
Valley. Developments have been resumed under favorable auspices. 
Merrimac Gold Mining Company, owners; L. P. Goldstone, Super- 
intendent. 

Mistletoe Mine (Quartz). — This property is in the Rough and Ready 
District, three fourths of a mile S.W. from the town. It comprises 1,500 
by 600 ft. The vein courses N. 50° E. and dips about 70° N.W., show- 
ing a width from 4 to 18 in. between hard syenite walls. An incline 
has been sunk on the vein 40 ft. The quartz carries about 3 per cent of 
sulphurets (iron and copper); it is hand-sorted, and the heavily sul- 
phuretted portion sacked and shipped. The country around is poorly 
supplied with wood. C. J. Kent et al., of Rough and Ready, owners. 

Monarch Claim (Quartz). — This prospect is three fourths of a mile 
from Rough and Ready. It comprises 1,500 by 600 ft. The vein courses 
N. 28° E., stands nearly vertical in syenite, and is about 4 ft. wide. A 
shaft has been sunk 53 ft., and is to be continued. Gayety Bros., of 
Gold Run, Placer County, owners. 

Mount George Gold Mine (Quartz). — It is on Rush Creek, 3 miles from 
Nevada City, and controls 4,500 by 600 ft., to the west of the main gran- 
ite and slate contact. The altitude of the mine is 2,300 ft. The main 
vein courses slightly N. of E. and dips about 62° S. The country rock 
is diorite, with partial slate casing along the vein. The vein shows 16 
in. wide near the surface, but at a depth of 55 ft. (which is the depth of 
the incline shaft) it is several feet in width. The quartz carries a small 
percentage of sulphurets and is of low grade. North of the main vein 
about 25 ft. is a small ferruginous quartz seam with a course of N. 60° 
E. and pitching very flat, which makes into the main vein to the west. 
It is extremely rich in free gold, yielding at the rate of several hundred 
dollars to the ton, and is worked up in the hand mortar. Still farther 
north is another seam about 18 in. wide, and carrying a good grade of 
ore with copper sulphurets. Two shafts have been sunk, about 50 ft. 
apart, one on the main vein, the other on the feeder. The latter shaft 
is an incline 85 ft. deep; at 42 ft. a level turns 40 ft. on the seam. The 
shaft on the main vein is 55 ft. deep; a drift has been started at 40 ft. 
toward the other shaft, and in the bottom they have drifted 96 ft. on 
the main vein. A small prospecting plant, consisting of a 4 in. Cornish 
pump with 3 ft. stroke, making seven strokes per minute, and a hoist, 
are run by a 3^ ft. Pelton wheel and a 2 -J ft. Knight wheel, working 
under 70 ft. pressure and using 12 in. of water. Timber is plentiful on 
the ground. J. E. Carter, of Grass Valley, Superintendent. 

Mountaineer Gold Mine (Quartz). — This property, 1 mile W. of Nevada 
City, was described in our Xth and Xlth Reports, pp. 384 and 287. 
South of Deer Creek the ore is low grade, and any ore below $7 is not 
worth handling, the vein being only 12 in. wide, and the wall rock 
extremely hard. The quartz is a ribbon rock, carrying an average of 
2-J per cent of sulphurets. The mine has been a dividend-producer for 
13m 



194 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

years. Forty-five men are employed. W. A. Dennis, of Nevada City, 
Superintendent. 

Muller & Walling Claim (Quartz). — This prospect was mentioned in 
our Xlth Report, p. 296. Two veins cross the claims, supposed to be 
the extensions of the Champion and Wyoming. On the latter an incline 
at the east end of the claim has been sunk 87 ft., using an overshot 
wheel for hoisting. At the west end a tunnel is being driven to strike 
this same vein; at present it is 120 ft. long. A good deal of surface work 
has been done, demonstrating the presence of a large body of quartz of 
a good paying grade. Muller & Walling, of Nevada City, owners. 

National Gold Mining Company (Quartz). — This property, 1-| miles 
S.E. from Graniteville, was described in our Xlth Report, p. 309, and 
comprises 2,000 by 600 ft. The vein courses N. and S., and dips about 
75° E. between black slate walls, about a mile W. of the granite contact, 
with an average width of 6 ft. Three tunnels have been driven on the 
upper portion of the veins, of which No. 3 runs entirely through the 
ridge 368 ft. below the surface; at 123 ft. it cross-cuts the vein, which it 
follows for 400 ft. Near the mouth of the tunnel an incline shaft has 
been sunk 108 ft. and a drift turned S. 200 ft. on the pay shoot, the end 
of which has not been reached. Stoping 150 ft. in length and 32 ft. 
high has been carried on here. The lower workings are connected with 
the tunnel by an air shaft. The foot-wall of the vein is swelling ground 
and shows an 8 in. gouge. The quartz is ribboned and shows free gold 
on the face planes, and carries about 1 per cent of sulphurets (iron and 
galena) and occasionally tellurides. The mine makes about 2 in. of 
water, which is raised by an ejector 100 ft. on the incline, through a 
4 in. discharge pipe with § and T \ in. nozzles. Timber costs 1\ cents 
for lagging, 2-J cents per running foot for split timbers, and $22 per 
thousand for lumber. Water power is derived from the Eureka ditch, 
using 15 in. under 200 ft. pressure, distributed on the following Pelton 
wheels: an 18 in. for the hoist, an 8 ft. for the mill, a 2-| ft. for the rock- 
breaker, and an 18 in. for the concentrators. The reduction works con- 
sist of a 5 ft. Huntington roller mill with grizzlies, Gates crusher No. 1, 
and Hendy self-feeder. Three aprons are placed below the mill, each 4 
by 4 ft., with a j in. grade to the foot. Two Frue concentrators handle 
the sulphurets. The mill crushes from 17 to 22 tons per day, using No. 6 
slot-cut screens, which last three days. The quicksilver groove in the 
mill is drawn off once a day, and plates scraped daily and dressed with 
sodium amalgam; the entire mill is cleaned once a month. The yield 
from the battery equals the yield from the plates. Fifteen men are 
employed, miners receiving $2 per day and board, and mill men $2 50 
and board. Estate of D. R. Killigan, North Bloomfield, owners. 

Nebraska Mine (Drift). — See Odin. 

Nevada City Mine (Quartz). — See Gold Hill. 

Normandy Mine (Quartz). — This property is in Sees. 31 and 32, T. 
16 N., R. 8 E., in Dead Man's Flat, 4 miles S.W. of Grass Valley. It is 
only a "prospect," and the vein is about 12 in. wide and is "pockety." 
Said to have produced a large sum. Senechal & Richard, of Grass 
Valley, owners. 

North Banner Consolidated Tunnel Company (Quartz).— This property 
was described in our VIHth Report, p. 420, and now comprises five 
claims. Since reported on, the mill has been moved near the mouth of 
the lower or drain tunnel, designated as the Woodville tunnel, and five 



GOLD — NEVADA COUNTY. 195 

stamps added. The mine is being worked by eleven tributors. At 
different times the mine has been operated through four tunnels. The 
main working tunnels at present are the Woodville, on a level with the 
mill, also used as a drain tunnel, and the Dunnigan tunnel, 170 ft. 
above; all of the tunnels are connected. Below the Woodville tunnel a 
shaft has been sunk 500 ft., with a station for hoist and pumping plant 
placed at the mouth, and a drift turned south from the bottom of the 
shaft 400 ft. in good paying ore. The general course of the quartz 
veins is N. 38° W., with a dip varying from 30° to 45° E., and an average 
width of 2 ft.; they lie along the contact of the slate and syenite, the 
latter forming the hanging-wall. At present no work is being done 
below the Woodville level. North Banner Consolidated Company, of 
Grass Valley, owners. 

North Bloomfield Gravel Mine (Hydraulic). — This property was 
described in our VHIth Report, p. 454, and illustrated in our IXth 
Report, pp. 122 and 133. At present 40 men are working on a limited 
area, having complied with the requirements of the law as to impounding 
debris, it being elevated 60 ft. and deposited in a portion of the old 
hydraulic pit and retained therein by means of brush dams until the 
slimes have settled, when the water is passed through a shaft into the 
main outlet tunnel and dropped into the river. 

At present one monitor with a 6 in. nozzle, taking water under 500 
ft. pressure, is operating on a bank over 300 ft. high, with 140 ft. of solid 
gravel next to the slate bedrock. At the point of operation the bedrock 
was pitching away, showing the presence of either a deeper basin or 
another channel behind. 

About 1,500 ft. of 5 ft. sluices, lined with 13 in. pine blocks, costing 
11 cents per foot, board measurement, are used in washing the gravel. 
After passing through the sluices the waste material drops into an 
open elevator box, up which it is thrust by the water issuing from two 
4-J in. nozzles under a pressure of 500 ft. The bottom, is lined with 3 
in. plates of manganese steel, costing 8 cents per pound, which has been 
found to withstand the friction of the rocks far better than the white 
iron plates formerly used for the purpose. The "giant" works during 
the night shift; the day shift pick the ground and break up the pipe- 
clay and gravel. 

A deep cut in the bedrock is being carried up to the face of the 
present bank to enable the bottoming of the deeper portion of the chan- 
nel. The normal output, when everything is working to full capacity, 
is 2 cu. yds. per miner's inch, but under the present restricted working 
the output is limited by the space available for the depositing of the 
debris. A clean-up is made twice a month. The gold is worth about 
$18 per ounce. North Bloomfield Gravel Company, of San Francisco, 
owners. 

North Star Mine (Quartz).— See our Vlth, VUIth, Xth, and Xlth 
Reports, pp. 44, 428, 376, and 270. It is one of the most important 
mining properties of the county. 

The shaft in 1893 was 2,800 ft. deep on the incline, and the workings 
nearly half a mile from the collar of the shaft. There are 125 men 
employed, 115 of them underground. 

The mill and its methods may be regarded as one of the best and 
most representative of the California milling process. From the 
entrance of the ore into the mill everything is worked by gravitation, 



196 KEPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

and the use of a shovel is rarely required. After passing over the 
grizzlies, which have their bars 2^ in. apart, the fine material drops 
immediately into the ore-bins that supply the Hendy Challenge self- 
feeders, while the coarse rock falls into a bin that discharges through 
a chute into the Risdon rockbreaker, which itself discharges into the 
main ore-bin that leads to the feeders. The feeding of the battery is 
performed from the center stamp, the drops being so arranged that the 
pulp is forced from center to outside, and vice versa. 

There are 40 stamps in the mill, weighing 850 lbs. each, dropping 86 
times per minute, with a 7 in. drop and a 4 in. discharge. Steel shoes and 
iron dies are used, with an average life of 300 tons per stamp. The screens 
used are No. 10 perforated tin (English plate), costing 10 cents a plate, 
or 50 cents per screen, and last four weeks. The oak guides are long- 
lived, the upper set being co-existent with the mill. Plates are used in 
the battery. The duty per twenty-four hours is from If to 2 tons per 
stamp. The apron plates are divided into an upper apron of 18 in., fol- 
lowed by a second of 4 ft., having between them a narrow box with a 
perforated screen somewhat coarser than the battery screen. The bat- 
teries and concentrators use 15 in. of water. The aprons below them 
have a grade of f in. to the foot, and set to the same grade are 10 ft. of 
sluice plates. On six of the batteries these have a width of 30 in., while 
on the other two they have the same width as the apron plates; the latter 
give the better yield. The plates are scraped and dressed every morning. 
Beyond these plates the pulp is led onto a shaking-table 12 ft. long, 
formed of a silvered plate supplied with end motion, without jar, from 
an eccentric working underneath. The pulp is next passed through a 
trap to the concentrators (12 Triumph and 4 Frue), producing about one 
ton of sulphurets per shift; these are sold. One of the 6 ft. Pelton 
wheels has been replaced by a Dodds of equal diameter, effecting a 
saving of 10 in. of water, which costs 18 cents* per inch. E. R. Abadie, 
of Grass Valley, Superintendent. 

Odin Mine (Drift). — See our Xlth Report, p. 301. The property 
includes what was formerly known as the Nebraska and Live Oak 
ground along the Blue Tent road. Two ditches pass over the property, 
insuring a plentiful supply of water; one at a level of 60 ft. above the 
gravel washing pit and another about 120 ft. above; this latter water 
is employed for running the hoisting works, while the former supply is 
used for washing. The hoisting works are supplied with both water 
and steam power, the latter as a reserve, but is made use of at present 
for running a small steam pump at the foot of the incline to assist the 
ejector. 

The bedrock tunnel from the foot of the incline shaft has a general 
easterly course, cutting across the channel which runs with the general 
direction of the ridge, swinging perhaps slightly to the west. A section 
through the channel shows the west rim pitching 6 ft. in the 100; the 
main channel having a width of about 225 ft. to where the bedrock rim 
raises on a slope of 6 in. to 100 ft., making the entire width 1,500 ft. 

From the gravel worked to the top is 550 ft., including five different 
beds of gravel, with alternating pipe-clay and trachytic tufa capping. 
Along -the flat east rim the gravel is low grade, the' best not yielding 
over 75 cents per carload, while in the deepest part the carload value 
increases rapidly, enough to make the entire workable portion yield a 
good profit. 



GOLD — NEVADA COUNTY 



197 




Granite 



Sect/on through ° DINCHAmEL ^ ARM0 % Y £ ^^ £ c 0UN7 - K 



The present plan is to drive ahead upstream on the western or deepest 
side of the channel, then to breast out on both sides back to the incline, 
after which a new double incline shaft will be started between the Rock 
Creek and Snow Mountain ditches on the course of the channel. 

The high rim has been traced from an old shaft in Keystone Ravine 
to the upper end of the Howe hydraulic pit. The gravel has to be 
removed rapidly in the present workings, the ground swelling badly. 
From 8 to 10 men breast on a shift, producing 10 cars to the man; the 
working force numbers 25. The dump-house holds 100 carloads; the 
gravel is washed twice a day, and each week the dump is washed down 
clean. The upper boxes are cleaned twice a week; the gold, which is 
exceedingly fine, is worth $17 75 per ounce. The tailings are impounded 
and washed over again later. C. Hesse, of Nevada City, Superintendent. 

Omaha Consolidated Gold Mining Company (Quartz). — See our Vlllth, 
Xth, and Xlth Reports, pp. 433, 373, and 273. It is situated 1.-J miles 
S. of Grass Valley, on Wolf Creek. The property comprises 2,400 ft. in 
length on the vein. It costs $6 per ton to mine and mill the ore in this 
mine, using water power throughout, and employing in mine and mill 
about 75 men. Omaha Consolidated Gold Mining Company, of San 
Francisco, owners. 

Original Pittsburg Gold Mining Company (Quartz). — This property is 
in Sees. 18 and 19, T. 16 N., R. 8 E., and Sees. 13 and 24, T. 16 N., R. 
8 E., 2\ miles N. of Grass Valley, comprising two claims (3,000 by 600 
ft.). The course of the vein is N. 2° W., with a dip of about 45° E., and 
has an average width of 3 ft.; the quartz carries over 4 per cent of 
sulphurets. The present workings are carried on at the 500 ft. level; 
below this the mine is filled with water. On this level, drifts have 
been driven from the shaft a distance of 750 ft. N. and 280 ft. S. In 
the south breast a "crossing" has pinched the vein out, but from the 
surface indications it is plain that the vein continues beyond, and all 
that portion is virgin ground for 2,000 ft. A tunnel 280 ft. long is being 



198 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

driven south of the main shaft to strike the vein 150 ft. below the 
surface. The entire plant, run by water power, is very substantial. 
See our VHIth and Xlth Reports, pp. 426 and 294. T. J. Furbee, of 
Grass Valley, Superintendent. 

Osborne Hill Gold Mining and Milling Company (Quartz). — This 
property is 2^ miles S.E. from Grass Valley, controlling 2,100 ft. on the 
vein; patented. The vein courses N.W., dipping 28° W., and shows an 
average width of 14 in. Several ore shoots are known to exist, pitching 
south. The incline shaft is 450 ft. long and 250 ft. in perpendicular 
depth; the lower part is caved and filled with water. This shaft is 
being retimbered and cleaned out, and a pumping and hoisting plant 
erected to work, the mine to a depth of 1,500 ft. Later a stamp mill 
will be erected, as a test run of the quartz shows the ore to be of high 
grade. The shaft is a double-compartment, 10 by 5 ft. in the clear; 
timbered with square timbers and closely lagged. The iron " T " rails 
used in the shaft weigh 12 lbs. per foot. Steam power will be used; 
cord wood (pine) costs $3 25 per cord. Osborne Hill Gold Mining and 
Milling Company, of San Francisco, owners. 

Osceola Mine (Quartz). — This is 1 mile S. from Rough and Ready, 
and comprises 1,500 by 600 ft. on the course of the vein, which is N. 30° 
E., dipping W., with an average width of 3 ft. The quartz contains 2 
per cent of copper sulphurets. The developments consist of surface 
cuts, two tunnels, and a 70 ft. incline on the vein; in the bottom of the 
latter is a 3 ft. vein. The Excelsior Water Company's ditch crosses 
the south end of the claim, and would give about 60 ft. pressure. Moody 
& Gayety, of Gold Run, Placer County, lessees. 

Peabody Mine (Quartz). — This mine, 1,200 ft. long, is south of and 
within the city limits of Grass Valley. It courses N.W. and S.E., dips 
30° S.W., and is 4 to 20 in. in width. Admission was denied, but it is 
said to have been exploited to the depth of 440 ft., and that the rock 
was high grade. J. H. Von Schroder, Eugene de Sabla, Jr., and Alf. 
Tregidgo, of Grass Valley, owners. 

Pennsylvania Consolidated Gold Mining Company (Quartz). — See our 
Xth and Xlth Reports, pp. 383 and 276. It is in T. 16 N., R. 8 E., 
about 1-J miles from Grass Valley, and controls 2,900 ft. on the vein, 
the surface side-lines varying from 300 to 600 ft. in width. The vein 
has a course of N. 33° W., and dips 60° S.W., with an average width 
from 6 to 22 in. between syenite walls. The incline shaft has a total 
depth of 625 ft., sunk on a varying grade, the upper part pitching about 
60° and the lower about 36°. At present the vein carries small stringers 
of quartz, and the work being prosecuted is in the nature of prospecting. 
Eighteen men are employed. Pennsylvania Consolidated Gold Mining 
Company, of Grass Valley, owners. 

Potosi Mine (Quartz). — See Gold Flat. 

Providence Gold Mine (Quartz). — This property has been described in 
our Vlth, VHIth, and Xlth Reports, pp. 47, 418, and 290. It is the 
deepest mine working on the granite and slate contact in the district, 
having attained the depth of 1,350 ft. on the pitch of the vein. It 
carries two veins, designated as the front and back veins; the former on 
the contact and the latter in the granite, about 500 ft. apart, and con- 
nected by a cross-cut on the 1,250 ft. level. Deer Creek forms the 
northern boundary of the property, which embraces 150 acres. The 
vein courses N.E. and dips S.E. The stopes above the 1,250 ft. level 



GOLD — NEVADA COUNTY. 199 

are the principal sources of the present ore supply. The vein, averaging 
5 ft. in width, yields between 70 and 80 tons per day. 

On the south the drift on the contact has been extended on the 1,350 
ft. level over 900 ft., and on the 600 ft. level 2,200 ft. The driving 
and stoping are performed by the aid of two machine drills, an Ingersoll 
and an Eclipse, operated by an old style compressor run by a 3 ft. Dodd 
wheel. A 10 in. Cornish pump with 3| ft. stroke, running five strokes a 
minute, handles the water, and is operated by a 4 ft. Pelton wheel, in 
connection with the hoist. 

In the 40-stamp mill, 30 of the stamps are dropping; these weigh 800 
lbs. each, and are run at a speed of 100 drops of 6 in., with from 2 to 4 
in. discharge through No. 6 perforated Russian iron screens. The shoes 
are chrome steel, with a guaranteed life of 155 working days, costing in 
New York 6 cents per pound. The dies are iron, and are obtained at the 
local foundry, lasting 70 days. The duty of the mill is 2 tons per 
stamp per twenty-four hours. No plates are used inside the battery; on 
the outside is a mortar plate 14 in. wide, with a \ in. to the foot pitch, 
followed by an apron 4 by 4 ft. set on a grade of f in. to the foot, suc- 
ceeded by 12 ft. of double sluice plates, 12 in. wide. The mortar plate 
saves and retains 75 per cent of all that is caught on the plates. 

The 12 Frue concentrators that are now in use produce from 3 to Z\ 
tons of sulphurets per day, which contain some cobalt and telluride. A 
new chlorination plant, of 3-| tons capacity, has been erected. The fur- 
nace is 65 ft. long by 11 ft., inside dimensions, with one step, 18 work- 
ing doors, 12 in. height of firebridge. There are five gas tanks and five 
leaching vats, and four charges are made per day. Of the silver in the 
ore 85 per cent is saved. The furnace consumes three fourths of a cord of 
wood per twenty-four hours, usually cedar and pine, costing $3 50 per 
cord. The company owns and cuts its own timber and wood; the lag- 
ging, 5 ft. long, costs $4 50 per hundred. The company employs at 
present 80 men, 62 of these underground. Providence Mining Com- 
pany, of San Francisco, owners. 

Rainbow Gold Mine (Quartz). — The property is situated in the Eureka 
District, 6 miles N.E. of Washington, and an equal distance S. from 
Graniteville, in Sec. 34, T. 18 N., R. 11 E., and is being worked under a 
bond; it comprises 1,500 by 600 ft. The vein, 18 in. to 4 ft. wide, courses 
N.W. on a contact of porphyry and granite, the latter forming the foot- 
wall, and dips to the east. An incline shaft has been sunk 60 ft., and at 
present a tunnel is being driven to tap the vein below the shaft at a 
vertical depth of 140 ft.; it has reached a distance of 560 ft., and will 
require an additional 100 ft. before reaching the vein. A pay shoot 
pitching south has been traced 300 ft. The tunnel makes 2 in. of water. 
C. J. Garland, of Washington, owner. 

Reward Gold Mine (Quartz). — This property is half a mile S.W. from 
Nevada City, and is a new undertaking. It is to the south of the Provi- 
dence Mine on the California ledge immediately east of the Mount- 
aineer Mine. The vein has a westerly course and dip, and lies in the 
granite. A shaft has been sunk 104 ft., and a steam pump and hoist 
are being erected. A long drain tunnel is now being driven from Deer 
Creek. R. C. Walrath, of Nevada City, Superintendent. 

Rocky Bar Mine (Drift). — This property is on the Yuba River, one 
fourth of a mile E. of Washington, and comprises 3,000 ft. along the 
channel of the South Yuba River. A slide from the mountain on the 



200 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

north side has covered the former channel, forcing the river over to 
the south, where it has cut a new channel, leaving a pronounced "run" 
between. On this an incline has been sunk 54 ft. deep at a pitch of 35°, 
and again 400 ft. farther up the channel a second incline is under way. 
A cross-cut of the channel shows a width of from 50 to 75 ft., with a 
depth of about 40 ft. of large, washed, granite bowlders, on a slate bed- 
rock. The pay is all on the bedrock. A drift 'has been run up the 
channel between the two inclines 400 ft. long, partly on the bedrock. 
Timbers are required solely to keep the large bowlders from shifting. 
The gravel is hoisted by a 14 ft. overshot wheel and washed through 300 
ft. of sluices, supplied with Hungarian and slat riffles, the boxes being 
set on a 4 in. grade. The gold is worth $17 per ounce. A Chinese pump, 
run by a 15 ft. overshot wheel, keeps the mine dry. Canon Creek fur- 
nishes 75 in. of water for power. J. O. and E. A. Hayes, of Hillsdale, 
Santa Clara County, owners. 

Rocky Bar Mine (Quartz). — This property is described in our VIHth 
Report, p. 483, and is situated on Osborne Hill. The vein courses E. 
and W. and dips 30° S., in slate, averaging 1 ft. in width. Only the 
southwest end of the claim is being worked, by several companies of 
tributors working on feeders to the main vein; 48 men are thus engaged. 
The ore carries about 4-J per cent of sulphurets. H. Sylvester, of Grass 
Valley, owner. 

Rocky Glen Mine (Quartz). — See our VIHth and Xlth Reports, pp. 
450 and 310. The property has four known veins: two with a north- 
westerly course and an easterly dip, about 1,200 ft. apart, and two 
coursing more westerly and pitching southwesterly. C. D. Eastern, of 
Graniteville, owner. 

South Idaho Consolidated Gold Mining Company (Quartz). — This 
property, comprising 3,000 by 600 ft., is 1 mile E. of Grass Valley, on 
an E. and W. vein, dipping about 75° S. It is about 18 in. wide, 
between serpentine and slate walls, and is being opened through a 
three-compartment incline shaft 5 by 12 ft. It is 70 ft. deep to date 
(August, 1893), and is to be sunk 100 ft. South Idaho Consolidated 
Gold Mining Company, of Grass Valley, owners. 

Spanish Mine (Quartz). — See our Xlth Report, p. 292. Average 
width of vein is 3 to 6 ft., between syenite walls. The incline shaft is 
4 by 4 ft. to a depth of 120 ft., increasing then to 4 by 7 ft. to a depth 
of 270 ft. Two levels have been run from the shaft both N. and S. to 
pay shoots; that on the south is 175 ft. distant, and has been stoped on 
for 85 ft. The north pay shoot has just been touched. In the drain 
tunnel a pay shoot 80 ft. long has also been stoped. The drift on the 
drain tunnel level is 600 ft. long; on the next level, 150 ft. deeper, the 
south drift extends 375 ft. A. Lord, of Nevada City, Superintendent. 

Spanish Mine (Quartz). — See our VIHth Report, p. 442. It is a note- 
worthy property from the fact that it is the lowest grade of ore that is 
worked in California, where the cost is kept. below the yield; said yield 
in itself not being over 50 per cent of the assay value. At present but 
two of the Huntington mills are running, crushing over 70 tons per day. 
The loss of quicksilver in working this ore is nearly one third from 
flouring. The yield of gold is 85 cents per ton; the cost of mining and 
milling about 53 cents. The works are to be removed to the mouth of a 
tunnel 300 ft. below its present location. There are 15 men employed 
in and around the works. F. W. Bradley, of Wardner, Idaho, owner. 



GOLD — NEVADA COUNTY. 201 

St. Gotthardt Gold Mine (Quartz). — This property is 4 miles N. of 
Columbia Hill, and controls two claims, 3,000 by 600 ft., on a N. and S. 
vein, with an easterly pitch in syenite, varying from a few inches to sev- 
eral feet in width. A two-compartment perpendicular shaft, 5 by 10 ft., 
has been sunk to a depth of 380 ft. At a point between 300 and 400 ft. 
from the surface the shaft cuts the vein. Levels run at 200 to 300 ft. 
extend N. 500 ft. and S. 200 ft. At 180 ft, from the surface the shaft is 
tapped by a drain tunnel from the river side. A tunnel is also being 
run from Grizzly Canon, where the mill is to be erected, to cut the shaft 
340 ft. in depth; up to date it has attained a length of 900 ft.; 400 ft. 
more will bring it to the shaft. Steam power is used; engine 30 horse- 
power, cylinder 8 by 12 in., and boiler 48 in.; 1J cords of wood is 
consumed in twenty-four hours, costing $1 95 per cord. G. T. Wayman, 
of Columbia Hill, Superintendent. 

St. Johns Gold Mine (Quartz). — See our Xlth Report, p. 281. It is 
in Sec. 22 v T. 16 N., R. 8 E., and comprises 3,500 ft. on the course of the 
vein, with a variable width. The vein courses N. 30° E. and dips about 
70° S., with a diabase hanging- and a talcose schist foot- wall; the vein 
averages 4 ft. wide. The developments are made through an incline 
350 ft. deep, with four levels at the respective depths of 90, 150, 230, and 
300 ft. A contract has been let to continue the incline down 500 ft. 
The present workings are east of the shaft on the 300 ft. level; on all 
the other levels they are to the west. A 10-stamp mill with 4 Frue 
vanners has been acquired by the company, but has not yet been 
erected. The sinking of the shaft to date is 50 ft. below the 300 ft. level, 
and costs $50 per foot, and is being carried in the hanging-wall. St. 
Johns Gold Mining Company, of Grass Valley, owners. 

San Jose Gravel Mine (Drift). — This property is in the Washington 
District, 6 miles E. of Washington, on Deer Creek, and is supposed to 
be a continuation of the channel worked by the Omega Company. It is 
being operated through a perpendicular shaft 340 ft. deep, well timbered, 
and closely planked; the gravel is hoisted in cars of 1,800 lbs. capacity, 
on safety cages. From the bottom of the shaft a bedrock tunnel is driven 
600 ft. in the serpentine bedrock to the channel, which it crosses in 200 
ft., about 18 in. higher than the lowest point of the channel, and is 
continued for 100 ft. in the north rim. Three upraises have been made 
in this portion of the rim; the first struck gravel at 15 ft., the second at 
30 ft,, but the third found no gravel in 75 ft. The general course of the 
channel is from E. to W. A drift has also been run 300 ft. up and 100 
ft. down the channel. The gravel is dark, composed largely of cobbles 
of the country rock mixed with some quartz, and on the west side is 
covered with a layer of sand; the capping consists of 40 ft. of pipe-clay, 
and above that lava to the surface. The gravel drifts are carried about 
7 ft. high. The mine makes about 6,000 gallons of water per hour, which 
is discharged by 6 in. and 8 in. Cornish pumps making six strokes per 
minute. Ventilation is supplied through a No. 2 Sturtevant blower, with 
6 in. air pipes. The plant is operated by water power applied to three 
Pelton wheels under a head of 180 ft.: a 5 ft, wheel for the pumps, a 4^ 
ft. for the hoist, and a 6 in. for the blower, using in all 250 in. of water, 
costing $1 per day. Peter Long, of Nevada City, Superintendent. 

Union Gravel Mine (Drift). — This property is in North Bloomfleld 
District, on Relief Hill, 3^ miles from Bloomfleld, and consists of 90 



202 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

acres of patented ground. It was formerly a hydraulic mine, but is 
now being worked by drifting. 

A tunnel is run north into the hill under the old hydraulic pit for 
1,800 ft. in the slate bedrock, but develops no regular course for the 
gravel channel, which resembles more nearly a big slide from the ridge 
above, that has carried away parts of a former channel, or it may be an 
ancient bar. Both bedrock and gravel swell, making it hard to keep 
the gangways open. The gravel is over 40 ft. thick, capped with cement 
containing several strata of small quartz gravel. The channel is about 
70 ft. wide and has been worked for about 300 ft. Intermixed with the 
gravel are clay and rotten serpentine bowlders. The gangway runs 
about 8 ft. above the main tunnel. The gravel drifts are from 5 to 9 ft. 
wide, timbered with square sets. In the main drift the posts are 6-| ft., 
the caps 4-| ft., with 6 ft. spread. The mine has natural ventilation 
through passageways opening on to the bank, which are connected with 
the main tunnel; it is also self-draining, making about 2 in. of water. 

The dump at the mouth of the tunnel holds 350 tons; a smaller one, 
for prospecting, 100 tons; the gravel is washed three times every two 
weeks; the gold is coarse. The sluices are set in sections in Union 
Canon, with drops of 20 and 60 ft.; the tailings are being retained in 
the canon. Slat riffles and old car wheels are used in the boxes. The 
water supply is drawn from the Malakoff ditch, 200 in. of water being 
used. The mine employs 20 men. Union Drift Mining Company, of 
North Bloomfield, owners. 

Wait for the Wagon Mine (Drift). — See Odin. 

Washington Mine (Quartz). — This mine is on the Yuba River, 6 miles 
E. of Washington. A 20-stamp mill is on the property. See our VHIth 
and Xth Reports, pp. 440 and 391. A. Tregidgo, of Grass Valley, owner. 

West Harmony Gravel Mine (Drift). — This property was described in 
our Xlth Report, p. 300, and is in Sec. 5, T. 16 N., R. 9 E. Since then 









*m@%> 



//=£ CL/\y . 



S£Cr/0/V THROWS/ HfcST ' //A/fAfOA/y G/PAl/Sl C//A/M£L, 

//£m/?a CouArry. 

a 15-stamp mill has been erected; it crushes about 6 tons per stamp 
per twenty-four hours. The stamps drop 4 in. 95 times per minute, dis- 
charging through No. 2 perforated tin screens with a double discharge. 
The aprons are 4 ft. long with \\ in. grade per foot, followed by 16 ft. 
of double sluices 16 in. wide, and supplied with Hungarian riffles. 
Beyond the mill 100 ft. of sluices and a canvas plant are to be added. 



The CHANNEL- SYSTEM of the HARMONY RIDGE 

NEVADA COUNTY., CALIFORNIA. 
ROSS E.BROWNE .Mining tngineer. 




' ){btej_ 

Underground' work based part- 
ly on informatinn furnished by 
Mr. W.FEnglebnght,MrCarl Hesse 
and others, partly, same as all 
surface - work, on personal exam - 
mat ions and surveys madefy 
RossEBrowne, August 1892, for 
W.W.Stowe.Esq. 



'<2>> elevations above sea- level, 

^t°y Leaning figures-elevationsof bed 

rock -surface, underground. 

Contact-line between vol can - 

ic capping ana 'bedrom. 

'rea= Bedrock,, 



ic capping. 

' //l Prepared 
for the TWELFTH REPORT of the 

STATE MINERALOGIST 
J J. Crawford. 



f NemttaBloclsS.FCat 



PHYSICAL 
SCIENCES 
LIBRARY 



GOLD — ORANGE AND PLACER COUNTIES. 203 

The plates are scraped once a week; the batteries and sluices are cleaned 
once a month; the gold is worth $17 50 per ounce. 

The accompanying ideal sketch shows the relative positions of the 
different strata of the channel; it is 250 ft. from rim to rim. The bed- 
rock is very irregular in its grade along the channel, rising at times 4 ft. 
above the level of the drift, and again dipping below the established 
grade. The gravel drifts are carried 6 ft. high, using two caps on three 
posts. The channel has been developed for a length of 500 ft. — 300 ft. 
down and 200 ft. up. Two shifts of men work in the mine. West 
Harmony Gravel Company, of Nevada City, owners. 

Winfield Scott Mine (Quartz). — See our Xlth Report, p. 283. It is 3 
miles S.E. from Grass Valley, and has been worked by the Hartery Min- 
ing Company, which owns the adjoining claim. Winfield Scott and 
Hartery Mining Company, of Grass Valley, owners. 

Wyoming Gold Mining Company (Quartz). — This claim was described 
in our Vlth and Xlth Reports, pp. 48 and 291, and is in Sec. 11, T. 16 N., 
R. 8 E. The present workings at the south end comprise an incline shaft 
900 ft. deep on the pitch of the vein. The vein being worked is the 
most westerly of the series; the same one as the back vein of the Provi- 
dence Mine, 500 ft. from the contact, with which it unites at a depth of 
500 to 600 ft. No stoping is being done. The only pay taken out is 
derived from running the drift ahead. Wyoming Gold Mining Com- 
pany, of San Francisco, owners. 

W. Y. 0. D. Mine (Quartz). — This property is S. of Grass Valley. 
Admission to the mine and all information were refused. See our 
VHIth, Xth, and Xlth Reports, pp. 435, 379, and 268. W. Y. O. D. 
Mining Company, of Grass Valley, owners. 

ORANGE COUNTY. 

Included among the mineral resources of this county are gold, silver, 
lead, zinc, coal, copper, and cinnabar, none of which are mined exten- 
sively. Of all the minerals, coal has hitherto been the most prominent, 
but it is probable that some day petroleum may become the leading 
mineral production. 

Several prospectors were engaged, in 1894, in searching for gold in 
Trabucco Canon, about 30 miles E. of Santa Ana. Their discoveries 
were not of a promising character, however. The workings were in a 
light gray feldspathic porphyry, carrying iron sulphurets and a small 
amount of gold, too little to pay. 

PLACER COUNTY. 

Though containing a very large area of auriferous gravel deposits, yet 
from the great diversity of its resources, Placer County has suffered less 
in its advancement and material prosperity through the closing of its 
hydraulic mines, than any other portion of the State. Here, as in 
other parts of the great mineral belt of the State, capital is beginning 
to inquire into the possibility of resuscitating and developing the quartz 
interests, which have, up to the present, taken only a secondary place in 
the production of gold. More especially is this to be noted in the Ophir 
and Duncan Hill districts, which, from the mineral character of their 
veins, presented difficulties to the earlier quartz miners that made sue- 



204 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

cess in their operations doubtful. Better acquaintance with the treat- 
ment of this class of ores at the present day, and improved methods of 
working, have largely removed the difficulties, and this section of the 
country may be expected soon to take a prominent position as a gold 
producer, as well as a favored land of fruit. 

The large drift mines on the Forest Hill and Iowa Hill divides are 
pushing their developments ahead with uniform success, and as the 
courses of these ancient channels are more plainly understood, new sec- 
tions are being opened, with every prospect of remunerative returns. It 
is much to be desired that the work of mapping these ancient river 
courses, so ably commenced by Ross E. Browne, E.M., and others, and 
which were given to the mining public in our Xth Report, rnight be 
extended over a large area. 

Allbright Claim (Drift). — It is 2 miles E. of Penryn, and was formerly 
hydraulicked, but is now being prospected by drifting. A bedrock tun- 
nel has been run in the slate 500 ft., and from the end an upraise of 32 
ft. extends into the gravel, but little pay was found. The water issuing 
from an old tunnel on the ground is used for washing, through six boxes 
with 1 in. grade to the foot; slat riffles are used. 

Alta Development Company's Mine (Drift). — It is at Alta, on the C. P. R. 
R., and comprises about three quarters of a mile on both the " White " and 
"Blue" channels. A tunnel, whose estimated length to tap the latter is 
2,000 ft., is now being excavated. Towle Bros. & Gould, owners; Col. J. 
E. Doolittle, of Dutch Flat, manager. 

American Bar Mine (Quartz). — This property is 2£ miles S.W. from 
Michigan Bluff, and contains two locations of 1,500 by 600 ft. The 
vein courses N.E. and dips 45° E., between slate walls, from 8 to 40 ft. 
apart. It is worked by three tunnels; the lowest is 250 ft. beneath the 
surface. These tunnels are 150, 300, and 1,500 ft. in length; the upper 
one is connected with the surface by a 40 ft. shaft. The quartz carries 
some iron sulphurets and a little galena. Near the river is a 10-stamp 
mill, with 850 lb. stamps, run by a "hurdy" wheel. J. Nouges et al., of 
San Francisco, owners. 

Baker Divide Mine (Drift). — See our VIHth Report, p. 466. 

Barton Mine (Drift). — This claim is 3 miles E. of Rocklin, in Sec. 20, 
T. 11 N., R. 7 E., and consists of 40 acres. It is an old river channel, 
presumably part of the delta of the precursor of the present American 
River, on a granite bedrock. The gravel deposit is 60 ft. deep and with- 
out capping; the bottom 6 or 7 ft. are mined. The gravel is cemented, 
containing no bowlders; the cobbles are very uniform in size, about like 
a man's fist. The gold is fine and flaky, and sells for $19 per ounce. 
The mine was opened in 1892, and has been worked to date through an 
upright circular shaft 6 ft. in diameter and 60 ft. deep. A second 
incline shaft farther down the channel will be ready for use shortly; it 
is 250 ft. on the incline. Through the circular shaft, not timbered, the 
car with 500 lbs. of gravel is hoisted by a horse-whim. The gravel is 
delivered to a Cox pan, which disintegrates the cemented gravel and 
passes it to the sluices; these are 200 ft. long, 16 in. wide, 12 in. deep, 
lined with Hungarian riffles, and set on a grade of 1 ft. to the box. 
Fifty carloads can be delivered to the pan in twelve hours. The tailings 
dump into Secret Ravine. 

The width of the deposit worked is 350 ft.; the elevation above sea- 
level of the bedrock is 240 ft. The quantity of water used is 30 in., but 



GOLD — PLACER COUNTY. 205 

after the incline shaft is completed 60 in. will be used under 110 ft. 
pressure from the South Yuba Ditch Company, through 2,700 ft. of iron 
pipe 15 in. in diameter. Water is available all the year. A Worthing- 
ton pump, working four hours per day, discharges the water from the 
mine. Dr. O. L. Barton, of Rocklin, owner. 

Belvoir (Boivlder) Extension Mine (Quartz). — This property is in the 
Ophir District, 3 miles N.W. from Newcastle. The claim comprises 
1,500 by 600 ft. on the vein, which courses N. and dips 45° E., and has 
a width of several feet; the country rock is a dioritic granite. It is an 
old mine being reopened. A shaft has been sunk 150 ft. and prepara- 
tions are being made to drift. L. Ferguson et al., of Ophir, owners. 

Ben Franklin Mine (Drift). — This claim, in Forest Hill District, is 
near Yankee Jim's, and comprises 160 acres on Swindle Hill. It is an 
ancient channel, capped with 200 ft. of cement, near the forks of Brushy 
and Devil's canons, coursing N. and S.; the elevation of the bedrock 
is 2,350 ft. It is worked through a bedrock tunnel 1,200 ft. in length, 
which cost $12 per foot, and lies 20 ft. below the channel. The gravel is 
cemented, carrying about 60 per cent of bowlders and cobbles; the gold 
is. worth over $19 per ounce. The gravel breasts are 25 ft. deep, and 
the drifts are 3 ft. high. Very little timbering is required, only an 
occasional post and cap. Ventilation is obtained by a water-blast. 
The water used (100 in.) is brought from the neighboring canons 
through a mile of ditch. J. N. Burke et al., of Yankee Jim P. O., 
owners. 

Big Dipper {Harmon) Mine (Drift). — This claim was described in our 
VIHth Report, p. 472, under the name of the Harmon Mine, and is in 
New York Canon, between Prospect and Wisconsin hills, in the Iowa 
Hill District. The property contains four locations, comprising 200 
acres on a channel coursing N. and S. and over 200 ft. wide. The 
gravel has a depth of 130 ft., with a slight soil capping, and carries 
from 60 to 70 per cent of cobbles and bowlders; it is cemented. The 
gold sells for $18 15 per ounce. The bedrock tunnel, 37 ft. below the 
channel, is 700 ft. in length, requiring no timbers, and cost $6 25 per 
foot. There are two air shafts: one 73 ft. deep and the other not con- 
nected yet; these were sunk for $4 per foot. The two gangways are 
respectively 350 and 390 ft. long, and cost $4 per foot. The channel 
breasts are 370 ft. wide and the gravel is drifted 6 ft. high; these drifts 
are timbered with single posts and caps 8 ft. apart. The main tunnels 
are driven by Ingersoll drills worked from a Firth & Rix compressor. 
Two shifts of 15 men are employed, taking out from 65 to 70 carloads 
(2,200 lbs.) per day. They have worked 1,200 ft. of the channel up to 
a late date. Bryan rollers were used in crushing the cemented gravel; 
these are being replaced by 10 stamps of 950 lbs. weight, calculated to 
crush 70 tons per day. The plant is supplied with both steam and 
water power. The source of the water supply is Shirt-tail Canon, 
whence it is brought through 7-J miles of ditch and delivered under 173 
it. pressure. There are 37 men employed. C. Waterhouse, of San Fran- 
cisco, owner. 

Bowlder Mine (Quartz). — This property is situated 3 miles N.W. from 
Newcastle, in the Ophir District. The claim consists of 900 ft. on the 
line of a 3 ft. vein, which courses N. 10 c E., dipping 45° E. The walls 
are grano-diorite. The mine is opened by shaft and tunnel, both con- 
nected at a depth of 115 ft. The tunnel runs with the ledge for 300 ft.; 



206 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

near the tunnel mouth the vein is faulted. Three different ore shoots 
pitching east are being worked. The quartz is ribboned and glassy and 
carries sulphurets. Dr. M. Schnabel, of Newcastle, owner. 

Breece & Wheeler {Paragon) Mine (Drift). — See our VHIth and Xth 
Reports, pp. 467 and 455. It is 1\ miles E. of Forest Hill. At the 
present time two shifts of 15 men work in the mine, extracting 37 car- 
loads of one ton each per shift. The gold is worth $18 per ounce. 
Messrs. Breece & Wheeler, of San Francisco, owners. 

Buttes Mine (Quartz). — See our VIHth Report, p. 461. 

Cedar Creek Mines (Placer). — They are near Dutch Flat, and consist 
of gravel beds of vast extent, having an original depth of over 400 ft., 
and extending for over 6 miles without any capping. The channel has 
a top width of 1,500 ft. and 600 ft. on bottom, carrying pay throughout. 
Over 150 ft. of the bottom gravel is untouched. The general course of 
the channel is N. and S.; below Dutch Flat it forks, one branch going to 
the S.W. the other to the S.E. Up to date over $8,000,000 has been 
taken from this ground, and it is estimated that double this amount is 
awaiting recovery. In one of the hydraulic pits a shaft has been sunk 
through the gravel 150 ft. to bedrock, showing good pay all the way 
down. The gravel is not cemented. Some of the bowlders have been 
crushed in a small mill, and gave small returns in gold; at present 
quartz bowlders are shipped from here to the smelter for flux. Efforts 
are to be made to work portions of the ground by drifting. Gould et al., 
of Dutch Flat, owners. 

Champion Mine (Quartz). — This property is 1\ miles S. from Turkey 
Hill, and is idle at present. The claim contains two locations on the 
southern extension of the Daniel Webster. The vein courses N. and S., 
dipping 75° E., between slate walls. Developments consist of an incline 
shaft 40 ft. deep on the vein, connected with a tunnel 150 ft. in length, 
with a second tunnel 50 ft. lower, cross-cutting for the vein. C. Knopfel, 
of Michigan Bluff, owner. 

Cherokee Mine (Quartz). — It is in the Last Chance District, 16 miles 

E. of Michigan Bluff, an<j consists of 1,500 by 600 ft. The main vein is 

^• n 18 in. wide, in slate walls, and courses N.W. 

fsi'lfL^^ **&' and dips 70 ° E * The ( i uartz is of ribb ° n 

^j^^jT_^-- vet*- structure, carrying about 2 per cent of iron 
^>i-^JJ^^ /t ' sulphurets. There are three seams in all. 

-^$ na J On the bank of Deep Canon 500 ft. of fall 

Worc**a*EeM»*,PUCi*aK ^ for water pQwer can be obtaine(L 

Columbia Gold and Silver Mining Company (Quartz). — They own 
3,200 ft. on a vein in the Ophir District, 7 miles W. from Auburn. 
The property, which comprises 250 acres of ground, is owned in. Denver, 
Colo., and besides the mine, contains considerable agricultural and fruit 
land. The elevation is about 500 ft. above sea-level. The vein has an 
average width of 4 ft., and can be traced by the outcrop along its course, 
which is N. 10° W.; it dips 84° E. The walls are grano-diorite. Several 
feeders of prominence make into the vein in the company's ground from 
the west. The developments under the present management include 
three shafts, the erection of a hoisting plant and a new mill, besides 
several buildings for boarding-houses, offices, etc. There are three 
shafts available for working purposes. The main shaft, in the mill 
building, is a double-compartment, 5 by 13 ft. in the clear, furnished 
with double-reel hoisting gear. At the south end of the claim is the 



GOLD — PLACER COUNTY. 207 

former working shaft, 630 ft. deep, but at present filled with water. The 
third shaft, between these two, has just been started. The quartz car- 
ries 0.5 per cent of sulphurets. The mill is the Huntington rotary, with 
Woodbury concentrators. The ore-bin is constructed to carry 250 tons. 
The works will be lighted with electricity. The water power, derived 
from the South Yuba Canal Company's ditch, furnishes 410 ft. fall 
through one mile of pipe, which is applied to a 4-J ft. Dodd wheel for the 
hoist, a 6 ft. Pelton wheel for the compressor (running 12 Ingersoll 
drills), a 5 ft. Pelton wheel for the mill, and two 18 in. Pelton wheels 
for the concentrator and dynamos. Forty-five men are employed. 
Columbia Gold and Silver Mining Company, owners; B. F. Hartley, of 
Auburn, Superintendent. 

Crater Mine (Quartz). — This property is in the Ophir District, 1 mile 
N.W. from Ophir. The course of the 2-J ft. vein is N. 80° W., dip 48° S. 
It is near the contact of the grano-diorite and amphibolite, but wholly 
in the latter. A shaft 800 ft. deep is on the vein. At present two men 
are overhauling the very extensive dumps. C. F. Reed, of Auburn, owner. 

Daniel Webster Mine (Quartz). — This property is in the Forest Hill 
District. The claim consists of 1,500 ft. by 600 ft. on a vein coursing N. 
and S., dipping 75° E., between slate walls; its width is from 3 to 6 ft. 
It has been developed through three tunnels; the longest is 125 ft., and 
gives 75 ft. backs on the vein; at present a tunnel is being run south of 
the old works. Mrs. S. A. Powers, of Michigan Bluff, owner. 

Dardanelles Mine (Drift). — This claim was described in our VIHth 
Report, p. 464, and is situated in the Forest Hill District, 1\ miles S.W. 
from the town of Forest Hill. It contains 312 acres, and is operating on 
two beds of gravel. The bedrock tunnel, 2,700 ft. long, is run on a 
N.W. course, from the end of which an incline 330 ft. long, on a one 
third pitch, reaches the bottom of the channel, which has a N. and S. 
course. The elevation of the bedrock at this point is 2,551 ft. The gang- 
way extends 630 ft. up the channel. The breasts are from 70 to 80 ft. 
wide, and are run 6 ft. high. The cemented gravel carries about 40 per 
cent of cobbles and bowlders. The gold is small scale, from .883 to .886 
fine. At the head of the incline is an electrical engine for hoisting, 
capable of developing 500 volts; also an electrical pump, which is run 
four hours per day, discharging a steady stream through a 4 in. pipe. 
The bedrock tunnel, incline, and principal stations are lighted by incan- 
descent lights calculated to burn for one thousand hours. The mill is 
furnished with both steam and water power, the latter being brought 
from Volcano Canon through 9 miles of ditch and delivered under 300 ft. 
pressure. The water season lasts from November to July. J. Hamilton, 
of Auburn, owner. 

Dorrer Mine (Quartz). — This is situated in the Humbug District, near 
Damascus, on the South Fork of the North Fork of the American River, 
and consists of a claim 1,500 by 600 ft. The vein courses N.W. and 
dips about 80° E. It has an average width of 4 ft., and is between 
slate walls. The developments consist of three tunnels, 40, 200, and 
200 ft. long, about 100 ft. apart and 80 ft. below the surface, and are 
connected therewith through an air shaft. The tunnels are run on the 
foot-wall slate and require no timbering. The pay shoot has been fol- 
lowed for 1 50 ft. without reaching the end, and about 40 ft. of the ground 
has been stoped. An incline tramway 3,000 ft. long, on a 35° grade, 
connects the mine with the 10-stamp mill. The mill is supplied with a 



208 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

grizzly, a Dodge rockbreaker, Tulloch ore-feeder, and 950 lb. stamps, 
operated by a 3 ft. Knight wheel under a 30 ft. head. Several thousand 
inches of water can be supplied. The plating in the mill consists of a 
4 ft. apron and 12 ft. of sluice plates, 14 in. wide, set on a pitch of 1-J 
in. to the foot. The quartz carries 2 per cent of iron pyrites, chalcopy- 
rite, galena, and zinc-blende. The sulphurets are not saved. Five 
hundred tons of ore were crushed last season. Timber is abundant. 
Dorrer Bros., of Towles, owners. 

Drummond Mine (Quartz). — See our Xth Report, p. 424. It is situated 
between the North and South Forks of Shirt-tail Cafion. The property 
comprises 360 acres of excellent timber land, through which the Drum- 
mond ledge courses, and also its probable feeder, known as the Eclipse; 
the latter has lately developed some extremely rich quartz. The two 
veins are about 400 ft. apart. Tunnels have been run on both veins; 
that on the Eclipse shows rich quartz in the breast. In the bottom of 
the works on the Drummond is a 2^ ft. vein of quartz. The steam mill 
contains two 5 ft. Huntington mills, a Blake crusher and Hendy self- 
feeders, 10 ft. of apron plates, and a Johnston and two Frue concen- 
trators. B. F. Reed, of Auburn, owner. 

Eclipse Mine (Quartz). — See our Xth Report, p. 433. It is near Ophir. 

Flat Ravine Mine (Quartz). — This property is on Canada Hill, and 
comprises 1,500 by 600 ft. on a N.W. vein dipping 60° E. The foot- wall 
is slate, the hanging-wall porphyry, with 3 ft. of quartz between. The 
quartz carries 4 per cent of sulphurets, mostly iron. A shaft has been 
sunk 47 ft. on the pay shoot, and 598 ft. of tunnel run. A cross-cut has 
been run, and the shaft will intersect it at a depth of 177 feet. The mine 
is at the foot of Bald Mountain, at an elevation of 6,000 ft. above the 
sea. There is no mill on the property. M. Savage, of Michigan Bluff, 
owner. 



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Pl/ia/ orri/ir /?/?i//a/£ M//v£:,PL/]C£:tf co. 

Golden River Mine (Drift). — See our Vlllth and Xth Reports, pp. 476 
and 456. It is situated 2-J miles E. of Damascus. The company owns 
3-J miles of the channel. There are three ancient channels on this divide 
on different levels; the upper, or white channel; the second, 30 ft. lower, 
has gravel, partly quartz and partly metamorphic rocks; and the lowest, 
60 ft. below, known as the blue channel. The cement capping varies 
from 4 to 1,000 ft. in thickness. In the blue channel the gravel varies 
in thickness from 7 to 16 ft.; its course is a little N. of E. The eleva- 
tion of the bedrock above the sea is 3,853 ft.; that of the bedrock in the 
nearest ravine, 3,813 ft., and the level of the North Fork of the Ameri- 
can River is 2,000 ft. lower. The mine is opened through a bedrock 
tunnel 23 ft. under the channel. 

From 75 to 100 carloads of gravel are extracted per day, working two 
shifts with 16 white men and 30 Chinese; the iron cars have a capacity 



GOLD — PLACER COUNTY. 209 

of 22 cu. ft. (one ton). The gravel, taking the average for the last five 
years, is valued at $2 50 per ton; cost for extraction, from $1 25 to $1 60 
per carload. The gravel is mostly free. The channel drifts are carried 
10 ft. wide, and the gravel drifts are from 7 to 16 ft. in height. The 
gravel has 33 per cent of cobbles and bowlders, all stowed in the mine. 

For washing the gravel, water is brought from Humbug Canon and 
collected in a tank 16 by 16 by 8 ft., and this amount of water, under 
a 36 ft. head, washes 20 carloads of gravel, which passes through 50 ft. 
of boxes with slat and Hungarian riffles; these are cleaned every two 
or three days. The gravel then passes through 180 ft. of boxes that are 
cleaned once a month, and 100 ft. of ground-sluice, then through 100 ft. 
of flume, finally passing through a series of parallel boxes followed by 
a drop. Blocks, car wheels, and riffles are used in the lower series of 
boxes, also quicksilver. The boxes are 15 in. wide and have a 1J in. 
grade to the foot. 

The gold is scaly, very uniform in size, and .932 to .937 fine, equal to 
$18 90 per ounce. The average production since 1888 has amounted 
to over $60,000 per annum. One mile of the channel has been worked. 
Golden River Drift Mining Company, owners; C. H. Hoffman, of 
Damascus, Superintendent. 

Gold Blossom Mine (Quartz). — See our Xth Report, p. 431. It is situ- 
ated !■£ miles N.W. of Ophir, and comprises 6,000 ft. on a vein running 
nearly E. and W. and dipping slightly S. A new 20-stamp mill is now 
(September, 1894) being erected on the property. A plant was erected 
here to work by the MacArthur-Forrest process, but was abandoned for 
lack of success. Col. B. F. Reed et al., of Newcastle, owners. 

Gold Run Ditch and Mining Company (Hydraulic).^ — Their property 
is at Dutch Flat. The channel courses N. and S., the gravel being several 
hundred feet in depth. It has yielded largely in gold. Gould et al., 
of Dutch Flat, owners. 

Green Mine (Quartz). — This property is near Ophir, immediately E. 
of the Crater vein, and shows an 18 in. vein, with heavy mineralized 
walls, and is " pockety.'' A shaft has been sunk on the vein about 300 
ft. deep. An old 8-stamp mill stands on the property. 

Harmon Mine (Drift). — See Big Dipper. 

Hidden Treasure Mine (Drift). — See our VHIth, IXth, and Xth 
Reports, pp. 469, 120, and 451. It is in the Michigan Bluff District, 
comprising an area of 704.56 acres, through which the " white " channel 
of the divide passes. At the point of present working the channel is 
known to be 1,300 ft. wide from rim to rim. The volcanic capping 
reaches a depth of 650 ft., with 150 ft. of underlying gravel. The eleva- 
tion at the top of the deposit is 4,550 ft., and the underlying bedrock 
3,700 ft. above the sea-level; while Blacksmith's Ravine adjoining is 
about 2,900 ft. 

The bedrock is a soft, swelling slate, which is one of the main con- 
siderations in the working expenses of the mine. The main tunnels 
have the timber sets 2 ft. apart, using 8 ft. posts and 5 ft. 4 in. caps, in 
the clear, with a 12 ft. spread, no mudsills being used, and extremely 
heavy " T " rails for the track, 30 lbs. to the foot. The tunnels are closely 
lagged. If left to themselves, these tunnels entirely fill up in two years, 
twisting and breaking the heaviest timbers. The channel drifts are 
carried 100 ft. wide, the ground divided into 200 ft. blocks, and half 
worked from either side diagonally; later, commencing at the back, the 
14m 






210 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

pillars are removed. The gravel drifts are carried 6 ft. high, timbered 
with posts and caps, the latter joining. Breast boards and false sets 
have to be used with breasting gravel, and the lagging has to be kept 
driven up close. Notwithstanding these precautions occasional parcels 
of the ground are lost. Three hundred carloads of gravel, each 1 ton 
in weight, are extracted per day, said to have averaged $1 35 per car 
during the previous season. The timber account of the mine varies from 
$750 to $1,000 per month, at a cost of $5 per 1,000 ft., running measure. 
One hundred inches of water is used for washing, under a 20 ft. head. 
Up to date 1,000 ft. of channel has been worked. A total of 126 men 
are employed; of these 88 are Chinese. In washing the gravel the first 
few boxes are cleaned up every day, the following 1,400 ft. of flume once 
a month, and all below that once a year. For the present the mine has 
let a timber contract for 1,712,133 ft. of mining timbers, including lag- 
ging. H. T. Powers et al., of Sunny South, owners. 

Lady Bedford Mine (Quartz). — This property is 7 miles S.E. from 
Westville, and 10 miles E. of Michigan Bluff. The vein courses N. and 
S., dipping 50° E., with an average width of 8 ft., between a slate foot- 
wall and a porphyry hanging-wall. The quartz is of ribbon structure, 
carrying 1 per cent of iron pyrites with some galena. The croppings, 
which are quite prominent, can be traced for 1 mile. The developments 
are a 30 ft. tunnel running north, with an upraise of 60 ft., which cuts 
a 6 ft. vein. A 2-stamp mill, with 250 lb. stamps, crushes nearly a ton 
of quartz in twenty-four hours, using a No. 30 perforated screen; the 
apron is 8 ft. long. Page et al., of Michigan Bluff, owners. 

Live Oak Claim (Drift). — See our Vlllth Report, p. 474. 

Manhattan Mine (Drift). — See Weske Mine. 

Mammoth Bar Mine (Placer). — Is on the North Fork of the American 
River, 5 miles from Auburn, and embraces 10,000 ft. along the river. 
The gravel is worked by hydraulic elevation. See our Xth Report, p. 
417. Col. Davis, of Auburn, owner. 

Marguerite Mine (Quartz). — This property is half a mile from Auburn. 
The claim contains 1,500 ft. on the course of the vein under an agricult- 
ural patent. The vein runs N.W., dipping 73° W., with a width of 2| 
to 5 ft., between walls of serpentine. The quartz carries 7 per cent of 
sulphurets, iron, chalcopyrite, and galena, and is of glassy texture. The 
present workings consist of an incline shaft 115 ft. deep, double-com- 
partment, 5 by 9 ft. in the clear. Eighty gallons of water are hoisted 
per day with a horse-whim. A 9 in. blower produces the ventilation, 
being run bya 1| horse-power steam engine. After further develop- 
ment, a mill and chlorination works are to be erected. G. F. Deetken, 
of Auburn, owner. 

Mayflower Gravel Mine (Drift). — This claim was described in our IXth 
and Xth Reports, pp. 120 and 453, and comprises 1,400 acres in parts 
of Sees. 22 to 27, inclusive, as also parts of Sees. 14 and 15, in T. 14 N., 
R. 10 E. The mine is situated 3 miles N. of Forest Hill. Up to date 
there have been worked 3 miles of the lower channel and 2,000 ft. on 
the Orono channel. With 34 men on the shift, the present output is 80 
carloads of li tons per shift; two shifts are employed. The water sup- 
ply is obtained from Shirt-tail and Blackhawk canons, through 12 miles 
of ditch, and is delivered under a head of 340 ft. The water season lasts 
from November to July. The company is supplied with an Ingersoll 
boring outfit, which is used in prospecting and locating the course of the 



GOLD — PLACER COUNTY. 211 

channel through their property, finding the depth to bedrock, and put- 
ting down holes for ventilation. Mayflower Gravel Mine, owners; J. L. 
Jones, of Forest Hill, Superintendent. 

Morning Star Mine (Drift). — This property, described in our Vlllth, 
IXth, and Xth Reports, pp. 472, 111, and 420, is in Indian Canon, half 
a mile from Iowa Hill, at an elevation of 2,644 ft. The present output 
of gravel is 75 carloads, of 1 ton each, said to yield an average of 
$7 50 per ton, the gold being worth over $18 per ounce. Forty men are 
employed. Over 1,000 ft. of the channel has been worked. Morning 
Star Mining Company, owners; J. H. Neff, of Colfax, President and 
Superintendent. 

Mountain Gate Mine (Drift). — See our VIHth Report, p. 468. 

Old Pacific Mine (Quartz). — This is the west extension of the Gold 
Blossom Mine, and controls 1,000 ft. in length on the vein, which courses 
E. and W., dipping to the S. The vein is 18 in. wide, and several 
shafts, ranging from 40 to 90 ft., have been sunk. The ore extracted 
was all shipped. Dr. M. Schnabel et al., of Newcastle, owners. 

Osborne Mine (Quartz). — This is 4 miles S.E. of Westville, and con- 
trols 1,500 by 600 ft. on a N. and S. vein, 8 ft. wide, dipping 80° E., 
between slate walls. The developments consist of a tunnel on the ledge, 
300 ft. long, and an 83 ft. shaft. 

Paragon Mine (Drift). — See Breece & Wheeler. 

Pioneer and Lynn Mines (Quartz). — This property is in the Towles 
District, 2 miles W. of Damascus. There are eleven locations included 
in the property, each 1,500 by 600 ft., on several veins. The course of 
the vein is slightly to the E. of N., and dip 80° E. The country rock is 
slate, with a porphyry foot-wall. There are four different tunnels open- 
ing on the veins; the upper one 300, the second 200, the third 400, and 
the fourth 1,400 ft. in length. The latter is the main working tunnel, 
5 by 6^ ft., and cost $10 per foot. Little timbering is necessary. 

The main pay shoot on the Lynn vein is opened for a length of 400 
ft.; it pitches S., and has been stoped on the entire length. About 10 in. 
of water issues from the tunnel. The ventilation is supplied through a 
520 ft. shaft, connecting with the lower tunnel. A No. 2 Baker blower 
is provided for special occasions. 

The ore is trammed in 1-ton cars by hand to large bins on the surface, 
situated at the head of an incline tramway, which is 2,700 ft. long, 
with a changing slope, and leads direct to the mill, 1,100 ft. perpendicu- 
larly below. The two cars on the incline carry 2 tons each, the full down 
car bringing the empty one up. 

The ore carries a small percentage of sulphurets, with occasional 
bunches of arsenical pyrites. The mill contains a double grizzly of 12 
bars, 12 ft. long, 3 in. apart, \ in. wide, set at an angle of 45°, leading 
to a Blake crusher. The usual Hendy self-feeder operates from the 
center stamp. The 20 stamps, weighing 750 lbs. each, drop 90 times 
per minute, with a 5 in. drop, and discharge through a No. 30 slot- 
punched screen, set with a slight inclination. The steel shoes and dies 
have an average life of 90 days. The water is applied both inside and 
outside the battery. The battery has an inside plate, as well as one on 
the lip of the mortar. The outside plating consists of an apron 4 ft. 
long, and 12 ft. of 18 in. sluice plates, all set on a grade of 1^ in. to the 
foot. The plates are scraped every day, and the batteries cleaned once 
a month. Below are 8 Frue concentrators. The sulphurets are shipped. 



212 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

The motive power is water derived from Damascus and Quartz canons, 
conducted through 2 miles of ditch. Thirty inches of water is deliv- 
ered through an 11 in. pipe, under 600 ft. pressure, on three Knight 
wheels of 3 ft. diameter each. 

The company have had to build 6 miles of graded road at a great 
expense. Thirty men are employed; miners get $3, millmen $2, and 
Chinese $1 75 per day. J. G. Fair et al., of San Francisco, owners. 

Rising Sun Mine (Quartz). — See our VHIth Report, p. 462. S. D. 
Valentine et al., of San Francisco, owners. 

Salsic (Smith & Fulweiler) Mine (Quartz). — This property is half 
a mile N.W. of Auburn. The present works are on a vein coursing N. 
45° W., and dipping 75° E. An incline is being sunk on a vein 1 ft. wide, 
between slate walls. The quartz is glassy, with a small percentage of 
iron sulphurets and some galena; the rock shows free gold in some 
places. Two men are at work, using a windlass. Smith & Fulweiler, 
of Auburn, owners. 

Sellier Mine (Quartz). — This is 1-J miles E. of Forest Hill, in the Bath 
District, and controls b\ acres of patented ground. The vein courses E. 
and W. and dips N. nearly vertical, between slate walls, and has an 
average width of 2 ft. A tunnel is being started to cut the vein at 
about 120 ft. in depth. Former works show a shaft 84 ft. deep, with a 4 
ft. vein in the bottom. Sellier & Son, of Bath, owners. 

Small Hope Mine (Drift). — This property is in Brushy Canon No. 2, 
about 3 -J miles N. of Forest Hill, and contains 40 acres. A prospect 
tunnel is started from the canon and runs 2,000 ft. in slate bedrock. 
Next above the bedrock is 5 ft. of cemented gravel that carries a good 
grade of pay, while above it is a pay streak of gravel of lower grade. 
A spring-pole stamp and hand mortar are used to break up the cement, 
which is then washed through four sluice-boxes with slat riffles. W. D. 
Craneage et al., of Forest Hill, owners. 

Southern Cross Mine (Quartz). — This property is situated on the bank 
of the American River, about 3 miles N.W. from the Pioneer Mine, and 
consists of two claims 3,000 by 600 ft. The vein courses N. 12° W., 
and dips 62° E. The veins are designated as the East, Middle, and West 
veins, and their respective widths are 40 in., 5 ft., and 2\ ft., with a dis- 
tance of 175 ft. between E. and W. veins; the walls are slate. Two tun- 
nels have been started to develop the E. and W. veins; that on the 
latter starts 30 ft. above the river and has been driven 25 ft. The tun- 
nel on the E. vein is about 400 ft. above the river, and has attained a 
length of 40 ft. The former tunnel is intended to be the main working 
tunnel, from which cross-cuts will be driven to intersect the others. The 
croppings on the E. vein show pay ore for 400 ft. The quartz carries a 
large percentage of arsenical pyrites, and shows considerable free gold in 
spots. A 20-stamp mill is in process of construction, which is to be run 
by water power obtained from the river. Fourteen men are employed. 
C. L. Ford et al., of Towles Station, owners. 

St. Lawrence Mine (Quartz). — See our VIHth Report, p. 461. It is 
3 miles N.W. of Newcastle, in the Ophir District, at an elevation of 650 
ft. above the sea, and comprises 1,300 by 600 ft. on an E. and W. vein, 
20 in. wide, and with a dip of 35° E. The walls are grano-diorite. The 
quartz is glassy, and contains about 4 per cent of sulphides of iron, lead, 
and antimony. The bullion is from .650 to .700 fine. The developments 
consist of a shaft and two tunnels. The shaft is intersected at a depth 



GOLD — PLUMAS COUNTY. 213 

of 171 ft. by the upper, and at 300 ft. by the lower tunnel. Two ore 
shoots pitching east are being developed, one 180 ft., and the length of 
the second not yet determined, though 100 ft. long to date. Only a 
few timbers are required in the mine; they cost 2-J cents per running foot, 
delivered. 

The mill contains a Brodie rockbreaker with 18 in. jaws, a set of 
Cornish rollers, Hendy self-feeder, and a 3-J ft. Huntington mill. The 
apron plate is 4 by 11 ft., beneath which is a double mercury trap and a 
Johnston concentrator, which handles 9 tons in twenty-four hours. 
Below the concentrators are a Wheeler pan and two settlers. The sul- 
phurets are shipped to San Francisco. Twelve men are employed. 
Col. C. F. Reed, of Ophir, owner. 

Weske {Manhattan) Mine (Drift). — This claim was described in our 
Xth Report, p. 442. It is 1-J miles N.E. of Forest Hill. When visited 
preparations for reopening the property were being made, it having been 
idle for some time. — Weske, of Michigan Bluff, owner. 

PLUMAS COUNTY. 

The old gravel channels are one of the main reserves of California, 
and Plumas County will long figure as a prominent gold producer, as 
many of the known channels that have yielded so much wealth in the 
adjoining counties appear to have their source within her boundaries, 
and a great deal of unexplored ground is awaiting the advent of capital. 
But it is not alone as a gold producer that the mineral reputation of 
this county will be sustained. It can take a front rank with the other 
mineral counties of the State in the production of silver, copper, iron, 
and zinc ores, as soon as railroad transportation is afforded. The tim- 
ber resources all through the county are vast and of superior quality, 
and available water power of the best kind is abundant, so that the 
natural facilities in connection with the mines are favorable for the 
development of the mineral wealth of the county. 

Altoona Gold Mine (Quartz). — Described in our Xth Report, p. 472, 
and is between Round Valley and Crescent Mills. During the past 
season the drifts have been extended along the vein. 

Alturas Mine (Placer). — A tailings claim on Slate Creek. See our 
Xlth Report, p. 332. 

Bear Mine (Quartz). — This property is 14 miles from Prattville. The 
vein is 5 ft. wide; course N.W., dip N.E. The walls are slate. F. C. 
Mandeville, of Butte Valley, Superintendent. 

Beckwith Consolidated Gold Mine (Drift). — This claim is 7 miles S.W. 
from Johnstown, in T. 22 N., R. 11 E., and comprises 500 acres, but is 
undeveloped. A tunnel run into the ridge from the east has caved. E. 
McNeil et al., of Beckwith, owners. 

Blind Lead Gold Mine (Quartz). — See our Xth Report, p. 475. An 
upraise of 20 feet has been made from the lower tunnel into the vein, 
which is now being stoped. These stopes have to be very substantially 
timbered with square sets and lagged overhead. The quartz carries 
cubical sulphurets and are not saved. The 10-stamp mill, run by 
steam, receives the ore direct from the mine, and employs battery amal- 
gamation with apron plates alone. D. Mclntyre, of Greenville, owner. 

Brandt Gold Mine (Quartz). — This property is in Genesee Valley, in 
the slate belt, and has lately changed owners, who are erecting a 



214 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

10-stamp mill with concentrators, and making other improvements 
previous to starting up the mine. Brandt Gold Mining Company, 
owners; G. Brandt, of Genesee Valley, Superintendent. 

Bushman & Orr {Blackhawk) Mine (Quartz). — It is in Blackhawk 
Ravine. See our Xlth Report, p. 328. D. Bushman et al., of Quincy, 
owners. 

Butterfly Mining Company (Quartz). — This property is situated in 
Seneca township, 5 miles N.W. from Quincy, in T. 24 N., R. 9 E. The 
vein is 3 ft. wide, and strikes N. Both walls are slate. Three tunnels, 
and a shaft about 100 ft. in depth, constitute the developments. C. 
Thompson et al., of Spanish Ranch, owners. 

Cayot Mine (Quartz). — This property is near the southern boundary 
of Plumas County with Butte, in Goodman township, about 14 miles N. 
from Forbestown. The formation is granite, with very large crystals of 
mica. There are five locations, running N.E. and S.W. with the course 
of the veins, which dip about 70° N.W. The developments are on the 
most westerly vein. Two tunnels are driven about 20 ft. above each 
other, the lower running nearly W. and the upper S.W. At 30 ft. in the 
upper and 80 ft. in the lower tunnel a 5 ft. vein of quartz was cut, and 
a crushing of 200 tons of quartz is being taken from it. The quartz 
shows free gold and a good percentage of sulphurets, iron, copper, zinc, 
and lead. F. Cayot, of La Porte, owner. 

Centennial Mine (Drift). — This property is on the North Fork of the 
Feather River, 10 miles S. of Prattville, in T. 26 N., R. 8 E. A pros- 
pect bedrock tunnel has been driven a distance of 250 ft., and gravel is 
showing on the top of the tunnel. J. S. Bransford, of Quincy, owner. 

Centennial Mine (Drift). — Another mine with this name was described 
in our Xlth Report, p. 325, and lies 4 miles N.W. from Quincy. But 
few developments have been made. Challen et al., of Spanish Ranch, 
owners. 

Consignee Mine (Drift). — See our Xlth Report, p. 330. 

Crescent Mill and Mining Company (Quartz). — See our Vlllth and 
Xlth Reports, pp. 481, 469, and 330. Their property is in Sec. 24, 
T. 26 N., R. 9 E. The present workings are confined to the 400 ft. level, 
all above the 200 ft. level being practically worked out; between the 
200 and the 400 ft. levels the lode shows from 70 to 85 ft. wide, practi- 
cally barren. The present work is entirely exploratory. Drifts have 
been run both E. and W. for several hundred feet, but nothing better 
than $2 per ton rock has been encountered. The drift makes considera- 
ble water — 354 gallons per minute. Down to the 200 ft. level there was 
no distinct walls to the vein; below this, the trap walls are very decided, 
with a slight gouge on both sides. Sixteen stamps of the mill are run 
on custom work. Crescent Mill and Mining Company, owners; A. W. 
Whitney, of Crescent Mills, Superintendent. 

Cub Mine (Quartz).— This property is in T. 23 N., R. 8 E., 14 miles 
S.E. from Prattville, and contains two claims, 3,000 by 600 ft. The vein 
is from 14 to 20 ft. wide, courses N.W. and dips S., between slate walls. 
A shaft 20 ft. deep and a tunnel 40 ft. long have been started on the 
vein. The quartz carries iron and arsenical pyrites. A 2 in. gouge in 
the foot-wall carries a large percentage of sulphurets. The Cub Mining 
Company, of Butte Valley, owners; F. C. Mandeville, Superintendent. 

Diadem (Edman) Mine (Quartz). — See our Xth and Xlth Reports, 
pp. 486 and 323. It is situated on Mumford Hill, 12 miles W. of Quincy. 



GOLD — PLUMAS COUNTY. 215 

Mr. Edman reports having discovered in the ores of this mine selenium 
and also wulfenite. He has also found in the fine sands of Gopher Hill, 
near Spanish Creek, platinum and osmium-iridium. Edman et al., of 
Meadow Valley, owners. 

Drury and Pacific Gold Mine (Quartz). — See our Xth Report, p. 473. 
It is situated on the edge of Round Valley, 2 miles W. of Greenville, in 
T. 26 N., R. 9 E. The property comprises three claims and two large 
timber tracts, and also controls the Round Valley reservoir, which has 
an area of over 4,400 acres. The vein is a very large fissure filled with 
syenite, traversed by seams and veins of quartz. The course of the vein 
is N.E. A serpentine belt occurs about 600 ft. distant. The mine is 
worked through tunnels, the upper one being over 1,600 ft. long. On 
this level and from there to the surface the present ore supply is taken, 
which is hauled half a mile to the mill on the opposite side of the canon. 
The lower tunnel, 250 ft. deeper, and extending 1 ,200 ft. into the hill, shows 
a better grade of ore. A new mill is to be erected below the mouth of 
this tunnel. The ore shoots in the fissure are short and change from 
one wall to the other No connection has been made between the two 
tunnels; the lower one is ventilated by a " water-blast " with 6 in. air 
pipes. Timbers last about five years in the mine and cost 3 cents each. 
The 20-stamp mill is closed during the winter, on account of the diffi- 
culty in hauling. G. Standard et al., of Greenville, owners. 

Dubuque {Bell) Mine (Quartz). — See our Xth Report, p. 478. 

Dutch Hill Mine (Drift). — This property was described in our VIHth 
Report, p. 482, and is 7 miles from Prattville, at an altitude of 5,000 ft. 
During the past season a new bedrock tunnel has been run to the upper 
works on the channel, shortening the distance over which the gravel has 
to be trammed, from half a mile to 500 ft. From where the gravel was 
struck the tunnel was continued, quartering across the channel for 300 
ft., the opposite rim not having been reached yet. This tunnel cost $4 50 
per foot. The lava capping, as shown in the air shaft, is 325 ft. thick, 
and lies directly on the gravel without any pipe-clay intervening. The 
gravel wash consists of greenstone, red jasper, and quartz, with occa- 
sional lava bowlders. The pay is all within 4 in. of the bedrock, and 
is best where the ground has the most bowlders. One foot of the bedrock 
is picked up in cleaning. The pay streak runs irregularly in the gravel, 
which is slightly cemented, and a "breaster" can takeout 5 tons or 
carloads per shift. The gangways are carried with 4^ ft. posts and the 
breasts are 35 ft. wide; single posts and caps are used. Ventilation is 
secured through an air shaft. There is a flow of 20 in. of water, which 
is used for washing; the dump holds 25 carloads. Washing is done twice 
a day, and the first cross-riffles are cleaned up every twenty-four hours. 
There are three lines of sluices, 12 by 14 in., with two intermediate drops 
of 5 and 10 ft., and a tailings reservoir. The boxes are cleaned up every 
three months and the tailings sold and rewashed every two years; the 
last washing yielded $400 net. Dutch Hill Mining Company, owners; 
W. Savercool, of Butte Valley, Superintendent. 

Elizabethtown Gravel Channel Mining Company (Drift). — See our Xth 
Report, p. 478. 

Emigrant Mine (Drift). — This property is about 2| miles N. of Quincy, 
and comprises 80 acres, of which 5 acres have been worked. Course of 
channel,- E. and W. Developments consist of a 70 ft. shaft and 45 ft. of 
drift; also an open cut with the bank from 6 to 100 ft. in depth. The 



216 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

gravel, dark blue, is from 6 to 8 ft. deep. The breasts are carried 20 ft. 
wide and the drifts 4 ft. high. R. L. Bell, of Quincy, owner. 

Fall River Consolidated Mine (Quartz). — This property is on Fall 
River, half a mile above the Plumas and Butte county line, and 
comprises 230 acres, including 160 acres of fine timber land; also a 
water power from Fall River with 90 ft. head, which can be increased 
to 115 ft. by running a new ditch. Two of the claims are patented; the 
remainder is held by possessory title. There are three veins, coursing 
N.E. in granite. Developments consist of two tunnels running N. of W. 
The upper one, 250 ft. long, crosses the front vein 30 ft. from the mouth, 
turns and runs S. on the vein 715 ft., showing 12 in. of quartz in the 
breast. After cutting the second vein the tunnel swings to the S. and 
follows an 18 in. vein of quartz. The lower tunnel, at the mill level, 
runs 950 ft. northwesterly, cutting the first vein 800 ft. from the mouth, 
where it turns both N. and S. on the vein, which is from 2-J to 5 ft. wide; 
the north drift is 250 ft. and the south drift 90 ft. long, exposing two 
short ore shoots. The tunnel was continued 60 ft. to the No. 2 vein, and 
a short distance beyond. No. 2 is 1 ft. wide where crossed. The quartz 
in these parallel veins carries about 3 per cent of sulphurets, iron, 
copper, zinc, and lead. The ore shoots pitch apparently to the S. 
About 5 in. of water issues from the tunnel. Ventilation is provided 
through an air shaft and water-blast, using 12 in. square wooden air 
boxes. The power of the mill is applied on a 5-| ft. Pelton wheel, with 
a 22 in. water pipe. The mill is supplied with a home-made self-feeder 
and one Frue concentrator. — Walters, of Gibsonviile, owner. 

Franklin Consolidated Gold Mine (Drift). — It is 5 miles W. of Poker 
Flat, and 9 miles S.W. from Johnstown. It contains 480 acres. It is 
a "white quartz" channel, and is supposed to have a N. and S. course, 
but has not been thoroughly developed yet. It carries a heavy wash, 
with coarse gold scattered through the entire depth of the gravel. The 
gold sells for $18 per ounce. Two tunnels have been run into the lava, 
both too high. The ground is well supplied with timber. D. McFarlan 
et al., of Beckwith, owners. 

General Harrison Mine (Drift). — It is situated in Goodman township, 
9ij miles from Gibsonviile. It contains 40 acres of ground. No regular 
channel has been developed, the gravel being more in the nature of an 
outbreak or overflow from the McRae Ridge. The bedrock is slate; the 
capping cement and pipe-clay. The developments consist of a bedrock 
tunnel, 110 long; the gravel, 5 to 6 ft. deep, carries coarse gold. C. H. 
Radcovich, of Johnsville, owner. 

Genesee Valley Mine (Quartz). — See our Xth Report, p. 476. 

Glazier Mine (Drift). — See our Xth Report, p. 495. 

Golden Reef Mine (Drift). — It is locally known as the Shores Ravine 
shaft, and is on Spanish Creek, 2 miles W. of Quincy. The company 
own 2 miles of the creek at its entrance into American Valley. A 
double-compartment shaft has been sunk to a depth of 66 ft., and a drift 
run S. 149 ft. across the course of the channel. At the distance of 117 
ft. the tunnel cut through the rim into the gravel, but it was found to be 
too high. After reaching the south rim it is intended to run up channel 
till bedrock is struck. The plant consists of a steam hoisting works of 
40 horse-power and a 12 in. jackhead pump, which raises about 5 in. of 
water. Agassiz & Shaw Company, of Boston, owners. 



GOLD— PLUMAS COUNTY. 217 

Green Mountain Mine (Quartz). — This property was mentioned in our 
Vlllth and Xth Reports, pp. 479 and 4-71. Though one of the notable 
mines of the county, at present it is working but a small crew of men, 
and only 25 stamps of the 60 are dropping. J. Goodwin et al., of 
Quincy, owners. 

Hallsted Mine (Quartz). — See our Xlth Report, p. 326. J. Hallsted, 
of Spanish Ranch, owner. 

Hibernia {Pennsylvania) Mine (Quartz). — This property is 2 miles 
S.W. from Greenville, and is patented. The vein courses N.W. in syenite 
walls, and is from 5 to 12 ft. wide. An interesting feature of this prop- 
erty is that for the last twenty-five years the hillside facing the valley 
and below the vein has been slowly moving down to the valley; the 
cause of this movement has never been determined. See our Xth Report, 
p. 473. J. O'Toole, of Greenville, owner. 

Indian Valley Mine (Quartz). — See our Xth Report, p. 472. 

Jamison Mine (Quartz). — This property is on little Jamison Creek, 
in Sees. 25 and 26, T. 22 N., R. 11 E., and contains 500 acres, partly 
quartz and partly placer ground.. It has an extensive water system, 
consisting of several lakes that overflow into one situated on the mount- 
ain overlooking the works, which are three fourths of a mile S.E. from 
Johnsville. The formation is diorite, carrying a series of quartz veins 
of varying width, mostly with a fiat pitch of about 15°; the narrower 
the seams, the richer the quartz. The mine is opened by a shaft 160 ft. 
deep, connecting in the bottom with a drain tunnel 1,800 ft. long, which 
discharges into the Little Jamison Creek. The shaft has three compart- 
ments, 5 by 6 ft. in the clear. Machine drills are used. There are 3,000 
ft. of 2 in. air pipes used in the mine. The power is derived from two 6 
ft. Pelton wheels working under 460 ft. pressure. Tests of the ore made 
in the Plumas-Eureka mill show that a large proportion of the quartz 
is high grade. Thirty-five men are employed. Jamison Gold Mining 
Company, owners; S. Cheney, of Johnsville, Superintendent. 

John Bull Gold Mine (Quartz). — This is in North Canon, near Green- 
ville. The claim, though 1,500 by 600 ft., has not been taken up on 
the course of the vein; consequently only 450 ft. of the vein belongs to 
the mine. Two other claims, known as the Long Tom and the Phoenix, 
belong to the same parties and adjoin the John Bull. The course of 
the John Bull is about S. 52° W., dip about 60° N.; the course of the 
Phoenix is N. and S., with a vertical dip. The width of the former is 
20 ft. and of the latter 1 ft. The developments of the John Bull consist 
of two tunnels starting from the bed of North Canon and about 50 ft. 
apart. The lower cross-cuts for 280 ft. and turns on the vein 200 ft.; 
the upper follows in on the vein 250 ft. Both are connected through 
stopes, and 70 ft. in length and 50 ft. in height of the vein has been 
stoped above the upper tunnel. The tunnel on the Phoenix extends 
400 ft. on the vein, and some stoping has been done both above and 
below the tunnel level. The 5-stamp mill is run by a hurdy wheel 
with 100 ft. pressure. Cost of water, $3 for twenty-four hours. S. 
Firmstone et al., of Greenville, owners. 

Kings Gravel Mine (Drift). — This property is on the North Fork of 
Feather River, 12 miles S. from Prattville, and embraces 90 acres. A 
tunnel runs N.W. in slate bedrock 300 ft., which strikes the bottom of 
the channel and is continued across about 200 ft. No breasting has 
been done yet. The gravel is similar to the present river wash, but is 



218 REPORT OP STATE MINERALOGIST. 

slightly cemented and lava-capped, but has no pipe-clay. Ventilation 
is secured by a "water-blast" and 6 in. air pipes. Thirty carloads of 
gravel is the present output; this is washed once a day. The gravel is 
taken out 4 ft. high. Fred Scott et al., of Greenville, owners. 

Long Tom, Mine (Quartz). — See John Bull Mine. 

Lucky S. Mine (Quartz). — See our Xth Report, p. 467. 

Megown Mine (Quartz). — See our Xth and Xlth Reports, pp. 484 and 
324. 

Mountain Chief Mine (Quartz). — This is on the west branch of Mill 
Creek, 4 miles S.E. from Quincy. The claim is 1,500 by 600 ft., on a belt of 
clay and quartzose slates, interspersed with quartz seams varying from 
a few inches to several feet in thickness. These seams bear a little W. 
of N., ranging with the formation, and dipping about 55° W. The 
property is being opened 225 ft. above the level of the creek, where a 
shaft has been started. On the creek is a 12 ft. arrastra, with horizon- 
tal wheel, using 4 tons of drag rock, having a capacity of 4 tons in 
twenty-four hours. The entire 4 tons are put in at once and ground for 
twenty-four hours. Plates are used with good results. The quartz 
carries some sulphurets. Timber and water are plentiful. G. Ellis, of 
Quincy, owner. 

New Jersey Claim (Drift). — It is 11 miles N. of Gibsonville, on Nelson 
Creek. The property consists of 240 acres on the north end of Blue 
Mountain. A tunnel has been run 240 ft. in pipe-clay, and a shaft sunk 
88 ft., showing 50 ft. of gravel; then 9 ft. of pipe-clay, followed by 12 ft. 
of gravel, and below that again pipe-clay. In the upper 50ft. of gravel, 
there are 15 ft. carrying very large bowlders. Each separate layer of 
gravel contains gold in paying quantities. This channel is supposed to 
be a part of the Bunker Hill or Gibsonville channel, though some refer 
it to the Monte Cristo channel. It carries white quartz gravel, iron- 
stained for a short distance below the cement. Ventilation is produced 
through an 8 in. pipe in the shaft, with coal-oil lamp burning below it. 
Thomas Chapman, of Gibsonville, owner. 

'93 Quartz Mine (Quartz). — This is near the Sulphur Creek ranch, 5 
miles from Mohawk, and comprises 1,500 by 600 ft. The 3 ft. vein 
courses N. and S. and dips about 60° E. The foot-wall is slate, the 
hanging-wall a soft rotten rock. The prospect shaft is 80 ft. deep. A 
water power of 500 in. and 30 to 40 ft. fall can be had by half a mile of 
ditch from the mine. Timber is plentiful. 

Ohio Mine (Placer). — This is 6 miles S.E. from Mohawk, and contains 
120 acres. The gravel bank, which is just being opened, has a depth 
varying from 2 to 15 ft. of free gravel, containing considerable large 
bowlders, on a slate bedrock. Snow water, lasting three months, consti- 
tutes the water supply; it is retained in a small reservoir. The gold, 
worth $19 50 per ounce, is both coarse and fine; the former usually 
adhering to quartz. Eight boxes 3 ft. wide, set on a grade of 1 in. to 
the foot, and paved with block and rock riffles, are used for washing; an 
undercurrent 6 ft. wide is to be put in later. The quicksilver is scat- 
tered over the ground before the washing commences, and the clean-up 
is made at the end of the season. J. C. Knickrem et al., of Mohawk, 
owners. 

Phoenix Mine (Quartz). — See John Bull Mine. 

Pilot Hill Gold Mine (Quartz). — This property is situated at the foot 
of Pilot Hill, 6 miles N.W. from Gibsonville, at the head of Onion Val- 



GOLD PLUMAS COUNTY. 219 

ley, at an elevation of about 7,000 ft. The property includes six claims, 
with two veins running nearly parallel and about 600 ft. apart, coursing 
nearly N. and S. and pitching toward each other. The average width is 
5 ft. Several feeders make into the same veins, and these are heavily 
mineralized, carrying large bunches of arsenical pyrites, said to assay 
very high. The abruptness of the mountain side facing Poorman's 
Creek gives excellent opportunities for tunneling to the vein. Several 
tunnels have been started from this side. P. F. Turner et al., of Gib- 
sonville, owners. 

Plumas-Eureka Mine (Quartz). — This property was described in our 
Vlllth Report, p. 476, and is near Johnstown. The present workings 
are now confined to near the summit of the peak, in what is known as 
the "76" ground. Only 30 of the 60 stamps were dropping, and the 
present working force is 130 men. Plumas-Eureka Gold Mining Com- 
pany, owners; T. Jenkins, of Johnsville, Superintendent. 

Plumas Imperial Gold Mining Company's Mine (Hydraulic). — It com- 
prises 900 acres of ground, on Hungarian Hill, 4^ miles S.W. from 
Quincy, and 300 acres on Emigrant Hill, 2 miles N. of Quincy; the 
latter ground includes three quartz ledges. The present operations are 
confined to the gravel deposit near Hungarian Hill, at what is known as 
the Five Points, where there is a gravel bank of 102 ft., capped by soil 
and some pipe-clay strata. Near the slate bedrock the bottom is covered 
with heavy bowlders. The upper portion is small gravel, and belongs 
to the youngest of the three gravel deposits that are found throughout 
this section of country. The present pit extends about 200 ft. and is 
102 ft. deep. The supply of water is obtained from Deer and Rock 
creeks and their tributaries, through two series of ditches, 6 and 9 miles 
in length, giving a pressure of 380 ft., although under the present opera- 
tions only 250 ft. of pressure is used. A 5,000 ft. pipe-line of No. 14 
iron conveys the water to the " giants," reducing from 22 in. to 15 in., 
and throwing the stream through 7 in. and 4 in. nozzles. The ditches 
have a capacity of 1,200 in.; the water season lasts ten months. Two 
sets of flumes are used, 4 and 3 ft. in width, paved with block and rock 
riffles. The dump is into Rock Creek, where a restraining dam has 
been built 30 ft. wide at the base, 17 ft. on top, and 20 ft. high, of solid 
rock, half a mile below the present pit. The gravel prospects throughout 
its entire depth, but is richest on the lower 6 ft. The gold sells for $18 
per ounce. Timber of fine quality is on the ground, and a sawmill is 
within 2-J miles of the property. Plumas Imperial Gold Mining Com- 
pany, owners; Col. Day, of Quincy, Manager. 

Quincy Mining and Water Company (Hydraulic). — This claim is on 
Gopher and Shores Hill, on the north Dank of Spanish Creek, 6 miles 
W. of Quincy, and comprises 2,200 acres. The channel, which courses 
E. and W., belongs to a period later than the main lava flow, and is 
worked about 400 ft. wide. The present bank (110 ft. high) is capped 
with pipe-clay, strata of which are found also in the gravel. The gold 
in the upper courses is not as coarse as that below the bottom strata of 
pipe-clay; it is all valued at $19 50 per ounce. The source of water 
supply is Spanish Creek and its tributaries, Bean Creek, Little Bean 
Creek, also Gold and Silver Lake on Spanish Peak. They use 1,400 in. 
of water, delivered from the ditches under a pressure of 350 ft., using 
6,000 ft. of pipe, No. 14 iron, reducing from 22 in. to 15 in., and ejected 
from two giants with 6 in. and 7 in. nozzles. There are 2,500 ft. of 4 ft. 



220 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

sluices set on a 6 in. grade, besides 860 ft. of a bedrock flume on a 10 in. 
grade. Both are paved with rocks, and supplied with quicksilver. A 
clean-up of the head boxes is made every twenty days. The company 
employs 24 men at wages varying from $1 50 to $1 75 per day with 
board. Quincy Mining and Water Company, owners; W. C. Ralston, 
of San Francisco, Secretary. 

Salmon Falls Mine (Drift). — This property is in Seneca township, 
and is S.E. from Prattville; it comprises 100 acres on the North Fork 
of Feather River. A tunnel has been run 400 ft. in the trap-rock close 
to the falls to cut the Glazier channel, and is being continued. The 
lava capping at this point is about 400 ft. D. Mclntyre et al., of Green- 
ville, owners. 

Savercool Mine (Quartz). — See our Xth Report, p. 493. 

Shenandoah Mine (Quartz). — See our Xlth Report, p. 324. The 10- 
stamp mill has been moved to the immediate proximity of the mine, 
and they are driving the main tunnel ahead, developing some very good 
ground. Capt. J. W. Smith et al., of Oakland, owners. 

Specimen (See and Seven) Mine (Quartz). — See our Xth Report, p. 
490. 

Wildcat Mine (Drift).— This property is in T. 26 N., R. 8 E., 10 miles S. 
of Prattville. A tunnel has been started 3 ft. above the level of the 
North Fork of the Feather River, and run for 300 ft. The channel is 
75 ft. wide, apparently a former bench of the present river. The pay is 
confined to the bedrock. Wildcat Drift Gravel Mining Company, 
owners; A. Cameron, of Prattville, Superintendent. 

RIVERSIDE COUNTY. 

This county, formed by an Act of the last Legislature from portions 
of San Bernardino and San Diego counties, has mining industries and 
mineral resources of great value. The complete equipment and opera- 
tion of the Good Hope Mine, near Perris, has given a decided impetus 
to mining in all the region thereabouts, and several new prospects are 
being opened and old ones rehabilitated. The largest coal mine in the 
southern part of California is in this county, near Elsinore. Clay 
deposits and marble are also abundant and continue to be actively 
worked. In the extreme eastern part of the county, on the desert, 
new mines have recently been discovered, equipped, and are in suc- 
cessful operation. 

An ancient river-bed may be traced for a long distance north and 
south in this county. The source of this old channel, which is gold- 
bearing, is to the north, but its exact locality is unknown. The indica- 
tions are, however, that several small streams have united to form the 
main channel, which may be followed without difficulty from 2 miles 
N. of Good Hope for several miles in a southerly direction toward the 
town of Elsinore. Where the channel reaches the San Jacinto River it 
is several hundred feet in width, and upwards of 100 ft. in depth. In 
the canon of the San Jacinto River may be seen either two or three 
channels, or else the remnants of one extremely crooked one. As these 
ancient river-beds are not at all developed, excepting by the shallow 
erosion of their upper portions by the recent little ravines and gulches, 
there is much that would be interesting concerning them, that for the 
present must remain unknown. Although no attempt has yet been 



GOLD — RIVERSIDE COUNTY. 221 

made to systematically work these deposits, or even to prospect them, 
beyond the sinking of several shafts, it is nevertheless a significant fact 
that every little ravine and gulch cutting through this old river-bed has 
contained gold, and in most instances has been worked by the Mexicans 
years ago. Signs of work in later years are also numerous, and at one 
point an old prospector was endeavoring to make a living by "rocking" 
the gravel of the old river channel. If sufficient water for hydraulic 
operations were obtainable the old river-bed might be found to produce 
a large quantity of gold. The channel was followed for about 5 miles, 
but it being evident that to trace it out and map it would require a 
season's work, it was abandoned for the time being. 

Alice Mine (Quartz). — This is a new discovery 4 miles S. of Menifee 
P. 0. It was opened to a depth of 10 or 12 ft. in several places, and a 
shaft was being sunk in the hanging-wall granite, which was calculated 
to reach the vein about 20 ft. from the surface. The only advantage in 
this shaft over one sunk directly on the vein was apparently in the 
fact that the country rock was much softer than the vein quartz, which 
was extremely hard and dense, having a fine granular texture. Wilson 
& Crane, of Winchester, owners. 

Barker Mine (Quartz). — See Dos Palmas. C. O. Barker, of Banning, 
owner. 

Charity Mine (Quartz). — See Free Coinage. 

Colorado (Justice) Mine (Quartz). — This is 4 miles S. of W. from Per- 
ris. The vein is small, but the quartz is high grade. Knight et al., of 
Perris, owners. 

Dos Palmas, Gold Prospects Near. — There is a group of gold mines on 
the Colorado Desert 18 miles N. of Dos Palmas Station, which was not 
visited by the field assistant, but which from descriptions by trust- 
worthy persons may be looked upon as valuable prospects. The 
veins are of good size, fissures of strength, and ore of good grade. 
Water is obtainable within 6 miles of the mines, at a place called Canon 
Spring. One of these claims is described as being located between two 
canons 1,500 ft. apart. The crevice is 3 to 6 ft. wide, and the pay shoot 
1 to 3 ft. Two tunnels, one of 90 and the other of 190 ft., have been 
driven in on the vein. 

Fish Mine (Quartz). — It is in the Canon Springs region, and the little 
work done shows a fine vein of gold-bearing rock. 

Free Coinage and Charity Mines (Quartz). — These are two locations, 
made in 1893, about 5 miles N. of Canon Springs, 12 miles N.E. of Dos 
Palmas. The vein in the Free Coinage has 28 in. of free-milling ore 
and a 6 in. vein of quartz, containing galena and carbonate of lead. 
This ore also contains some silver. E. E. Bowles, of San Diego, owner. 

Oavilan Mine (Quartz). — This is owned by the San Jacinto Estate 
(limited), of London, and has been idle since the spring of 1892. See 
our Xlth Report, pp. 366 and 368. Pedley Bros., of South Riverside 
P. O., agents. 

Good Hope Mine (Quartz). — This is about 4^ miles S.W. of Perris. 
The mine has had quite an interesting history, being formerly owned 
and worked by Mexicans and subsequently by American owners. It is 
now the property of a Massachusetts corporation, and for the first time 
in its history is well equipped and being systematically developed. No. 
1 level is 250 ft., No. 2, 350 ft., and No. 4, 450 ft. from the surface, the 
sump extending 35 ft. lower. The first and second levels are each 800 



222 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

ft. in length, and the third 60 ft. long, and was being extended. The 
mine occurs in a gray, homogeneous, syenitic granite. Near the surface 
there are several veins at distances varying from 3 to 20 ft. apart. These, 
in depth, appear to unite, forming a somewhat irregular fissure with a 
branching tendency. The development of the mine thus far indicates 
that the offshoots pass into the foot-wall side. The fissure is at times 
poorly defined and again is clear, accompanied by a heavy clay seam, 
the result of long continued movement and the crushing of the rock 
immediately adjacent to the place of movement, into powder. The vein 
quartz itself also shows clearly the effect of this movement in a complete 
fracturing of the massive rock, and the subsequent infiltration of car- 
bonate of lime into the small interstitial spaces thus formed. This ren- 
ders a great deal of the quartz friable, it usually crumbling and slacking 
on exposure. The vein commonly appears as two separate bands of 
irregular size. 

The fissure, it would seem, was what might be called a double fracture, 
a vein of quartz forming on each fissure plane. The foot-wall streak at 
some points contains a very high-grade ore, carrying finely disseminated 
iron sulphurets. The quartz is free milling, though ordinarily carrying 
more or less auriferous iron sulphuret of high grade. A very complete 
and exceptionally well- constructed 20-stamp mill has just been built 
and other surface improvements made. The mill contains 4 Frue van- 
ners and 2 Johnston concentrators. Unfortunately during the unusually 
dry season of 1894 there was a scarcity of water, but this can be remedied 
by developing several springs in the neighborhood. A most encourag- 
ing feature in the Good Hope is the solid shape taken by the vein in the 
bottom. The quartz is well defined, the contact of granite and quartz is 
well marked, and never at any point where examined was it found 
" frozen." The indications are that the fissure is one of great depth and 
longitudinal extent, whatever character and value the quartz veins may 
be found to assume in the undeveloped portions of the mine. In June, 
1894, there were employed in the mine and mill and in other surface 
work 65 men. There are two good shoots of ore, and these are being 
opened and blocked out as rapidly as possible. When the necessary 
information has been obtained concerning their pitch, etc., a new double- 
compartment working shaft will be sunk. The main working shaft, now 
having a total depth of 485 ft., has but one compartment. 

Several hundred feet north from the main shaft a strong dike of dark- 
colored basic rock cuts the country, striking E. and W. At several 
points along its course this dike is shattered and crushed by move- 
ments which have taken place subsequent to its injection. At these 
points iron oxide appears and the rock is gold-bearing. The dike con- 
sists of two distinctly different rocks, and may be, in fact, two separate 
injections. One of these rocks is aphanitic, hard and black, resembling 
some diorites. The other variety is coarsely crystalline, resembling 
greatly some of the diabase of the " Mother Lode " region, and particu- 
larly that near Chinese Camp, in Tuolumne County. As at this writing 
no microscopic study has been made of either of these rocks, they are 
classed provisionally. The dike intersects the course of the vein, but 
whether the dike or the vein is the older is unknown. The under- 
ground workings of the mine have not penetrated as far north as the 
intersection of these two fissures, and the surface intersection is obscured 
by the ancient river-bed mentioned at the beginning of this chapter. 



GOLD — RIVERSIDE COUNTY. 223 

Good Hope Mining Company, owners; John M. S. Egan, of Perris, 
Superintendent. See our VMth, IXth, and Xlth Reports, pp. 527, 151 , 
and 106. 

Hexahedron Mine (Quartz). — It is 7 miles N.E. of Pifion Mountain. 
The shoot of ore lies on the side of a hill. It is 75 ft. long, 15 to 20 ft. 
in thickness, and dips 45° N. The ore occurs as a mineralization of a 
felsitic dike, which strikes nearly E. and W. At the west end it is 
small £not over 4 ft.), but widens in going east. It passes from the 
south to the north side of the range of hills in which it occurs, and at 
the place where gold was found, lies exposed along the hillside, the 
overlying rocks having been eroded. Dikes of dark green diorite, much 
decomposed at the surface, have been thrust into the felsite and adjoin- 
ing rocks in a very irregular manner, and in this vicinity the felsite 
contains gold. A small amount of iron oxide, copper carbonate, and 
dendritic infiltrations of manganese oxide are the only indications sug- 
gesting ore. The most ordinary rock, having nothing in its appearance 
to suggest that it is gold-bearing, is seen on closer' inspection to be 
spangled with small points of gold. In the vicinity of the Hexahedron 
Mine are some small prospects, on which a few holes have been sunk. 
Ed. Holland and A. G. Tingman, of Indio, owners. 

La Ploma Mine (Quartz). — See Victor. 

Leon Mine (Quartz). — This is one of the latest discoveries. It is situ- 
ated on the Briggs ranch, 4 miles E. of Menifee P. O. This section is 
about 14 miles S.E. of Perris. Where exposed, the quartz is from 1 to 
2 ft. in thickness. A shaft has been sunk 50 ft. and a cross-cut tunnel 
run about 25 ft. toward the vein at a point lower down the hill. From 
a prospective standpoint it had a promising appearance. The rock 
prospects well, and occasionally the particles of gold are large enough 
to see with the unaided eye. Briggs Bros., of Leon, owners. 

Little Maggie Mine (Quartz). — It is 3| miles W. of Perris, on several 
small fissures in syenitic granite. The quartz found in this mine is 
high grade. It is crushed in an arrastra. A cross-cut tunnel to intersect 
the main fissure at a depth of 40 ft. was being run. There are numer- 
ous claims in this section, located on these little fissures in the granite, 
but none of them except this were being operated. J. M. Hasson, of 
Perris, owner. 

Lost Horse Mine (Quartz). — It is 7 miles N. of Pifion Mountain, at an 
altitude of 5,000 ft. The vein strikes E. and W., and dips 85° N. It 
cuts through a formation striking N. and S., composed for most part of 
a laminated micaceous quartzite, of granular appearance. Occasional 
dike-like masses of granite also occur, but the vein cuts everything else. 
It is exposed at several points along its course for a distance of 800 ft. 
Its width is from 6 in. to 5 ft., and exhibits the overlapping tend- 
ency, the foot-wall becoming the hanging-wall of the next shoot below. 
The mine is worked by a small force, the rock being hauled 8 miles to 
the Pifion Mountain mill. With more abundant water and a mill 
having greater capacity, this property, which consists of two claims, 
should become a large producer. The mine is 19 miles N. and a little 
E. of Indio in a direct line, and about 28 miles by wagon road. Lang, 
Holland & Tingman, of Indio, owners. 

Lucky Boy {Walker) Mine (Quartz). — It was discovered in the spring 
of 1892, but was idle during the summer of 1894, as considerable water 
was encountered in sinking, and the owners, being men of limited means, 



224 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

make slow progress in the work of development. See our Xlth Report, 
p. 385. Luke Walker, of Menifee, owner. 

Monte Negras Mines (Quartz). — Very little has been done here since 
1892. A few tons of ore were packed out and worked in the small stamp 
mill at Virginia Dale, but with what results was not learned. In most 
cases the assessment work had not been performed, and many of the 
claims have been relocated. See our Xlth Report, p. 368. 

O'Brien Mine (Quartz). — This is 1 mile W. of Good Hope Mine, and 
comprises 1,500 by 600 ft. Mrs. O'Brien, of Perris, owner. 

Onward Mine (Quartz). — It is one of a group discovered recently on 
the Colorado Desert between Virginia Dale and the Colorado River, and 
about 45 miles S. of Danby Station, on the A. & P. R. R. The quartz 
is mostly very ferruginous, some of it jaspery, and usually oxidized and 
honeycombed, showing gold. The district is not a large one, comprising 
a group of isolated hills which rise out of the desert plain. Lum Gray 
& Bro., of Phoenix, Arizona, owners. 

Piiion Mountain District. — The mines are in the desert about N. 
30° E. from Indio 12 to 14 miles, at an altitude of about 5,000 ft. above 
the sea, Indio being nearly 200 ft. below sea-level. The several more 
prominent veins have a N.W. strike and a variable dip. They are all 
branching fissures of that peculiar type common to massive rocks such 
as granite. Often the fissures consist of a single slip, but more frequently 
two walls may be seen. These are not usually parallel for any consid- 
erable distance, but approach in strike and dip, and finally meet where 
the ore or gold-bearing material is "pinched" out, but it is generally 
found on the opposite side of one of the walls. As a rule, the foot-wall 
of any particular mass of ore becomes the hanging wall of the next 
shoot of ore beyond. When the pay rock disappears the granite begins 
to assume its normal appearance, becoming hard and crystalline, and no 
clearly defined wall is visible. It is usually observed that one side of 
the workings is softer than the other. In such a case the ore is found 
a little farther on by cross-cutting the soft side. Some very high-grade 
rock has been taken from the several claims of this group, which was 
crushed in a 2-stamp mill a mile from the mines. The deepest work on 
these veins is 70 ft. from the surface. Holland & Tingman, of Indio, 
owners. 

Rosalia Mine (Quartz). — See Santa Rosa. 

S. S. Mine (Quartz). — It is 4 miles S. of Virginia Dale, in the Monte 
Negras region, 55 miles N.E. of Walters Station, and is a new discovery, 
made during 1894. It has produced some very high-grade ore. T. B. 
Lyon, of San Bernardino, owner. 

San Diego Mine (Quartz). — It is a new prospect in the Chuckawalla 
Mountains, 45 miles N.E. of Salton Station, and 4 miles from Long 
Tanks. The rock found here is high grade, heavily mineralized and 
oxidized. Water, though not abundant, occurs in the neighborhood, 
and the mining facilities are as good as are ever found in this portion 
of the desert. E. E. Bowles, of San Diego, owner. 

Santa Fe Mine (Quartz). — It is 5 miles W. of Perris, and has been 
developed somewhat since our last report, but was not working in 1894, 
and the tunnels leading into the mine were locked. No data could be 
obtained about this property. See our Vlllth and Xlth Reports, pp. 
527 and 385. Phelps, Judson et al., of Pasadena, owners. 

Santa Rosa (Rosalia) Mine (Quartz). — It is 7 miles W. of Perris, and 
has recently been reopened after a period of long idleness. Hoisting 



GOLD — SACRAMENTO COUNTY. 225 

and milling machinery has been purchased, and will be put in place 
before November 1, 1894. The new workings extend to a depth of 200 
ft., and expose a 3 ft. vein of quartz of good grade. The mine has been 
worked to water level, and about 1,000 ft. along the vein, by Mexicans 
many years ago. See our VHIth and Xlth Reports, pp. 526 and 385. 
W. H. Griffith, of Perris, Superintendent. 

Stanford Mine (Quartz). — This is 1 mile S.E. of the Victor. The mine 
is rather different from those commonly found in this district, being a 
system of branching and overlapping fissures in a massive eruptive rock. 
The veins or shoots occur irregularly, and are richest and best denned 
near the points of intersection of two fissures, or occur in vein-like 
masses between two nearly parallel fissures. At some points the shoots 
occur as a zone, being in the form of several vein-like deposits uniting 
or lying parallel. In such cases the entire mass is gold bearing, and 
may be mined with profit. The developments consist of a shaft 125 ft. 
deep, a cross-cut tunnel from the surface, intersecting the shaft at 70 ft., 
where a drift runs along the vein. A small 5-stamp mill has been 
erected just below the mine for prospecting purposes. Hearn Bros., of 
Perris, owners. 

Stanford Mine, Small Prospects Near. — A number of small prospects 
are being opened near the Stanford Mine, one or two men being 
employed on each. The rock is taken to the Huntington mill, which 
treats custom ores. During the past season prospecting has been car- 
ried on through this section, resulting in the discovery of a number of 
small veins in granite. As a rule, these veins do not hold out in depth, 
but afford a temporary means of livelihood for the discoverer, and in 
some instances prove veritable small bonanzas. 

Victor (La Ploma) Mine (Quartz). — This was idle during the past 
year. There is a cross-cut tunnel, mostly in hard rock, nearly 1,000 ft. 
in length. The quartz is hard and crystallized and frequently carries 
galena. Some of the rock is rich in gold, but the vein is spotted. In 
appearance it greatly resembles many of the "pocket" veins of Mari- 
posa and Tuolumne counties. See our VTIIth and Xlth Reports, pp. 
527 and 384. 

Virginia (Shey) Mine (Quartz). — It is 3 miles W. of Perris. Since 
our last report this property, then a prospect hole, has been bonded, and 
considerable development work done. The main shaft is down nearly 
200 ft. See our VIHth and Xlth Reports, pp. 526 and 385. Jerry 
Shey, of Perris, owner. 

SACRAMENTO COUNTY. 

In Sacramento County placer and drift mining are carried on in the 
foothills of the Sierra, and in the slate formation there are a few pocket 
mines which are said to have yielded very rich ore. In 1878-79, experi- 
mental borings were made at Folsom, to prospect the auriferous strata 
underlying the tufa which constitutes the " bedrock " on which the 
superficial gold-bearing gravels rest. The formation penetrated by 
these borings is as follows: 

Cobblestones. . -- - 10' 

Fine loose gravel, witb water ... 6' 

Tufa. 15' 

Auriferous white sand — 5' 

Quicksand (water raised in casing) - -- 7' 

Cemented gravel.. -. -- 5' 

Loose sulphurets — 3' 

Auriferous and cemented gravel - 50' 

15m 



226 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

E. McCue & Co., bearing in mind the results of these early investiga- 
tions, are sinking a shaft at Folsom to further prospect the auriferous 
sands and gravels beneath what was formerly considered to be the 
"bedrock." Dredging has also been commenced in the bed of the 
American River at Natoma. 

Amador and Sacramento Canal Company's Mines (Placer). — These 
mines are on the south side of the Cosumnes River, at Michigan Bar. 
They cover an area of about 1,800 acres, and are for the most part situ- 
ated on patented land. The Columbian Gold Mining Company work 
the placer claims on the property by hydraulic mining and ground- 
sluicing. Ten men at work. See Ritter Ditch, under title of Cosumnes 
Land and Water Company, in our Xth Report, p. 514. 

Burke Mine (Drift).— It is at Rebel Hill, 3 miles S.W. of Folsom, on 
the Natoma Grant. The shallow shaft penetrates gravel, clay, and 
cobblestones for about 55 ft., at which depth there is a stratum of aurif- 
erous gravel about 4^ ft. in thickness, which rests on a bedrock of tufa. 
The gold is flaky and rusty. Seven men at work. 

Chinese Claims (Drift). — About 25 Chinamen are engaged in drift 
mining in the town of Folsom. 

Doc Yen Mine (Placer). — This claim, on the Natoma Grant, is worked 
by 13 Chinamen, and is a deep gravel claim; worked by stripping to a 
depth of 33 ft. 

Doan Mining Dredger. — In July, 1894, the owners of this machine 
commenced dredging the bed of the American River at Natoma. Their 
plant consists of a grab-dredger run by steam power, and having a 
normal capacity of 500 tons every twenty-four hours; also two 10-inch 
pumps. The gravel is dumped by the grabber into a 4 by 6 ft. hopper, 
which is furnished with a screen perforated with 1 in. holes. The coarse 
gravel is washed from the screen into the river. The fine gravel and 
sand pass through the screen into sluices, which are provided with riffles 
and blankets. The scow on which the dredger is erected is 18 by 30 ft. 
Three men are employed. 

Dorian Mine (Quartz). — This claim is on patented land, in Sec. 4, T. 
8 N., R. 8 E., in the Wall Town Mining District. P. Dorian, of Folsom, 
owner. 

Eckardt Mine (Placer). — It is 5 miles E. of Folsom, in Willow Springs 
District, covers an area of about 20 acres, and is on the Natoma Grant. 
Eight men at work. 

Eckhardt Mine (Quartz). — This mine is in Willow Springs Mining 
District. It is a pocket mine. P. D. Eckhardt, of Folsom, owner. 

Finch Mine (Drift). — This claim is at Rebel Hill, on the Natoma 
Grant. Three men at work. 

Folsom Water Power Company's Mining Claim. — This is situated in 
the bed of the American River, and, commencing at the dam above the 
Folsom State Prison, it extends for a distance of about 2 miles down 
the stream. The officers of this company state that they contemplate 
turning the water from a portion of the bed of the American River and 
mining its channel. 

Jordan Mine (Placer). — This mine is on the north bank of the 
Cosumnes River, and covers an area of 160 acres. The claim is worked 
by ground-sluicing. Six men at work. Jas. Jordan, of Michigan Bar, 
owner. 



GOLD — SAN BENITO COUNTY. 227 

Keefe & Mahone Mine (Placer). — It is on the Natoma Grant, in 
Willow Springs District, 5 miles E. of Folsom. Five men at work. 

Milgate Mine (Quartz). — It is on patented land in Wall Town Min- 
ing District. This is a pocket mine, which yielded a small amount of 
very rich ore several years ago. W. Milgate et al., of Sacramento, 
owners. 

McCue & Co.' 8 Mine (Drift). — E. McCue and others are sinking a 4 
by 8 ft. shaft to prospect sands and gravels which were worked at an 
early day at Folsom. In June, 1894, the following formation had been 
penetrated: Tufa, 53 ft.; auriferous sand, 2 ft. Three men at work. 
McCue & Co., of Folsom, owners. 

Old De Rosa Mine (Placer). — It is on the Natoma Grant, at Sulky 
Flat. Four men at work. 

Perry Mine (Drift). — It is on the Natoma Grant, in Willow Springs 
District, 5 miles E. of Folsom. Six men are employed. 

Rodger's, Antone, Mine (Placer). — At Sulky Flat, on the Natoma 
Grant. Four men at work. 

White & Donelly Mine (Drift). — This claim is on the railroad right 
of way at Folsom. The developments consist of two 45 ft. shafts and 
many feet of drifts and cross-cuts. From 20 to 25 men are employed. 
White & Donelly, of Folsom, lessees. 

Zimmerman Mine (Quartz). — This is situated on patented land about 
5 miles S.E. from Folsom. The developments consist of a 30 ft. shaft. 

SAN BENITO COUNTY. 

Chalone and Defiance Mines (Quartz). — These mines are situated on a 
ridge running N.E. from the South Chalone Peak, at an elevation of 
2,200 ft. They are reached by a trail nearly 3 miles long from the 
lower end of Bear Valley. Gold occurs here in a very unusual manner, 
seeming to be an original constituent of a body of fine-grained, white 
liparite. This liparite is found in the center of a much larger area of 
banded liparite, obsidian, and tufas, which forms the Chalone Peaks 
and the mountains northward for 6 miles or more, with a width of about 
2£ miles. The body of gold-bearing liparite has an irregular wedge 
form with its point to the north. On its southern extremity it is about 
a mile across. The two claims located here are one fourth of a mile 
apart, on deposits which are apparently wholly independent of each 
other. No work has yet been done on the Defiance, but on the Chalone, 
which lies on the north side of the ridge, a tunnel has been run 290 ft. 
The end of the tunnel will be nearly 400 ft. from the surface when the 
center of the hill is reached. 

A careful examination of the liparite shows it to be uniformly fine- 
grained and almost white, except where stained with iron. It varies 
somewhat in texture, portions being very compact, while others are more 
loose and porous, the spaces not being gas pores, but those left by con- 
traction on cooling. It is very difficult, if not impossible, to distinguish 
the gold-bearing rock from that in which the mineral has not been 
detected. In some places where the gold is found the rock is more 
porous, but this is not always the case. A small amount of manganese 
is found coating the seams in some places on the surface of the Chalone 
claim. This was not noticed in the tunnel. None of the many assays 
made from the material taken out of the tunnel have failed to show 



228 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

traces of gold. There are no indications of a fissure or crushed zone, and 
it is difficult to account for the presence of the gold if it is not primary. 
Many specimens have been found in which the gold is plainly to be seen 
with the unaided eye. It sometimes occurs on the borders of small 
cavities with oxide of iron, probably resulting from the decay of iron 
pyrites, and at others in the white rock. A very little water seeps into 
the tunnel in places, not more than to make it moist, and though the 
rock is full of joints, so that it breaks up into small fragments, yet this 
feature is no more noticeable than in other portions where no traces of 
gold have been found. The round blotches of iron oxide are to be found 
over almost the whole area of the white liparite. They are an eighth of 
an inch or less in diameter, and result from the decay of iron pyrites, 
the cubical form of which sometimes remains. It was at first supposed 
that the gold might have been originally combined with the pyrites, but 
that this was not generally so, is shown by the results of assays made 
on several portions of the white liparite where the brown stains are the 
most numerous; no appreciable amount of gold being found. The 
Chalone claim has a N. and S. course, extending up to the summit of 
the hill rising from the ridge. Captain Nichols, who is in charge of the 
work, reports that gold has been found the whole length of the claim, with 
a greatest width of 200 ft. The area in which gold has been detected 
on the Defiance claim is said to be quite irregular. Several assays 
made from the white liparite on the southern and eastern sides of the 
hill also show traces of gold, proving conclusively its wide distribution. 
The results of these observations seem to indicate without much doubt 
that the gold is distributed very generally through the white liparite, 
though not evenly, and not always in quantities which can be detected 
with the methods used. The absence of all the usual signs of secondary 
action in the crushing of the rock or the reddening of the surface very 
much favors the idea of the primary nature of the gold: that it was 
disseminated through the molten magma at the time of eruption. 
Whether it is present in workable quantities or not has not yet been 
demonstrated. Judging both from the position of the white liparite and 
the absence of flowage structure, it seems probable that it has simply 
welled up in the position in which it is found. 

SAN BERNARDINO COUNTY. 

This county has wonderfully diversified mineral resources. There are 
now in active operation mines of gold, silver, lead, copper, borax, salt, 
lime, cement, marble, granite, sandstone, and macadam rock. Besides, 
there are also deposits and veins of iron, tin, zinc, manganese, asbestos, 
gypsum, baryta, soda, and sulphur. Hot and cold mineral springs are 
numerous also. Since our last report several new gold fields have come 
into notice, the most prominent being Shadow Mountain, Goldstone, and 
Coyote Holes, each of which will in time doubtless add to the wealth of 
the county. The borax industry, now large, will probably increase in 
proportions, as new and extensive fields of calcium borate have been 
discovered. The silver mining industry at Calico is also about to be 
revived. 

Althea (Embody) Mine (Quartz). — It is at Oro Grande. See our Xlth 
Report, p. 361. H. Eaton, of Halleck, owner. 



GOLD SAN BERNARDINO COUNTY. 229 

Altura (Altuma) Mine (Quartz). — This is 3 miles S. of the Rose Mine, 
and about 15 miles E. of Bear Valley Lake. There is at present no 
machinery on the mine. A shaft has been sunk 63 ft. on a 3 ft. vein and 
a drift run 150 ft., from the bottom of which a winze has been carried 
down on the ore. Wood suitable for fuel is abundant, but water is scarce. 
Altura Mining and Milling Company, owners; Judge C. E. Otis, of San 
Bernardino, President. 

Alvord Mine (Quartz).— It is 23 miles N.E. of Daggett. See our VHIth 
and Xlth Reports, pp. 499 and 359. Alvord Mining Company, owners; 
W. U. Masters, of Pasadena, President. 

Bear Valley Region. — The geology of this portion of the San Bernar- 
dino Mountains is very interesting. From the main range of these 
mountains, the axis of which is E. and W., the entire country is granite 
to the south side of Bear Valley. Along the spurs extending into Bear 
Valley from the high hills on the south may be seen remnants of an 
ancient channel. The wash consists of well-rounded pebbles and cob- 
bles of granite, quartzite, slaty rocks, and some eruptive rocks, all of 
which are foreign to the immediate neighborhood, excepting the granite. 
This mass of washed material is bedded in a coarse granitic sand. Pan- 
fuls of the cemented wash were " prospected," as was also the concen- 
trated result of natural erosion in some of the near gullies which cut 
into the deposit, but in no case was gold discovered. The cemented wash 
is usually covered with a heavy accumulation of angular and sub-angular 
cobbles, mostly quartzite and finer granitic sand and rock fragments. 
On the north side of Bear Valley Lake limestone occurs, and farther 
north quartzite and mica schist, uplifted and fractured by intrusive 
granite. The metamorphic rocks, consisting of limestone, quartzite, and 
mica schist (the latter occurs in relatively small amount), are a portion 
of the series which extends from near Twenty-nine Palms northwest 
along the northern flanks of the San Bernardino Mountains to West 
Camp, 12 miles N.W. of Victor, a distance of 85 miles. Remnants of 
lime formation southeast of Twenty-nine Palms, in the Ophir Mount- 
ains, indicate that this lime formation is over 130 miles in length. 
Along this distance the quartzites appear, being well developed at Oro 
Grande, about Bear Valley, Holcomb Valley, and eastward as far as 
Ophir Mountains, which lie south of the Monte Negras and north of 
Eagle Mountains. Gold, silver, and lead occur along the entire length 
of this belt. The formation is everywhere much disturbed and shattered. 
Granitic dikes are thrust into the sedimentary rocks, faulting, crushing, 
and folding them; dikes of diorite and felsitic and porphyritic rocks also 
play an important part in this connection. The mines are found where 
the greatest disturbance seems to have occurred. A notable instance is 
in the Gold Mountain Mine. A close inspection of quartzite at some 
distance from any of the so-called ore bodies of this mine showed the 
frequent occurrence of finely disseminated iron sulphurets. In view of 
this fact, it appears that the crushing of the quartzite has afforded an 
opportunity for the decompo'sition of iron sulphurets in considerable 
quantity in large masses of the rock and the infiltration of gold-bearing 
solutions, derived from the normal rock, into those portions best prepared 
for their reception, by their crushed porous condition, thereby enriching 
such zones of rock. That all, or nearly all, the mineral-stained quartzite 
contains gold in small quantity there is little doubt. At Silver Reef, 
near the lower end of Texas Canon, the quartzite contains, besides gold 



230 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

and silver, sulphides of iron, lead, zinc, and copper. In the region about 
the Rose Mine the limestone carries chiefly gold; at Oro Grande the ores 
in the limestone are lead, silver, and gold, no deposits of either gold, 
silver, or lead having as yet been discovered in the quartzite in that 
district, though the indications for finding gold-bearing deposits similar 
to those of the Gold Mountain are promising. 

Black Hawk Group of Mines (Quartz). — They lie 40 miles S.E. of Victor, 
and embrace the Lookout and Santa Fe. They all lie on the north slope 
of the Black Hawk Mountains, in a series of benches or terraces, the 
result of several faults, having an easterly and westerly trend. The 
entire region for miles is greatly disturbed by faults, of which there are 
several series. In Black Hawk Canon, gneissoid rocks and crystalline 
limestone are found overlying beds of sand and cobbles, which have 
every appearance of having been formed recently, and bear a marked 
resemblance to the loosely cemented sandstone and conglomerate near 
the Cajon Pass. The local disturbances are numerous, and the whole 
region offers a field of interesting study to the student of structural and 
dynamic geology. During the fall of 1894, preparations were in progress 
to sluice the dumps of the Lookout Mine, and an arrastra was being 
built to crush rich rock from the Santa Fe. See our Xth and Xlth 
Reports, pp. 524 and 364. Cook, Leach & Co., of Victor, owners. 

Boomerang Mine (Quartz). — This is 2-§ miles W. of Vanderbilt, and is 
one of a group of seventeen claims. The principal development and 
apparently the largest and best defined crevice and ore shoots are on 
the Boomerang claim. The fissure strikes N. 55° W., and is opened to a 
depth of nearly 400 ft. Near the main shaft a branch extends to the 
eastward at an angle of 20° with the main vein. This crevice has pro- 
duced some high-grade rock. On the southwest side of the Boomerang 
vein is another vein nearly parallel with it, but probably a part of the 
same system. There are several small veins on the west side, none of 
which are developed sufficiently to make it possible to say much about 
them. The Boomerang vein differs quite materially from the other veins 
of the district, as the ore occurs in a dike of light-gray rock of fine texture. 
This dike is from 1 to 1 5 ft. wide. It is fractured, as far as exposed, by 
a system of nearly parallel fissures. Between these the dike rock is 
crushed and pulverized to a greater or less extent, and in these shattered 
portions of the dike the ore shoots have been deposited, the amount of 
ore and quartz appearing to be directly proportional to the amount, of 
crushing sustained by the dike rock previous to the infiltration of the 
ore-bearing solutions. Southward from the main shaft is a shoot of ore 
5 ft. wide, which farther southeast divides into two veins, each less than 
a foot wide. Along this portion of the mine the dike is broad, but farther 
south it becomes narrower, and at the face of the southeast drift has 
dwindled to 1 ft., with the pay shoot lying on one side of it, the quartz 
being but 4 in. in width. A vein-like mass of low-grade quartz appears 
here on the foot-wall side, which can be traced for hundreds of feet south- 
easterly on the surface. This portion of 'the mine is entirely undevel- 
oped. The Boomerang Mine has a 10-stamp mill. The main shaft has 
now about reached the level of the valley, 350 ft. below, and water is 
coming in, and the probability is that the flow will be largely increased 
with additional depth. See Vanderbilt District, also Xlth Report, p. 
367. Green Campbell, of Vanderbilt, owner. 



GOLD — SAN BERNARDINO COUNTY. 231 

Burnap Mines (Quartz). — These are in Upper Holcomb Valley. The 
veins consist of several small fissures in the granite, on which some 
superficial work has been done. In one place a shaft was sunk to a 
depth of 40 ft., and a vein of gold-bearing quartz, carrying iron sulphu- 
rets, exposed. Half a mile up the gulch there are several small holes, 
exposing a quartz vein carrying a large amount of hard limonite ore. 
This is supposed to be the vein from which came the enormously rich 
iron " float" found in the placers of the region; but though the quartz 
and iron of the vein carries gold, no rock approaching in richness that 
found in the placers has thus far been discovered. J. Burnap, of Los 
Angeles, owner. 

Center (Livingston) Mine (Quartz). — It is 4 miles E. of the Rose Mine. 
It is now equipped with horse and gasoline hoists and a 10-stamp mill. 
There are two inclines on the mine, each about 200 ft. deep; there are 
several surface cuts, all of which expose gold-bearing quartz. The west 
incline is on a narrow and extremely irregular quartz vein, ranging from 
a seam to nearly a foot in width; the narrow portions of this vein are 
very rich, and the work thus far done has been at a profit. This fissure 
cuts the formation (a rather massive, micaceous, and hornblendic schist) 
in both strike and dip at a low angle. In the neighborhood both quartz- 
ite and limestone were observed on the surface, neither of which has 
been encountered in the mine. The developments of the east portion of 
the mine show a zone-like mass of quartz and mica schist 10 ft. wide. 
Within the zone is an irregular, apparently independent vein-like streak 
of quartz, which is heavily mineralized and much richer than the zone 
of gold rock in which it occurs. Morongo King Mining Company, of 
San Bernardino, owners; C. W. Allen, President. 

Chippy Mine (Quartz). — It is in Vanderbilt District, and embraces 
four distinct veins, which converge in the direction of the Queen of Night 
shaft. These several veins are smaller than those in the Gold Bar and 
Gold Bronze mines, and the crevices are not as well defined, but the 
average of the ore is richer than that found in the others. See Vander- 
bilt District, also our Xlth Report, p. 367. J. P. Taggart, of Vanderbilt, 
owner. 

Christie Mine (Quartz). — This is at the head of Lone Valley, and is 
the first extension west of the Rose Mine. The shaft is 193 ft. deep. 
A drift from the bottom of the 165 ft. shaft encountered a body of rich 
ore, which there is every reason to believe is on the succession of shoots 
occurring farther east in the Rose Mine. The property is as yet without 
a mill. E. Pratt, of Glendora, owner. 

Coyote Holes. — In the latter part of August, 1894, a discovery of gold- 
bearing veins was made in the metamorphic rocks N.E. of Calico, near 
Coyote Holes. A number of prospectors immediately went there and 
located the entire district. The gold occurs in a decomposed, " honey- 
combed" quartz rock. 

Eastern Districts. — In the eastern portion of San Bernardino County 
there are a number of mining districts, some of which have been known 
for many years. The principal ones are Vanderbilt; Ivanpah, 23 miles 
N.W. of Vanderbilt; Shadow Mountain, 55 miles N.W. of Vanderbilt; 
Providence Mountain; New York; Ibex; Gold Stone, and Exchequer, near 
Homer Station, on the line of the A. & P. R. R. 

Gold Bar Mine (Quartz). — This is at Vanderbilt, and has a strike -N. 
63° W., dipping 80° to 85° N.E. The crevice is clean and well defined, 



232 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

having heavy gouge matter and masses of clay. A dike rock much 
decomposed accompanies the fissure. The ore forms in shoots in the 
shattered and crushed portions of the crevice. In some places two dis- 
tinct veins of ore were observed. The ore shoots have a persistent habit 
of overlapping both in depth and longitudinally. On one level drifting 
westward the vein pinches, leaving a barren crevice. A cross-cut into 
the hanging-wall discovered the vein on that side of the crevice. A 
notable fact in this connection is that at the place where the ore dis- 
appeared and the overlap occurred the hanging-wall was very soft and 
spalled off in great slabs of clay-like material, clearly showing the 
tremendous movement and pressure that had occurred at that point. 
The clay was filled with small angular fragments of quartz and blotches 
of ore. In fact, there was every indication that the ore might be found 
in the hanging-wall. In sinking the main shaft a similar occurrence 
was noticed. The shoot pinched, leaving the crevice well defined but 
without ore. A few feet farther the ore reappeared on the foot-wall side. 
There are two shoots of ore now exposed in this mine, which appear to 
average 2-| ft. in width. It has the appearance of being a fissure of 
great depth. See Vanderbilt District, also our Xlth Report, p. 376. St. 
George Mining Company, Mackay, Flood & Lyle, of San Francisco,, 
owners. 

Gold Bronze Mine (Quartz). — See Vanderbilt District. This is prac- 
tically the same as the Gold Bar fissure, and resembles the latter in 
many of its features, though the crevice is not as sharply marked and 
is rather smaller. There are two shoots of ore, which were developed to 
a depth of 180 ft. in May, 1894. The shaft is being sunk deeper at this 
writing. The. difference in the two fissures is probably due to the fact 
that in the Gold Bronze claim the main fissure has divided into four or 
more distinct crevices, but with greater depth these will probably unite 
and form a vein as wide and as clearly defined as that in the Gold Bar. 
This mine is equipped with a steam hoist and 10-stamp mill. See our 
Xlth Report, p. 367. Gold Bronze Mining Company, of Vanderbilt, 
owners. 

Gold Mountain Mine (Quartz). — It is 7 miles N.E. of Bear Valley 
Lake, on a quartzite mountain overlooking the Mojave Desert. The 
quartzite is greatly shattered and in some places crushed and pulverized. 
In those portions which have sustained the greatest amount of crushing,, 
bodies of massive quartz of irregular shape and size have formed, and 
it is these portions that contain the greatest amount of gold. The 
40-stamp mill was burned, since which time nothing was done until 
1893, when an experimental mill was built. This was abandoned after 
a short trial. It is rumored that operations on a large scale are to be 
resumed. E. J. Baldwin, of San Francisco, owner. 

Gold Placers were discovered in May, 1894, in the low desert hills 
3 or 4 miles N. of Ord Mountain. Two men were at work here pros- 
pecting the small ravines and depressions with a dry washer. The 
result, judging from the frequent change from place to place, was not 
all that could be desired. The occurrence of a mass of red conglomerate 
near the washes where the gold was obtained, suggested the possibility 
that the gold might have come from that source. The material was 
"prospected" in several places, but gave no trace of gold. 

Gold Stone District lies in the Providence range of mountains, 35 
miles N.W. of Fenner Station. Some extremely rich gold quartz was 



GOLD SAN BERNARDINO COUNTY. 233 

found in this district in May, 1894. Two men were at work on the 
claim at the time. 

Holcomb Valley District. — It is 4 miles N. of Bear Valley Lake, and 
has long been known as a placer region. Bee our Xth Report, p. 523. 

Holcomb Valley Company (Limited) owns in Holcomb Valley a large 
tract of placer ground, which, after several unsuccessful attempts to 
work, they are now sluicing on quite an extensive scale, employing a 
steam shovel, a separating machine, and elevators, the latter being used 
to dispose of the coarser tailings. The gold-bearing material is not 
"gravel" in the ordinary sense of the term, but a coarse, angular, 
granitic detritus, containing very few washed or rounded stones. The 
material is mostly small. Occasionally cobbles occur, but these are 
exceptional. The gravel is overlaid by 4 to 8 ft. of light, loamy 
material, while the substratum contains more clay and is also richer in 
gold. The ponderous steam shovel is mounted on a car quite similar 
to an ordinary flat car, and is moved backward and forward as required, 
on a track built on a crib of timbers. The machine is advanced toward 
the bank of alluvial from time to time; it takes up about a cubic yard 
of gravel and sometimes more, at each load, and dumps it into a 
hopper, which, by means of a feeder, discharges into a revolving screen. 
This causes a separation of coarse and fine material. The coarse 
pebbles and cobbles pass through the screen and are taken up by the 
Duckets of an endless elevator, which delivers them to a second belt 
elevator, so arranged as to deposit the tailings on the bank of the cut 
30 ft. distant. The fine material passing the meshes" of the rotary screen 
drops into the sluice-box beneath, and is carried by a stream of water 
over the riffles and blankets. The fine tailings are conducted through 
a half-round steel flume, from the foot of which they are shoveled out 
of the tail-race by. hand. The capacity of the plant is from 1,000 to 
2,000 yds. per day, depending on the water supply, which, during the 
past season, was very low. The management expressed considerable 
satisfaction at the operation of this plant, as it is the only means thus 
far employed which assured success to their undertaking. Holcomb 
Valley Company (Limited), of London, owners; W. E. Pedley, of 
Victor, Superintendent. 

Holcomb Valley Mining Company (Placer). — They own a tract of 
placer ground near the head of Upper Holcomb Valley. During June, 
1894, a shaft was sunk, and a large quantity of water was encountered, 
but it was hoped that by continued pumping bedrock could be reached. 
It is said that a large amount of coarse gold has been taken from the 
upper part of the valley. Holcomb Valley Mining Company, of Los 
Angeles, owners; J. Burnap, of Los Angeles, Superintendent. 

Ibex Mine (Quartz). — It is 3 miles S. of the A. & P. R. R., and 11 miles 
N. from The Needles. (Not to be confounded with the Ibex Mine, near 
Death Valley.) A mill was built in the spring of 1894. Permission 
could not be obtained to investigate the mine, consequently nothing defi- 
nite is known of its workings or character. See our Xlth Report, p. 368. 
Ibex Mining Company, owners; Chas. A. Marriner, corner First and 
Broadway, Los Angeles, Superintendent. 

Lytle Creek (Placer). — The mines of Lytle Creek, which for years had 
been worked in a desultory manner, became the scene of active opera- 
tions during the summer of 1894. In June no less than 50 men were 
at work along the stream, and this number was augmented almost daily 



234 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

by new arrivals, until upwards of 100 men, mostly working independ- 
ently, were engaged in gold washing. Four miles above the old Texas 
Hill Mines hydraulicking was carried on in a small way, and it was 
generally believed that all the mines engaged in sluicing, rocking, and 
hydraulicking were doing well, though all were reticent as to the amount 
of gold actually being produced. These placers extend from near the 
mouth of the Lytle Creek Canon to its headwaters on the slopes of San 
Antonio Peak. Quartz veins, bearing gold, are located in many places 
along the canon, and on these more or less work has been done, but none 
of them are in active operation. 

Morongo King Mining Company (Quartz). — See Center (Livingston) 
Mine, and our Xth Report, p. 526. 

Morongo Mine (Quartz). — See our VHIth Report. 

Morongo Mining Company (Quartz). — See Rose Mine, and our IXth 
Report, p. 226. 

Old Woman's Springs. — In July and August, 1894, there was much 
interest manifested in the reported discovery that the scoriaceous basalt 
at Old Woman's Springs was gold bearing, and numerous claims were 
located. The amount of development work, however, was small, and 
though the claim owners professed to believe the lava rich in gold, few 
of them gave practical evidence of their good faith. 

Ord Mountain District contains several large mineral deposits, some 
of which assume a vein-like form. In each the veins consist of silicious 
impregnations, with iron and copper sulphurets, oxidized at the surface, 
gold occurring in greater or less quantity. The veins have in every 
instance formed along a zone of crushed diorite, showing distinct over- 
laps and a branching tendency. The principal vein is plainly defined 
for a long distance on the surface. Several hundred feet of develop- 
ment shows clearly the geological features of the vein, which varies in 
width from 1 to 8 ft. None of the mines were being worked during the 
past year. See our IXth and Xth Reports, pp. 222, 226, 528. J. B. 
Osborne, of Daggett, owner. 

Osborne Placers. — They are in the middle portion of Upper Holcomb 
Valley. J. B. Osborne, of Daggett, owner. 

Rose Mine (Quartz). — It is 65 miles N.E. of San Bernardino, and 
about 15 miles E. of the Bear Valley reservoir. The mine is equipped 
with a 5-stamp mill and grinding-pan. Geologically the mine is an 
unusual one, consisting of a succession of ore shoots or chambers along 
aline of fracture which extends E. and W., dipping about 45° N. The 
fissure cuts at a small angle through crystalline limestone, quartzite, 
and a mica schist, being usually accompanied by a dike of granitic 
rock, which is never absent where an ore body is found. The ore bodies 
occur in regular form and size, and are chiefly a mixture of quartz and 
calcite, with a varying but usually a large amount of scaly hematite 
(sometimes containing as much as 45 per cent of iron). The gold occurs 
in a greater or less amount, depending on the proportion of iron. 
Heavy hematite ore has been shipped in considerable quantity, contain- 
ing $200 to $500 per ton in gold. Owing to the fact that the gold 
appears to be covered with a film of iron oxide, a simple sampling of 
the ore has not been found sufficient to render the particles easily sus- 
ceptible to amalgamation, and a subsequent grinding of the tailings 
has been resorted to, with good results. During the month of July, 
1894, a large quantity of tailings was being ground a second time. The 



GOLD — SAN BERNARDINO COUNTY. 235 

main incline, at some distance from the surface, passes from the fissure 
into the hanging-wall. This shaft is sunk at a point where the series 
of ore chambers reach the surface. As depth is attained, the ore passes 
to the west, and at the bottom of the shaft, 450 ft. in depth, the ore lies 
nearly 300 ft. W. The lower western portion of the mines was being 
diligently prospected in July, 1894, for new ore bodies, with very favor- 
able indications of the close proximity to a " shoot." That portion of 
the property lying east of the main shaft, while not neglected, has 
received comparatively little attention, and the existence of an ore body 
in that direction remains to be determined. No considerable amount 
of cross-cutting has been done, though the appearance of the " ground " 
in many places suggests the advisability of such a course. The high 
grade of the ore and its unusual geological features have attracted much 
attention, and have been an incentive to a large amount of prospecting 
in the vicinity. See our IXth Report, p. 226. The Morongo Mining 
Company, of Riverside, owners. 

Sidewinder Mine (Gold and Lead). — It is 14 miles N.E. of Oro 
Grande, and is being worked by a small force and the ore shipped to 
smelting works. It contains some lead, but is practically a " dry " gold 
ore. See our Xth Report, p. 527. Joseph Driscoll, of Oro Grande, 
owner. 

Upper Holcomb Valley is half a mile east of Holcomb Valley, and has 
long been known as. a placer region. In neither this valley nor Holcomb 
Valley proper is water for placer mining abundant, nor is the slope of 
either valley sufficient to afford good dumpage. Drain tunnels have 
been projected several times, but none of them have been undertaken. 
As the area of ground to be worked in either case is small, it is a ques- 
tion whether the amount of gold which may be obtained from such 
operation would justify a lengthy drain tunnel. See our Xth Report, 
p. 523. 

Vanderbilt District. — It is 4 miles by wagon road from the present 
northern terminus of the Nevada Southern Railroad at Manvel, being 
situated among the hills which form the northeastern end of the New 
York Mountains, which are a portion of the Providence range. The 
geology of the district is quite simple. The rocks of the region are chiefly 
gneissoid and schistose granitic and hornblendic rocks, with large 
masses of the variety of granite called pegmatite, which in some parts 
has exceptionally coarse crystallization, containing a large amount of 
rose-colored orthoclase and very little mica. In fact, the almost total 
absence of mica of any variety from these rocks is a noticeable feature. 
Later intrusive dikes of a variety of rocks of granitic type, between 
felstone and aplite, occur throughout the region, but not abundantly. 
These dike-like masses are found accompanying all of the principal 
fissures, though also occurring where no ore channels are found. 

The strike of the country rocks, over an area of 20 square miles of this 
region, is almost uniformly N. and S., the dip varying, but usually nearly 
perpendicular. The eastern borders appear to become more gneissoid, 
and contain more hornblende rocks than the section immediately about 
the village, and westerly is found a belt of limestone, beyond which 
occurs syenitic granite of normal type. Large dikes of rhyolite and 
vitrophyre occur in these western granites, and ferruginous quartz veins 
also, which contain some gold, but are usually low grade and not of a 



236 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

character to excite much attention; still farther westward the quartz 
veins are very large and are stained with copper carbonate. 

These highly metamorphic schists and granites are doubtless partly 
metamorphic, as indicated by the occurrence of limestone, but the greater 
portion of the pegmatite granite, as well as the more recent felstone, is 
eruptive. All about the eastern and southern borders of this district 
the rocks are overlaid by heavy accumulations of rhyolite, tufa, and 
scoriaceous lavas, which are piled up to a height of nearly 1,000 ft., 
though doubtless greatly denuded. The successive flows are clearly 
denoted in the terrace-like appearance of the cliffs. White tufas form 
the base of the series. The rhyolites are of several types, and form an 
interesting petrographical study. These rocks dip away from this region 
in a southeasterly direction, and have no apparent connection with the 
mineral veins of the district. They resemble the liparites of Calico, but 
no ores have, as yet, been found in them. 

The Vein System of the Vanderbilt District forms one of those peculiar 
studies in dynamic geology which this interesting desert region so 
frequently affords. The first impression of the visitor is that the veins 
are scattered indiscriminately, without apparent relation to each other. 
A closer observation, however, shows that they are grouped in systems, 
have direct relations, and are all due to common causes, viz.: The 
Assuring of the rocks by what appears to have been a compound stress 
of opposing forces; the injection of dikes along many of the planes of 
weakness thus formed; a subsequent movement of the rocks, and later, 
the deposition of ores in these fissures. Subsequent to the formation of 
the ore shoots these fissures have been subjected to further movement, 
resulting in a crushing of the ore and quartz and the formation of 
striated planes and selvages of clay. Cross-fissures (faults) also occur, 
which in some cases appear to have either displaced the veins, as in the 
east end of the Gold Bronze Mine, or have had a direct influence on ore 
deposition, retarding it, as in the northwestern end of the Gold Bar and 
Boomerang mines. 

There are two chief systems of fissures in this district — the Gold Bar 
system lying on the east side of the area of veins, and the Boomerang 
system on the west. The Gold Bar fissure is the most pronounced and 
sharply defined crevice in the district. Beginning at its northern end, 
it strikes S. 63° E. for 1,200 ft., where it sends out a branch, which 
sweeps around to the eastward, forming the Gold Bronze fissure, strik- 
ing due E. and W. Beyond the point of divergence the main fissure 
continues southeasterly, sending out branch after branch. At least four 
others have been determined, all of which curve around to the east. 
There is no doubt but that these veins reunite with the Gold Bronze 
vein in depth. The insufficient development affords no safe guide to 
this. 

The Boomerang system lies 1,000 ft. to the westward, and the main 
crevice strikes N. 55° W. It also sends off branches in going south- 
ward, though they are fewer in number than on the opposite side of the 
ridge. The principal one of these has a strike S. 70° E. A peculiarity 
of these two vein systems is that nearly all the branches are to the 
south and east. 

A third system occurs between the two systems described, in which 
the main crevice (in Chippy Mine) strikes N. 30° E., and to the south- 
ward another crevice striking N. 45° E. A shaft on the east end of this 



GOLD — SAN DIEGO COUNTY. 



237 



VEIN SYSTEM or the l/ANDERBIL T DISTRIC T 
SAN BERNARD/NO CO. 




claim is on a vein striking N. 50° E. It will be noticed that all of these 
veins converge toward the west, and would unite, if their respective 
courses continued as observed, near the Queen of Night shaft, where 
the vein strikes N. 45° E. 

Besides the three systems here described, there are several small veins 
on which little has been done or where the development exposes crevices 
so small as to make any particular statement concerning them valueless. 

The future prosperity of the district lies largely with the mine owners 
themselves. The fissures have every indication of being deep, and are 
usually well defined. The ores can be worked to the best advantage by 
amalgamation on plates and concentration of the sulphurets on vanners 
and canvas tables. A lack of water, which at present is a material 
detriment, will be overcome with greater depth of the workings. The 
"Gilpin County," Colorado, stamp mill on the Gold Bronze Mine, with 
a 16 in. drop 30 times per minute, and a "bumping table" for a con- 
centrator, does not appear to give the most satisfactory results. 



SAN DIEGO COUNTY. 

Mining operations throughout the county show increasing activity, 
both in the search for new deposits and in the revival of those long 
dormant. Aside from the opening up of large new mines such as the 
Golden Cross in the Cargo Muchacho District, and smaller ones in Pine 
Valley and Mesa Grande districts, we find over twenty mines in opera- 
tion in the Julian District, where two years ago there were but three. 



238 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

The desultory method of prospecting in the Colorado Desert contin- 
ues, and the introduction of the gasoline engine has solved the fuel 
problem in a great measure. Large granite quarries are in successful 
operation around Fosters, near the Cuyamaca Railroad. 

Antelope Mine (Quartz). — It is 2 miles N.E. of Julian, on the Banner 
grade. Working. See our Xlth Report, p. 380. Bailey Bros., owners. 

Bay View Mine (Quartz). — It is in the Pine Valley District, 9 miles 
E. of Descanso, and 9 miles S.E. of the Stonewall Mine. The mine is 
one of the Noble group, comprising the Bay View, Eureka, Oxide, and 
Spring claims. In the Eureka claim is a second vein, called the Treas- 
ury. This group has made an interesting record. They were discovered 
by one of the present owners about six years ago, when their means 
were too limited to provide anything better than an arrastra. To-day 
there are about 1,000 ft. of cuttings, consisting of shafts, drifts, cross- 
cuts, and surface workings, exposing veins from 1 to 6 ft. wide. The 
mines within the past five years have paid for all the developments, and 
realized besides a handsome net sum. The small mill is run with a 
Knight waterwheel. The mines are little talked of and not frequently 
visited, but are evidently possessed of more merit than is generally 
credited to them. See our IXth, Xth, and Xlth Reports, pp. 141, 544, 
and 382. Noble & Sons, of Descanso, owners. 

To the eastward of Pine Valley, and extending south toward Buck- 
man's Springs, are several large veins of quartz. No workings were 
observed, and it is probable that no gold has ever been found in them. 

Black Eagle Mine (Quartz). — It is in the Mesa Grande District, 10 
miles N. of the Santa Ysabel ranch, which is on the stage road between 
San Diego and Julian. There are several small gold mines in the dis- 
trict, which geologically resemble those between Julian and Banner, 
and are on the same belt. The principal locations are the Shenandoah, 
Wildcat, Gold Cliff, Black Eagle, June, and Blood Pudding, all of which, 
excepting the latter, are owned or under bond to the Shenandoah Min- 
ing Company. The Shenandoah Mine is equipped with a 5-stamp mill; 
all operations are conducted on a small scale. None of the mines are 
deep, and as admission to any of them was refused by the management, 
nothing further can be said of them. See our Xlth Report, p. 382. 
J. B. Debney, of Mesa Grande, Superintendent. 

Blood Pudding Mine (Quartz). — See Black Eagle. 

Blossom Mine (Quartz). — It is in the Cargo Muchacho District, 4 
miles E. of Ogilby Station, and is equipped with a mill. 

California Picacho Mine (Placer-Hydraulic). — Consists of a large 
tract of gold-bearing gravel on the west side of the Colorado River, 27 
miles from Yuma by trail and 50 miles above the town by river. It is 
said that $240,000 have been sent here by an English company in pumps, 
flumes, and development, but in May, 1894, the enterprise looked very 
much like a failure. Twenty men were at work on a system of leases, 
but the extensive operations formerly contemplated did not materialize. 
Too low a pressure to do effective work, and insufficient grade for dump, 
are apparently largely the cause of the failure. Allan T. Smith, of 
Yuma, A. T., Superintendent. 

Cargo Muchacho District. — It is in the S.E. corner of the county, and 
has been known for many years, and in the past has produced a large 
amount of gold. There are two corporations now operating in the dis- 
trict, one the Paymaster Company, lessees of the Cargo Muchacho Mine; 



GOLD SAN DIEGO COUNTY. 239 

the other, the Golden Cross Mining Company, working what was for- 
merly known as the Gold Rock Mines. Besides these, there are the 
Blossom, the Pasadena, and Mother Lode mines. 

Cargo Muchacho Mine (Quartz). — It is 4 miles from Ogilby Station, 
on the S. P. R. R., and 16 miles from Yuma, A. T. The vein strikes 
N. and dips 45° to 60° E. The country rock is a crystalline horn- 
blendic rock, having a gneissoid structure. The vein is from 1 to 
5 ft. in width ordinarily, but in a few places is more than 8 ft. The 
main shaft is 550 ft. deep. A shaft south of this is 200 ft. deep. 
Between the 350 and 450 ft. levels, a fault pitching about 20° E. 
has thrown the vein. The indications are that the downward con- 
tinuation of the main vein lies west of the shaft. Cross-cuts to the 
east have exposed two other veins lying nearly parallel, which for some 
months past have furnished the chief supply of quartz. These veins 
have a somewhat different appearance from the main fissure, being feld- 
spathic and of lower grade. A second nearly perpendicular fault occurs 
in this mine several hundred feet north of the main shaft, striking 
across the vein. North of it no quartz has been found in the workings. 
A gulch on the surface appears to mark the line of this fault. The 
property is leased by the Paymaster Company. A 20-stamp mill has 
been constructed at the mine from the machinery formerly in the Pay- 
master mill and the mill at El Rio. Water in the district is very scarce, 
and to supply this a pipe-line 12 miles in length has been laid from the 
Colorado River to the mine. The expense is from $12 to $15 per day, 
the water being raised 300 ft. The tailings are settled and the water 
pumped to a tank above the mill, to be reused, it being cheaper than 
to pump the entire amount required from the river. Heavy woolen 
blankets are laid in the sluices below the copper apron plates. The 
concentrates are largely limonite and magnetite, and a very small per- 
centage of sulphurets. These are ground and then amalgamated in an 
iron revolving barrel. The premises and portions of the mine are 
lighted by electricity. Small electric motors are employed to drive 
ventilating fans, and on one level an electric hoist is used to raise 
rock from a winze. Although the lowest portion of this mine is 550 ft. 
below the surface and 200 ft. lower than the Colorado River, it is per- 
fectly dry. Paymaster Mining Company, of Yuma, A. T., lessees. 

Chaparral Mine (Quartz). — This is in the Julian District, on the 
Banner grade, 2\ miles from Julian. Working. W. W. Boswell, of 
Banner, owner. 

Chief of the Hills Mine (Quartz). — It is in the Dulzura District, 30 
miles E. of San Diego. See our Xlth Report, p. 382. M. O'Reilley, of 
San Diego, owner. 

Cincinnati Belle Mine (Quartz). — This is also in the Julian District, 
half a mile N.W. of Banner, Cal. See our Xlth Report, p. 380. Gold 
King Mining Company, of Pomona, Cal., owners. 

Cravath Mine (Quartz). — It is 2 miles S.E. of Escondido. Idle. See 
our VHIth and IXth Reports, pp. 524 and 382. Gus. Cravath, of 
Escondido, owner. 

Dulzura Mining District. — It is 30 miles E. of San Diego. See our 
Xlth Report, p. 382. 

Ella Mine (Quartz). — It is in the Indian District, 2 miles N. of Julian. 
The mine, though one of the oldest in the district, has recently come 
into prominence by the new developments, which expose several veins 



240 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

of gold-bearing quartz. The rock from this mine is similar to that 
found throughout the district: a rather pellucid, semi-granular quartz 
rock, containing innumerable small black, needle-like inclusions, dis- 
seminated iron sulphurets, and gold. The walls are mica schist, much 
shattered and decomposed. The country in the immediate vicinity is 
intruded by numerous dikes of coarse granite. The quartz is quite rich, 
and in places gold may be seen in the granite itself. There are heavy 
gouges on the walls of this mine, which appear to be due to movements 
which have taken place since the formation of the vein. The vein quartz 
is much shattered, and tends to corroborate this idea. About 100 tons of 
quartz were on the dump awaiting transportation to mill. In operation. 
See our Vlth Report, p. 85. S. N. Wilcox, of Julian, owner. 

Escondido Mine (Quartz). — It is 2 miles E. of Escondido. After a 
period of idleness preparations were being made in August, 1894, to 
resume operations on this property. See our Vlllth and IXth Reports, 
pp. 524 and 382. G. W. Fredericks, of Escondido, Superintendent. 

Eureka Mine (Quartz). — See Bay View. 

Gold Cliff Mine (Quartz).— See Black Eagle. 

Golden Chariot Mine (Quartz). — Situated in the Julian District, 6 
miles S.E. of Banner. See our Vlth and IXth Reports, pp. 86 and 147. 
Pacific Bank, of San Francisco, owners. 

Golden Cross Mining Company. — They own a large group of claims in 
the Cargo Muchacho District, 6 miles N.E. of Ogilby Station, on the 
S. P. R. R. The principal claims are the Golden Cross, Golden Crown, 
and Queen. These were formerly known as the Gold Rock Mines. They 
are all similar geologically, and constitute a remarkable group. The 
gold-bearing rock is in no sense a vein, nor can it be considered as deposits 
of ore replacing country rock. The gold occurs in a country rock, which 
appears to be a silicious hornblende schist, though the schistose structure 
is not very distinct in the gold-bearing portion. Large amounts of epi- 
dote occur, as a result of the alteration of the hornblende. They are 
technically bedded deposits similar to those found in the southern por- 
tion of the Black Hills, S. D. The deposits are intruded by large and 
small dikes and irregular masses of granite, and are overlaid by strata 
which greatly resemble the gold-bearing rock, excepting that the former 
contain a great deal of feldspar, which, being kaolinized, gives the rock 
a hard, dry appearance. There are several of these strata containing 
gold, ranging from 15 to 40 ft. in thickness, and at one point a vertical 
shaft passes through 90 ft. of rock containing gold. The longitudinal 
extent of the gold-bearing formation has not been determined. In June, 
1894, the main incline had reached a depth of 350 ft. Several displace- 
ments of 15 to 20 ft. were exposed in the workings. The company has 
a 40-stamp mill, in which 100 tons of rock are crushed daily. Water is 
supplied by a pipe-line from the Colorado River, 12 miles distant, at a 
cost of $18 to $22 per day, the quantity of water varying from 100,000 to 
125,000 gallons daily. The water is raised 500 ft. In constructing the 
mill the mistake was made of placing it on a low flat, in the endeavor 
to have a site from which all the mines would be easily accessible. 
Though in operation but a few months, elevators are constantly employed 
raising tailings to a point where they will flow away from the mill. The 
pile of sand is already 10 ft. high, and has encroached upon the mill to 
such an extent that it became necessary to construct a bulkhead. There 
are several sites in the immediate vicinity where rock foundation and 



GOLD — SAN DIEGO COUNTY. 241 

abundant dump can be secured. Golden Cross Mining Company, owners; 
T. S. Fuller, of Hedges, Secretary. 

Golden Cross Mine (Quartz). — See Golden Cross Mining Company. 

Golden Queen Mine (Quartz). — See Golden Cross Mining Company. 

Gold King Mine (Quartz). — It is in the Julian District, 4 miles S. of 
Banner. See our VHIth, IXth, Xth, and Xlth Reports, pp. 513, 143, 
543, and 381. Gold King Mining Company, of Pomona, owners. 

Gold Queen Mine (Quartz). — This is also in the Julian District, 4 
miles S. of Banner. See our Vlllth, IXth, Xth, and Xlth Reports, pp. 
513, 143, 543, and 381. Gold King Mining Company, of Pomona, owners. 

Gold Rock Mines (Quartz). — See Golden Cross Mine. 

Gold Rock Mine (Quartz). — See Black Eagle. 

Helvetia Mine (Quartz). — It is in the Julian District, 1\ miles E. of 
Julian, and has lately passed into possession of a Los Angeles company, 
and all energies are being directed to its development. See our IXth, 
Xth, and Xlth Reports, pp. 145, 542, and 376. E. W. Reed, of Julian, 
Superintendent. 

Hidden Treasure Mine (Quartz). — This is in the Julian District, on 
the Banner grade. Working. Bailey Bros., of Banner, owners. 

High Peak Mine (Quartz). — It is in the town of Julian. Working. 
See our Xth Report, p. 542. Horace Wilcox, of Julian, owner. 

Hubbard Mine (Quartz). — It is at Banner, in the Julian District. 
Working. See our Vlth and Xlth Reports, pp. 87 and 380. Bailey 
Bros., of Banner, owners. 

Jaynes' Mine (Quartz). — This property is 55 miles above Yuma, on 
the Colorado River, 5 miles above the Picacho Placer Mines. There is a 
20-stamp mill connected with the mine. The vein is large. The work- 
ings have reached a depth of 200 ft. Dr. Jaynes, of Philadelphia, Penn., 
owner. 

Johnston's Mines (Quartz). — They are in the Dulzura District, 30 
miles E. of San Diego. Development work only is done. See our Xlth 
Report, p. 382. — Johnston, of Dulzura, owner. 

Julian Mining District. — This includes the mines at Banner and 
vicinity, among which are: Antelope, Chaparral, Cincinnati Belle, Ella, 
Gold Rock, Helvetia, Hidden Treasure, High Peak, Hubbard, Kentuck S., 
Lucky Ben, Madden, Neptune, Ready Relief, Redman, Ruby, South 
Hubbard, Warlock, Washington, and Wilcox. The district was found 
to be in a more prosperous condition in 1894 than for some years previous, 
and there is reason to believe that this new era is one likely to continue 
for some time, and to increase in importance as well. A system of leas- 
ing has been inaugurated, by means of which many small mines may 
be operated successfully and inexpensively. In 1892 there were but 
three mines in active operation in the district. In 1894 twenty mines 
were being actively exploited, with encouraging results, and negotiations 
for the leasing of several other properties were pending in July. Over 
50 men are employed on the lease system. The quartz is crushed in 
custom mills at $3 per ton. Usually not less than 10 tons are sent to 
the mill at one time, unless the rock is very rich, which is not an uncom- 
mon thing in this district. 

June Mine (Quartz). — See Black Eagle. 

Kentuck S. Mine (Quartz). — It is in the Julian District, half a mile 
from Banner, on the road to Julian. Working. See our Xth and Xlth 
Reports, pp. 542 and 380. N. Bailey, of Spencer Valley, owner. 
16m 



242 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

Lucky Ben Mine (Quartz). — It is in the Julian District, near Banner. 
Working. Boswell & Walker, of Banner, owners. 

Madden Mine (Quartz). — It is in the Julian District, 1 mile N.W. of 
Banner. Working. See our Vlth Report, p. 86. Charles Bacon, of 
Banner, owner. 

Mesa Grande District. — It is situated about 10 miles N. of Santa Ysabel 
P. O., on the Santa Ysabel ranch, which is on the road between San Diego 
and Julian. See our Xlth Report, p. 382. 

Mother Lode Mine (Quartz). — It is in the Cargo Muchacho District, 4^ 
miles E. of Ogilby Station, on the S. P. R. R. It is the first extension 
south of the Pasadena. It is being developed with a small force, and 
has a Huntington mill. See our Xlth Report, p. 386. Dr. Mathison, 
of Ogilby, owner. 

Neptune Mine (Quartz). — This is in the Julian District, near Banner. 
Working. W. W. Boswell, of Banner, owner. 

Noble's Mines (Quartz). — See Bay View Mine. 

Oro Fino Mine (Quartz). — It is 2 miles S.E. of Escondido, on the 
farm of F. H. Roberts. It was discovered in the spring of 1894. An 
incline shaft has been sunk on the vein to a depth of 40 ft. and a drift 
cut south along the vein. The quartz varies from 2 to 10 in. in width. 
The country rock is granite, much decomposed. John D. Hoff, of 
Escondido, Superintendent. 

Owens Mine (Quartz). — It is in the town of Julian. See our Vlth, 
VHIth, IXth, Xth, and Xlth Reports, pp. 8.5, 87, 519, 144, 541, and 378. 

Oxide Mine (Quartz). — See Bay View Mine. 

Pacific Mining District. — It is in the Chuckawalla Mountains, partly 
in San Diego and partly in Riverside County. Several new discoveries 
are reported. A prospector who spends most of his time in that region 
stated in the summer of 1894 that no rain had fallen in the district 
since 1889. See our Xth Report, p. 900. 

Padre y Madre Mine (Quartz). — It is in the Cargo Muchacho District, 
4 miles E. of Ogilby. Leased by the Paymaster Company. 

Pasadena Mine (Quartz). — It is in the Cargo Muchacho District, 4 
miles E. of Ogilby, on the S. P. R. R. See our Xlth Report, p. 386. 
Thos. Grunes & Co., of Pasadena, owners. 

Paymaster Mining Company. — See Cargo Muchacho. 

Picacho Mine (Placer). — See California Picacho. 

Pine Valley District. — See Bay View Mine. 

Pot Holes Mines (Placer). — They are on the Colorado River, about 
half way between Yuma and the California Picacho Mines. In the 
summer of 1894, Mexicans were hauling the gold-bearing dirt to the 
rivers, there being no water at the mine. 

Queen Mine (Quartz). — See Golden Cross Mining Company. 

Ready Relief Mine (Quartz). — This property is in the Julian District, 
at Banner. See Julian District; also our Vlth, VHIth, IXth, Xth, and 
Xlth Reports, pp. 87, 513, 147, 543, and 387. Bailey Bros., of Banner, 
owners. 

Redmajn Mine (Quartz). — It is in the Julian District, at Banner, and 
is the northern extension of the Ready Relief. See our Vlth and IXth 
Reports, pp. 87 and 380. Bailey Bros., of Banner, owners. 

Ruby Mine (Quartz). — It is in the Julian District, at Banner. See 
our Xlth Report, p. 380. 

Shenandoah Mine (Quartz). — See Black Eagle Mine. 



GOLD SAN LUIS OBISPO, SAN MATEO, SANTA CRUZ COUNTIES. 243 

South Hubbard Mine (Quartz). — It is in the Julian District, half a 
mile W. of Banner. See our Vlth and Xlth Reports, pp. 87 and 380. 
Bailey Bros., of Banner, owners. 

South Ruby Mine ( Quartz ) .-^-It is also in the Julian District, at 
Banner. See Julian District. H. Barry, of Riverside, owner. 

Spring Mine (Quartz). — See Bay View. 

Stonewall Mine (Quartz). — This property is on the Cuyamaca Grant, 
10 miles S. of Julian. Since the publication of our last report opera- 
tions have been suspended. See our Vlth, VHIth, IXth, Xth, and Xlth 
Reports, pp. 89, 515, 143, 540, and 382. Sather Banking Company, of 
San Francisco, owners. 

Treasury Mine (Quartz). — See Bay View Mine. 

Warlock Mine (Quartz). — It is in the Julian District, 1 mile from 
Banner, on the Julian road. See our Xth Report, p. 544. W. H. Brad- 
ley, of Los Angeles, and W. W. Boswell, of Banner, owners. 

Washington Mine (Quartz). — It is in the town of Julian. See our 
IXth Report, p. 145. Ex-Sheriff McDowell, of San Diego, owner. 

Wilcox Mine (Quartz). — It is in the Julian District, at Banner. See 
our Xlth Report, p. 145. L. E. Lee Electric Supply Company, of San 
Francisco, owners. 

Wild Cat Mine (Quartz). — See Black Eagle Mine. 

SAN LUIS OBISPO COUNTY. 

La Panza Mines (Placer). — The gold from these mines has been taken 
chiefly from two creeks, Navajo and De la Guerra, which head on the 
eastern slope of the San Luis range, near La Panza. While both creeks 
flow over granite for several miles where the placer gold is found, yet 
their very sources, particularly that of De la Guerra, are in the Chico 
conglomerates and sandstones, which cap the southern portion of the 
range. Whether the gold came from the sedimentary beds or from 
hidden veins in the granite is not certain. No gold-bearing quartz veins 
have been found. The gold is generally coarse. All the gold easily 
gotten at has been taken out, but the heads of many gulches, in which 
the bowlders are too large to move by hand, have never been touched. 
See our VHIth and Xth Reports, pp. 530 and 578. 

SAN MATEO COUNTY. 

Auriferous beach sands occur along the shore of the Pacific Ocean for 
several miles in this county. They have been worked in a desultory 
sort of way by many persons, but as far as known without profit. The 
gold is very fine and is saved with difficulty. 

SANTA CRUZ COUNTY. 

Auriferous beach sands are found for miles along the coast of Santa 
Cruz County, and spasmodic attempts have been repeatedly made to 
work them. Under favorable conditions, the richer deposits have paid 
small wages to industrious workers. 

Stribling Mine (Quartz). — This is 3 miles N.W. of Santa Cruz. Numer- 
ous shallow pits, cuts, and shafts have been made on the property, and 
one surface stope 30 ft. deep was made some years ago. A tunnel 100 ft. 



244 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

long is run underneath this shoot of ore 25 ft. lower, but no good rock 
was found. A small stamp mill was erected several years ago, and this 
was replaced by a cannon-ball mill. The latter gave no satisfaction. 
Some new exploitation is contemplated at a lower level, the intention 
being to run a tunnel on the vein and cross-cut the several fissures. 
This mine is one of a number of points on the course of a mineral zone 
which trends in a N.W. direction through these granite hills. At one 
point a mile N.W. of the Stribling Mine, is what is known as the Big 
Bowlder Mine. It appears that years ago a large bowlder or mass of 
quartz was found lying on the surface of the ground, gold being seen on 
all sides of it. The bowlder was broken up and ground in arrastras, 
producing gold to the amount of $35,000 to $50,000, according to the 
various stories. A great deal of work of a superficial character has since 
been done in the vicinity, but nothing of value discovered, though small 
veins are numerous. The rich bowlder occurred in all probability nearly 
in situ, the soft, easily decomposable granite having been eroded from 
around it. The character of the deposits as far as observed is what is 
known as "pockety." The veins or masses of quartz form sometimes on 
the hanging- and sometimes on the foot-wall of the crevice, and again on 
both sides. Much of the so-called ore still shows the original granitic 
structure. Where the replacement has been more complete the quartz 
is massive and sometimes crystallized. All of the gulches and ravines 
heading in this gold-bearing region produce placer gold, and in the 
aggregate have yielded some thousands of dollars of the precious metals. 
Thurber Mine (Placer). — It is 10 miles N.W. of Santa Cruz City, on 
Majors Creek; two men are working a placer mine for gold. The harvest 
of these laborers is evidently not great, as it is said they are working 
ground which has been sluiced twice before. 

SHASTA COUNTY. 

While having a diversity of economic mineral equal to that of any 
county in the State, Shasta does not take rank in point of output that 
it might, or that any person who has ever been over the ground would 
naturally expect. There are various causes for this, and it may be 
attributed, as far as her copper and silver ores are concerned, to the low 
prices of these metals, which preclude any profit being derived from the 
working of such mines, which are located on an extensive belt travers- 
ing the county. 

That the gold output is not larger lies in the difficulty experienced in 
successfully working the ores on the spot. Comparatively few of the 
mines carry a true, free-milling ore, but depend upon the sorting and 
shipping of the high-grade sulphide ores, leaving the lower grades in 
the mine. None of the mines have attained a great depth, from an 
apparent fear of the owners that the pay ore does not extend down, 
although the success of such mines as the Uncle Sam and the Texas 
Consolidated would appear to indicate that these fears are groundless. 

The county contains large areas of gravel, stretching from the neigh- 
borhood of Ono to the southwest, parts of which appear to be the remains 
of an ancient beach. Where they lie adjacent to the crystalline rocks 
they are gold-bearing, and may well repay, in places, the cost of drift- 
ing. An interesting fact in connection with the gravel deposits in this 
county is the development of pay gravel under 40 ft. of sandstone, as 



GOLD SHASTA COUNTY. 245 

found in the Sacramento Pliocene Mine, in Oregon Gulch. As this 
sandstone can be traced for quite a distance northward, it is possible 
that in other portions pay gravel may be encountered beneath. 

It is much to be regretted that the works hitherto established in this 
county to handle its refractory gold ores, have not proved a marked 
success, allowing a lower grade of ores to be mined and worked. Parties, 
we believe, are again preparing to undertake this work with improved 
methods, and their success will mean an increased output of bullion, 
as well as the retention in the county of a large amount of money. 

Alice Mine (Quartz).— It is 1,500 by 600 ft., and 6 miles N.W. from 
Ono. The vein courses N.E. and dips 24° W.; the walls are porphyry, 
with from 8 to 30 in, of quartz between them, which carries a large per- 
centage of iron sulphurets. Developments consist of a cross-cut tunnel 
to the vein, 150 ft. long; one on the vein 200 ft. long, and giving 60 ft. 
of backs. None of the ore has been milled. J. J. Murray, of Ono, 
owner. 

Alice Mine (Quartz).— This claim, 1,500 by 600 ft., is 2\ miles N. of 
Shasta. The vein, 4 ft. wide, courses N.E. and dips 55° S.W., between 
porphyry walls. The apex has been excavated for several hundred feet, 
and an incline shaft sunk to a depth of 40 ft. The ore carries 0.75 
per cent of sulphurets. D. B. Hunt et al., of Stella, owners. 

American Mine (Quartz). — It is in Kline's Gulch, 3^ miles from 
French Gulch, and comprises three 40-acre lots. The vein courses N. 
63° E. and dips 75° S.E., between a porphyry hanging- and slate foot-wall, 
varying in width from 4 to 1\ ft. There are four tunnels; three run 
east on the vein, 90, 80, and 60 ft., while the lowest is a cross-cut, run- 
ning due north in slate 650 ft. From 4 to 5 in. of water issues from the 
workings. A 5-stamp mill, run by water about seven months in the 
year, belongs to the property. J. Conant, of Redding, owner. 

Anavina Claim (Quartz). — This claim, 1,500 by 600 ft., is 8 miles W. 
of Redding. The vein courses N. and S., dipping a little E., between a 
black shale foot- and a quartzite hanging-wall. Developments consist of 
a shaft sunk 54 ft., with a 30 ft. drift at the bottom, all in ore. The 
quartz is heavily mineralized, carrying iron, copper, and galena. M. C. 
Christensen and C. Jones, of Igo, owners. 

Balaklava Mine (Quartz). — It is 7 miles W. from Kennett, and com- 
prises several claims. The vein courses N.W.; the width not yet estab- 
lished". It is on the same ore body as found in the Iron Mountain Mine, 
though not so extensive, and carries iron, copper, gold, and silver. New 
York Company, owners; — Weil, of Redding, Superintendent. 

Bell Mine (Quartz). — It is on Sunny Hill, 7 miles W. from Ono, at an 
elevation of 2,900 ft. The vein, 4 to 6 ft. wide, courses N. and S. in 
porphyry. The ore is sorted and shipped. Developments consist of a 
cross-cut tunnel about 180 ft. long, thence turned north on the vein over 
300 ft. and south 260 ft. From tunnel level to surface the ground is 
largely stoped out. J. Bell, of Shasta, owner. 

Black Diamond Mine (Quartz). — See South Fork Mining and Milling 
Company. 

Blackfoot Mine (Quartz). — It is 4 miles S. of Shasta, and comprises 
1,500 by 600 ft. The vein courses N. and S., lying vertical between a 
porphyry hanging- and slate foot-wall, very variable in width — from 6 in. 
to 5 ft. The quartz carries 0.5 per cent of sulphurets, which are hand- 
sorted and shipped. Developments consist of a 45 ft. shaft sunk on the 



246 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

vein, and drift at bottom 40 ft. to the south and 31 ft. to the north; the 
south drift has been stoped to within 10 ft. of the surface. W. A. Bos- 
well, of Shasta, owner. 

Black Prince Mine (Quartz). — See South Fork Mining and Milling 
Company. 

Black Spider Mine (Quartz). — It is near Shasta, and contains 1,500 
by 380 ft. The 8 ft. vein courses N. 63° E., dipping 72° N.W., between 
greenstone and porphyry walls. The quartz carries 5 per cent of sul- 
phurets, mostly iron and copper. Developments consist of a shaft 40 
ft. on the foot-wall side of the vein, and some surface cuts. It cost $10 
a foot to sink the shaft. A blower is required for ventilation. J. Bell 
and J. Scranton, of Shasta, owners. 

Blue Bird Mine (Drift). — This claim of 20 acres is half a mile S. of 
Igo. The average depth of the gravel is 35 ft., with 40 ft. of lava cap- 
ping on the west side. The main tunnel, 120 ft. long, is partly in 
granite bedrock. The course of the channel is N. and S., with 10 ft. of 
pay gravel, carrying coarse gold worth $17 per ounce. Next to the 
bedrock the bowlders are very large. The Dry Creek Water Company 
furnish the water. Only a few boxes are used for washing, which are 
cleaned up monthly. T. White, of Igo, owner. 

Centennial Mine (Quartz). — See Niagara. 

Central Mine (Quartz). — See our VIII th Report, p. 565. This is 8 
miles N. of Redding, and comprises three claims. The vein courses N. 
and S. and dips 80° E., between porphyritic walls from 1 to 4 ft. apart. 
The quartz carries 5 per cent of sulphurets. Developments at present 
are confined to a lower main tunnel, cross-cutting 956 ft., thence turned 
431 ft. on the vein, giving 350 ft. of backs. Half a mile from the mine, 
near the river, are two Huntington mills and eight Frue vanners run by 
a 40 horse-power engine. Timbers are delivered at the mine for 6 cents 
per running foot, and cord wood (pine and oak) for $4 per cord. White- 
house, Bliss et al., of Shasta, owners. 

Cleveland Mine ( Quartz ).— See Eureka Tellurium. 

Clipper Gold Mine (Quartz). — This is 8 miles W. of Kennett, and 
comprises nine claims. The vein courses N. 80° W. and dips about 50° 
N., with a width varying from 1 to 12 ft., in porphyritic rock, the quartz 
carrying \\ per cent of sulphurets. Developments consist of a shaft 
with drifts every 50 ft. down to the 150 ft. level, and two tunnels, one of 
which cuts the shaft. Ore at present comes from the second level. The 
10-stamp steam mill has two Woodbury concentrators. A Hallidie 
tramway conveys the ore 1,500 ft. to the mill. W. V. Huntington et al., 
of Kennett, owners. 

Colorado Mine (Quartz). — This claim is 2 miles S.W. from Shasta, 
and comprises 1,500 by 600 ft. The 3 ft. vein courses E. and W. and 
dips 55° S., between porphyry and granite walls. The ore carries large 
masses of ferruginous quartz, also a considerable percentage of sulphides. 
E. P. Connor, of Shasta, owner. 

Colorado Mine (Quartz). — See Remonia. 

D & B Mine (Quartz). — See Remonia. 

Deakin & Taylor Mine (Quartz). — It is 1^ miles S.E. of Shasta, and 
comprises 105 acres of land, containing the Spanish, Taylor, Enright, 
and South veins. The Spanish vein, 3^ ft. wide, courses E., and is 
nearly vertical, with granite hanging-wall and slate foot-wall. There 



GOLD — SHASTA COUNTY. 247 

is a 210 ft. tunnel run on the ledge, also a shaft 45 ft. deep. The quartz 
carries l\ per cent of sulphurets. 

The Taylor lode, 2^ ft. wide, has an E. and W. course, dipping 70° N. 
between granite and porphyry walls. The quartz is sorted and shipped, 
and carries 2-| per cent of sulphides. The vein has been opened by 200 
ft. of tunnel and a shaft sunk 65 ft. 

The South vein, 4 ft. wide, runs E. and W. and dips 50° N., between 
granite and porphyry walls. The vein carries a good deal of " gossan "; 
the ore is high grade. There is only a 12 ft. shaft on this vein. 

The Enright vein, 2 ft. wide, courses E. and W. and dips 50° N., 
between granite and porphyry walls. F. H. Deakin and T. G. Taylor, 
of San Francisco, owners. 

Denver Mine (Quartz). — See Remonia. 

Doebleirts Claim (Hydraulic). — This is 2 miles E. of Igo, comprising 
200 acres. The bank consists of 14 to 25 ft. of gravel, with a lava cap- 
ping of 100 ft. The slate rim rocks are 1,500 ft. apart; the channel has 
a N.E. and S.W. course. The gold is coarse and scaly; richest near the 
bedrock. Water is caught in reservoirs and brought to the claim through 
6 miles of ditch, using 2,000 ft. of 8 in. pipe and a giant with 1 in. noz- 
zle, under 100 ft. pressure. For washing, 200 in. of water are used, and 
20 boxes paved with block riffles. G. Doeblein, of Igo, owner. 

Dolcsath Mine (Quartz).— This claim, 1,500 by 600 ft., is 2 miles E. of 
Shasta. The course of the 2\ ft. vein is E. and W., dipping 75° S., 
between porphyry walls. The ore carries about 1 per cent of iron and 
copper sulphides. Developments consist of a 24 ft. perpendicular shaft, 
with an east drift. H. A. Wiser and J. Hill, of Shasta, owners. 

Dreadnaught Mine (Quartz). — This claim, 1,500 by 600 ft., is 3 miles 
N.W. of Shasta. The 2\ ft. vein courses E. and W. with a dip of 80° 
N., between porphyry walls. The quartz carries 0.5 per cent of sulphu- 
rets, chiefly iron and copper. The quartz is worked in a 10 ft. arrastra, 
run by water from South Fork of Spring Creek; 1 ton is crushed per 
day, the water lasting four months. The developments are a 40 ft. tun- 
nel and 20 ft. shaft, both on the vein. A. T. Molin, of Shasta, owner. 

Eastern Star Mine (Quartz). — It is 14 miles S.W. of Redding, and 
consists of three claims. Connected with it are two other claims, known 
as the Molly Maguire and Jim Blaine. The veins course N.E. and S.W., 
dipping nearly vertical, between slate and porphyry walls. The 
Eastern Star vein is 4 ft. wide; the other two from a few inches to 1 ft., 
the quartz carrying a heavy percentage of sulphurets. Developments 
consist of a shaft 96 ft. deep on the Eastern Star, and on the others a 
tunnel 250 ft. long and a shaft 30 ft. deep. These veins make consider- 
able water. J. W. George, of Igo, owner. 

Edna B Mine (Quartz). — It is 4 miles N.W. of Redding. The course 
of the 3 ft. vein is a little E. of N. and dips 45° E., between porphyry 
walls. The ore carries a good percentage of sulphurets. Developments 
include a shaft 100 ft. deep, tapped by a tunnel 125 ft. long. The ore 
shoot found near the surface has not been cut by the tunnel. James 
Beecher, of Anderson, owner. 

El Dorado and Eureka Mine (Quartz). — It is 12 miles N.E. of Shasta, 
and comprises 3,000 by 600 ft. The vein courses N.W. and S.E., dipping 
45° S., with a width of from 3 to 20 ft., between slate and porphyry 
walls. The slate belt here is 3 miles wide. This is a new prospect. 
E. P. Connor, of Redding, owner. 



248 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

Emigrant Mine (Quartz). — This claim, 1,500 by 600 ft., is 7 miles 
from Stella. The vein courses N.E. and S.W., and lies along the con- 
tact of the slate and porphyry, averaging 2 ft. in width. The quartz 
carries about 1 per cent of sulphurets of a good grade. Three tunnels 
are run on the vein, 160, 300, and 70 ft. long. C. A. Crowell, of Stella, 
owner. 

Enright Mine (Quartz). — See Deakin & Taylor Mine. 

Ethel Mine (Quartz).— This claim, 1,500 by 600 ft., is 14 miles S.W. 
from Redding. The 4 ft. vein courses N. and S., with vertical dip, 
between porphyry and quartzite walls. The quartz carries a heavy per- 
centage of sulphurets. Developments consist of a 100 ft. cross-cut to 
the vein, a 20 ft. drift on the vein, and a 16 ft. winze. E. C. Norris and 
John Sparks, of Igo, owners. 

Eureka Tellurium Mine (Quartz). — This is 2 -J miles W. of Redding, 
on the N.W. corner of the Redding grant, along the Sacramento River 
and Salt Creek, comprising 290 acres. Four claims have been opened, 
known as the Eureka Tellurium, Cleveland, Shaefer, and Herbert. On 
the first a tunnel has been driven 600 ft. in a S.E. direction, cutting a 
3 ft. vein, coursing N. 25° E., and pitching 60° S.E. This vein carries 
considerable calcspar and telluride ores, and is inclosed in metamorphic 
slate. An upraise 175 ft. on the incline connects with the surface; 90 
ft. beyond, a second parallel vein is cut by the main tunnel; 400 ft. 
above, on the slope of the hill, an incline is sunk 99 ft. on the pitch of 
a 7 ft. vein, connecting at 58 ft. with a perpendicular shaft 74 ft. deep; 
from this a cross-cut has been run to the vein. The ore carries tellu- 
rides and about 1^ per cent of iron pyrites. A 10-stamp mill, with 
850 lb. stamps, 8 ft. of apron plates, and two Woodbury concentrators, 
stands at the mouth of the main tunnel. These, and a compressor for 
two Phoenix machine drills, are run by a 40 horse-power engine. Peter 
J. Sherer, of Redding, Superintendent. 

Falls Gold Mine (Quartz). — This is 4 miles W. from Igo, and com- 
prises five claims, embracing a series of high-grade veins in the granite, 
varying from 3 in. to 2 ft. wide, and having a general N.E. and S.W. 
course. Developments consist of a number of small tunnels on the vein, 
from which the ore is sledded to a Tustin pulverizer, working 4 tons per 
day; thence it passes over a McGrew concentrator. The concentrates 
are worked by the barrel chlorination process, and both gold and silver 
are saved. The works are run by water power. E. L. Ballou, of Igo, 
owner. 

Florida Mine (Quartz). — This claim, 1,500 by 600 ft., is 3 miles S. of 
Shasta. The 4 ft. vein courses E. and W. and dips 60° N., between 
porphyry and slate walls. The quartz shows a heavy percentage of 
iron sulphides, which are hand-sorted and shipped. Developments 
consist of two shafts, 600 ft. apart, 175 and 30 ft. deep; the former 
tapped by a tunnel 175 ft. long. Paying ore extends between both 
shafts. The mine makes 10,000 gallons of water per day. G. W. 
Boswell, of Shasta, owner. 

Gladstone Mine (Quartz). — See our VHIth, Xth, and Xlth Reports, 
pp. 568, 637, and 45. This is in Kline's Gulch, 5 miles N.E. of French 
Gulch, and comprises six full claims. The vein courses N. 63° E., 
between a slate foot-wall and a porphyry hanging-wall. The quartz 
varies from 18 in. to 30 ft. in width, and what is unusual, the value per 
ton in gold increases with the width. The property is extremely well 



GOLD — SHASTA COUNTY. 249 

situated for development through tunnels, of which there are five main 
ones, from 80 to 200 ft. apart; all are connected, enabling the tapping 
of the vein on the Carson claim, for instance, 900 feet below the apex. 
The principal working tunnel, the Ohio, cross-cuts the country 1,400 ft., 
and turns 300 ft. on the vein, exposing in the drift from 6 to 14 ft. of 
quartz, carrying about 1 per cent of sulphurets (iron and copper), also a 
little galena. About 25 in. of water issues from the tunnels. The reduc- 
tion works consist of a 20-stamp mill run by water power four months 
in the year, and by a 140 horse-power engine the remainder of the time. 
There are four double Frue concentrators, besides two rockbreakers, self- 
feeders, etc. The stamps weigh 850 lbs. each, and have a duty of 2-J tons 
per stamp, when using No. 40 punched screens, and from 4-J to 6 in. drop, 
making 95 drops per minute. The apron is 4-J by 10 ft., set to a grade 
of 1 in. to the foot. The entire works are lighted by electricity. Elec- 
tric bells are used in the lower workings. The water power is derived 
from Kline's Gulch through a ditch 1 mile in length. Owned in Cleve- 
land, Ohio. 

Green Mine (Quartz). — This is 3^ miles W. of the town of French 
Gulch, and comprises 4,500 by 600 ft. The vein courses N. and S., and 
dips 45° E., with an average width of 2 ft., between a slate hanging-wall 
and porphyry foot-wall. The quartz carries 1 per cent of sulphurets. 
Developments consist of three* tunnels: 600, 400, and 360 ft. on the 
ledge. Nos. 1 and 2 are connected, and from No. 2 to the surface the 
greater amount is stoped. The tunnels are, respectively, 160, 1,000, 
and 200 feet apart, giving nearly 500 ft. depth from the surface to the 
lower level. The ore is hauled half a mile to the mill, at an expense of 
40 cents a ton. A 5-stamp steam mill reduces the ore, which passes 
through a rockbreaker and roller ore-feeder. The stamps are run at 
85 drops, on a 5 in. drop and 8 in. discharge, crushing l-§ tons to the 
stamp through a No. 10 slot screen. The apron plate is 10 ft. long, set 
to a grade of If in. to the foot, with an equal length of sluice plates 
24 in. wide. A Frue concentrator gathers the sulphurets. The 
plates are scraped once a day, and the battery, which, is supplied on the 
inside with front and back plates, is cleaned up once a month. Two 
thirds of the amalgam by weight, but 75 per cent by value, is taken 
from the battery, as against one third and 25 per cent from the outside 
plates. The power is derived from a 25 horse-power engine, consuming 
1^ cords of wood per day; cordwood costs $2 25. There is a possibility 
of running by water during live months in the year. The ground in the 
mine requires substantial timbering. Kelly, Frank & Co., of French 
Gulch, owners. 

Gypsy Gold and Silver Mine (Quartz). — This claim, 1,500 by 600 ft., 
is 2 miles S.W. from Shasta. The 4 ft. vein courses E. of N., with verti- 
cal dip, between granite and diorite walls. Developments consist of a 
50 ft. shaft on the vein and a drift started at 25 ft.; also two open cuts. 
J. B. Timmonds, of Redding, owner. 

Hardscrabble Mine (Hydraulic). — It is at Igo, and comprises 1,720 
acres, only a portion of which is gravel. The bank is from 20 to 80 ft. 
high, and the gravel contains about 25 per cent of bowlders and cobbles. 
It carries fine gold, worth $17 per ounce. Twenty-five acres have 
been worked. Hober and Eagle creeks and South Fork of Clear Creek 
furnishes the water through 25 miles of main ditch, which carries 1,300 
in. of water. The property is idle at present, not having placed any 



250 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

restraining dams for the debris. Merchants Exchange Bank, of San 
Francisco, owner. 

Hartman Mine (Quartz). — This claim, 1,500 ft. by 600 ft., is 3| miles 
N. of Whiskytown. The vein courses N.E. and S.W. with a N.W. dip, 
between porphyry walls about 2 ft. apart. Developments consist of two 
tunnels about 50 ft. long, driven on the vein, and a 45 ft. shaft. W. 
Hartman, of Stella, owner. 

Herbert Mine (Quartz). — See Eureka Tellurium Mine. 

Hidden Treasure Mine (Quartz). — This property, 6,000 by 600 ft., is 
8 miles N.E. of Shasta, on the road to Iron Mountain. The vein courses 
N. 85° E., dips 70° N., and varies from 10 in. to 7 ft. in width, between 
quartzite and porphyry. The ore carries less than 1 per cent of sulphu- 
rets, mostly copper, and is said to contain some telluride. Develop- 
ments consist of two cross-cut tunnels, 80 and 318 ft. long and 110 ft. 
apart perpendicularly, starting from Slick Road Gulch. The first is 
turned at 100 ft. on the vein and has an upraise of 60 ft. The second is 
turned at 100 ft. and runs 90 ft. E. on the vein. Both are connected, 
and an intermediate drift has been started. Some stoping has been done 
above the upper tunnel. The ground costs $10 per foot to drive through. 
The property includes a 10-stamp mill, with aprons 10 ft. in length, and 
a Johnston concentrator, run by a 4 ft. wheel with Pelton buckets, under 
200 ft. pressure. The water is obtained from Slick Road Creek, being 
only sufficient for 5 stamps in summer. D. Jennings, of Craig, 111., 
owner. 

Honeycomb Mine (Quartz). — See Niagara. 

Hull & Murray Mine (Quartz). — This claim, 4,000 by 600 ft., is 4 miles 
N. of Shasta. The vein courses N.E. and S.W., dipping 45° N., in 
porphyry. The ore carries 1 per cent of iron and copper pyrites. There 
is a 100 ft. tunnel on the vein and a perpendicular shaft 76 ft. deep. 
Hull, Murray et al., of Redding, owners. 

Iron Mask Mine (Quartz). — It is 6-J miles from Whiskytown (Stella 
P. O.), and comprises six claims. Only two of these, the Iron Mask and 
Pluto, have developments. The vein is on a contact having a N.E. and 
S.W. course. Several tunnels are run, some on the vein and others 
cross-cutting. On the Iron Mask proper is a 200 ft. tunnel on the con- 
tact, as well as two other tunnels, respectively 200 ft. and 130 ft. in 
length. On the Pluto claim are two cross-cut tunnels, 60 and 100 ft. in 
length, which have not yet reached the vein. The property has a 
5-stamp mill 3-J miles from the mine, on Clear Creek, at foot of Grizzly 
Gulch, which is run by water from Clear Creek. The quartz carries 
some sulphurets of a good grade. S. W. Levy, of San Francisco, owner. 

Jay Eye See Mine (Quartz). — This is 4^ miles N.E. from French 
Gulch, and comprises four full locations. The fissure vein courses N. 
63° E. and dips 60° to 75° N., within slate walls, the vein running 
against the course of the slate. The width of the quartz is from 8 in. 
to 4 ft. Developments comprise a shaft 4 by 6 ft., and 38 ft. deep; a 
cross-cut tunnel 146 ft. long, cutting an 18 in. vein, which is drifted on 
160 ft. E. and 125 ft. W., showing in the breast a vein from 18 in. to 2 
ft. in width, with 160 ft. of backs to the surface. Also a 90 ft. winze 
with short drifts both ways. A second cross-cut tunnel, 375 ft. to the 
vein, through slate rock, is turned 75 ft. E. on the vein and 60 ft. W., 
showing a 4 ft. vein on the face, and giving 236 ft. of backs. About 6 
in. of water runs from this tunnel. An upraise 130 ft. long connects 



GOLD — SHASTA COUNTY. 251 

tunnels Nos. 1 and 2 with an intermediate tunnel 30 ft. above No. 2, 
which is turned both E. and W., showing the vein to be 1 to 4 ft. wide. 
There is no mill on the property, but water power under 150 ft. pressure 
is obtainable during six months in the year for 10 stamps. G. W. Van- 
meter et al., of French Gulch, owners. 

Jim Blaine Mine (Quartz). — See Eastern Star. 

Jim Fish Mine (Quartz). — This claim, 1,500 by 600 ft., is in Muletown, 
3 miles N. of Igo. The vein courses N. and S. with a slight dip to the 
W., between granite walls, with an average width of 1 ft. Developments 
consist of a shallow shaft and a small tunnel run to intersect it; these 
show quartz carrying considerable ochre, rich in free gold, which is 
sorted for shipment. The mill is an invention of one of the owners, 
and consists of a self-feeder with jarring motion, supplemented by a 
small stream of water conveying quartz into an upright iron cylinder 
16 in. in diameter and 2 ft. high, with concave bottom, having a small 
cone in the center. At the circumference is a grooved iron ring, into 
which fits an iron curved shoe fastened at one end by an iron arm to an 
upright shaft, revolving by the means of a spur-geared wheel making 
150 revolutions per minute. This shoe, which is 12 in. long and weighs 
18 lbs., is forced into the groove of the iron ring by centrifugal force, 
grinding the ore. Eight inches above the bottom of the cylinder is an 
annular No. 60 brass wire screen 4 in. high. A f in. iron pipe surrounds 
the cylinder on the inside below the screen, through which the exhaust 
steam from the engine is led. The pulp on leaving the screen is 
conducted into a copper cylinder 18 in. high and 1 ft. in diameter, 
amalgamated with quicksilver on the inside, where it is kept in rotary 
motion by a stirrer. After passing through two of these cylinders the 
pulp is allowed to escape. Both cylinders as well as the crusher are 
charged with quicksilver, and from a vessel placed above the feeder 
drops of cyanide of potassium solution are introduced into the mill; 
sodium is also added to the quicksilver. The mill crushes 2£ tons of 
rock in twenty-four hours. The power is furnished by a small 6 horse- 
power steam engine with upright boiler, consuming one fourth of a cord 
of wood. The machine is an experimental one, and is to be altered in 
some of its features, but appears to do fair work. E. Jones and H. C. 
Christensen, of lgo, owners. 

Jumbo Mine (Quartz). — See Niagara Mine. 

Last Chance Mine (Quartz). — This claim, 1,500 by 600 ft., is 2^ miles 
N.E. from Igo. The <L\ ft. vein courses N.E. and S.W., dipping 70° W., 
with slate and porphyry walls. E. C. Norris and John Sparks, of Igo, 
owners. 

Lava Bed Mine (Drift). — This is 5 miles S.W. from Redding, and com- 
prises a tract of 40 acres in Oregon Gulch, in Sec. 15, T. 31 N., R. 5 W. 
About 12 ft. of lava capping overlies 2 to 4 ft. of gravel, with an average 
width of 100 ft. The gravel is dark and tight, carrying fine gold, worth 
$16 75 per ounce. A tunnel has been run, partly in the bedrock, 250 ft., 
and the gravel breasted out 100 ft. wide and from 3 to 4 ft. high; tim- 
bered with posts and caps; 300 ft. of the channel has been worked. The 
mine makes about 600 gallons of water per day; 30 inches of wash water 
are obtained from Irish Gulch, being conveyed through 3 miles of ditch. 
Seven boxes are used, paved with slat riffles set on an. 8 in. grade to the 
box. The water season lasts from December to March. A. L. Parsons, 
of Redding, owner. 



252 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

Lodi Mine (Quartz). — It is 4 miles W. from Igo, and comprises two 
claims. The 6 in. vein courses N. and S. and dips about 35° E., between 
granite walls; it carries a large percentage of lead and iron sulphurets. 
Developments consist of a 60 ft. shaft and two tunnels about 35 ft. in 
length; no mill. W. D. Bull, of Igo, owner. 

Lost Buck Mine (Quartz).— This claim, 3,000 by 600 ft., is 6 miles 
N.W. from Ono. The vein courses N.W. and S.E. and dips 15° E.; has 
a width of 8 in. to 2 ft.; the walls are micaceous schist; the quartz car- 
ries some sulphurets. Developments consist of a tunnel on the vein 200 
ft. in length, giving 85 ft. of backs; stoped nearly to the surface. H. 
Arkarro, of Ono, owner. 

Mad Mule (BangharVs) Mine (Quartz). — It is 5 miles N.W. of 
Whisky town, and comprises 4,500 by 600 ft. Peculiar features are con- 
nected with this pocket mine, located on a porphyry dike from 50 to 300 
ft. wide; the pay being in connection with black slate that lies folded 
and crumpled in the porphyry, and is traversed with seams of quartz. 
The apex of the upper curve of the folding seams carry the most gold 
when the quartz butts up to the porphyry. As high as $10,000 has 
been taken out of one of the contact points; the gold is coarse, adhering 
to quartz pieces, and is sold at $17 25 per ounce. The mine is worked 
by tunnels starting from Mad Mule Gulch on different levels along the 
contact of the dike, following the general N.E. course of the porphyry. 
The ore is washed, and worked up with a large hand mortar and spring- 
pole pestle. The tunnels furnish the necessary water for washing the 
ore. Elleigh & Rea, of Stella, owners. 

Mad Ox Mine (Quartz). — This is 5 miles N. from Stella (Whisky- 
town), and embraces 4,500 by 600 ft. The 4 ft. vein courses N. and S., 
with nearly a vertical dip, between slate and quartzite, and carries high- 
grade ore. . Developments consist of a main cross-cut tunnel 1,600 ft. in 
length to the vein. The tunnel cost $19,000, and reaches a depth of 700 
ft. on the vein. L. Reil and J. W. Woodward, of Stella, owners. 

Mammoth Mine (Quartz). — See our Vlllth Report, p. 568. This is 
8-| miles N. of Redding, and comprises two claims. The vein runs N.W. 
and S.E., and a tunnel for prospecting purposes is being driven. S. 
Cheney, of Philadelphia, owner. 

Manlove Mine (Quartz).— This claim, 1,500 by 600 ft., is 3^ miles N. 
of Whiskytown. The vein courses N.E. and S.W. with a N.W. dip, 
between porphyry walls about 2 ft. apart. Developments consist of a 
45 ft. shaft and two tunnels about 50 ft. long, driven on the vein. J. E. 
Manlove, of Perkins, Sacramento County, owner. 

Mascot Mine (Quartz).— This claim, 1,500 by 600 ft., is 2 miles W. 
from Shasta. The 4 ft. vein courses N. and S. and dips 60° W., between 
porphyry and granite walls. A tunnel is driven 100 ft. on the vein, the 
first 40 ft. being timbered. W. Herron, of Redding, owner. 

Mechado Claim (Quartz).— This claim, 1,500 by 600 ft., is 3 miles N.E. 
from Igo. The vein courses N. and S. in granite, dipping vertical. The 
quartz carries 10 per cent of sulphurets. Developments consist of two 
shafts sunk on the vein about 14 ft. deep. — Mechado, of Igo, owner. 

Miner's Dream Mine (Quartz). — This is 3^ miles S. from Shasta, and 
comprises 1,500 by 600 ft. The 4 ft. vein courses E. and W. and dips 
50° N., between a slate hanging-wall and porphyry foot-wall. The 
developments are meager, consisting of a 40 ft. shaft sunk on the vein 
and 40 ft. of drift at the bottom, with about 30 ft. in length partly 



GOLD — SHASTA COUNTY. 253 

stoped. The quartz carries some iron and copper sulphides. W. A. 
Boswell, of Shasta, owner. 

Minnesota Mine (Quartz). — See Rattler. 

Mocking-Bird Mine (Quartz). — This claim, 1,500 by 600 ft., is 14 miles 
S.W. of Redding. The vein courses N.E., dipping slightly E., and is 
from 4 to 22 in. wide, in syenite. The developments consist of a perpen- 
dicular shaft 80 ft. deep, and at the 40 ft. level two short drifts 20 ft. in 
length. W. Dunham, of Igo, owner. 

Molly Maguire Mine (Quartz). — See Eastern Star. 

Murray Mine (Quartz).— This claim, 1,500 by 600 ft., is 2\ miles S.W. 
from Copely. The 18 ft. vein courses E. and W., dips 50° S., with 
syenite hanging-wall and porphyry foot-wall. Developments consist of 
a tunnel 400 ft. long from the south; at 150 ft. it strikes the vein and 
turns on the same; two winzes of 25 ft. are started on the tunnel level. 
The ground above is stoped. Ventilation is secured by fire blast. A 
fine water power of 200 ft. pressure can be had. Barney Conroy, of 
Redding, owner. 

Nelson Gold Mine (Quartz).— This claim, 1,500 by 600 ft., is 7 miles 
N. of Stella, on Grizzly Gulch. The vein courses N.E. and S.W. on the 
contact of the porphyry and slate, and carries from 1 to 2 ft. of quartz. 
Developed by two tunnels 600 ft. apart, driven oil the vein. C. A. 
Nelson, of Stella, owner. 

Niagara Mine (Quartz). — See our Xth Report, p. 636. It is 5 miles 
W. of French Gulch, on the south fork of the gulch, and comprises 
twenty-two patented claims, including 320 acres of timber land. Seven 
of the claims, known as the Niagara, Scorpion, Summit, Centennial, 
Honeycomb, Jumbo, and Shea, have been more or less worked. At 
present the works are principally on the Niagara, Scorpion, and 
Summit. The veins course E. and W. and dip 70° N., along the contact 
of slate and porphyry, having an average width of 2 ft. The ore carries 
2 per cent of sulphurets. A ferruginous ore exists in the Niagara, 
showing few sulphurets and very little free gold with the horn, but 
which assays from $500 to $1,100 per ton in gold. This grade of ore is 
all shipped. The recognizable sulphides are iron and galena. The gold 
sells for $16 50 per ounce, but it has been noted that in going west the 
quality of the gold improves. 

On the Niagara are four main tunnels cross-cutting to the vein." No. 
1 is 662 ft. to the vein; No. 2 (the O'Neil) is 1,098 ft.; No. 3, 185 ft., and 
No. 4, 441 ft. The ore shoot here has a length of 180 ft., and has been 
proved 400 ft. deep. The Scorpion and Summit veins are each opened 
by three tunnels. 

On the Niagara claim is an 18-stamp and on the South Scorpion a 
10-stamp mill, both supplied with Frue concentrators and run by steam; 
at present only 10 stamps are dropping. These are speeded to 85 drops 
per minute, with a 6 in. drop and 7 in. discharge through a No. 40 mesh 
screen. The aprons are 10 ft. long and have 1^ in. grade to the foot; the 
sluice-plates, 15 by 2 ft., are somewhat flatter. W. T. St. Aubyn, of 
French Gulch, Superintendent. 

North Star Mine (Quartz).— This claim is 1,500 by 600 ft., and is 2i 
miles N.E. of Igo. The 3 ft. vein courses N. 20° E c and dips W., in slate 
walls. The developments are a 90 ft. shaft on the vein and a cross-cut. 
The quartz carries a large percentage of sulphurets. 



254 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

Original Gravel Mine (Drift). — This is half a mile W. of Centerville, 
and comprises 100 acres. The owners are sinking through sandstone to 
strike gravel beneath on bedrock. A circular shaft, now 45 ft. deep, is 
being carried down through the sandstone, which is assuming a con- 
glomerate nature. J. P. & E. Rathbun, of Colusa County, owners. 

Original Quartz Hill Gold Mine (Quartz). — This is 4-| miles N.E. of 
Redding, near the Sacramento River, comprising three claims, desig- 
nated the Quartz Hill, Storm, and Snow. The Original Quartz Hill 
Mine consists of two parallel lodes, whose croppings are 98 ft. wide, of 
solid quartz, and 1,200 ft. long, forming a hill 125 ft. higher than the 
surrounding country, with a pay shoot 622 ft. long. The "main lode," 
with the parallel " red ledge," which is blind, courses in conformity with 
the metamorphic slate country rock N. 40° W., but varying in the dip, 
dipping east for the upper 113 ft., then west. A tunnel 168 ft. long cuts 
the main ledge 75 ft. below the surface, passing for 74 ft. through meta- 
morphic slate, then crossing the i*ed ledge 25 ft., and through 28 ft. more 
of slate into a gouge from 5 to 8 ft. thick, and 36 ft. of quartz of the 
main ledge. From this level an incline was sunk 47 ft. in the hanging- 
wall gouge, disclosing a 5 ft. quartz vein coming in from the east at a 
depth of 24 ft., where the dip changed. From the bottom of the incline 
a cross-cut run west cuts the main lode at a total depth of 112 ft. The 
main lode carries along the center from 5 to 6 ft. of high-grade quartz, 
separated from the rest by a casing of talcose schist, in which wire gold 
is found. The dimensions of the pay shoot as far as explored are, on 
the "red ledge," 333 ft. long, 25 ft. wide, and 112 ft. deep; on the "main 
lode," 622 ft. long, 30 ft. wide, and 112 ft. deep. A steam Burleigh drill 
is being put in place to work the outcrop on the southwest end in 
benches (quarrying), the quartz being conveyed over a tramway 3^ miles 
in length to the 34-stamp mill on the Sacramento River, which consists 
of two 12-stamp, iron, circular batteries, and two 5-stamp batteries, with 
aprons 5 by 10 ft., set on al| in. grade to the foot, four Frue vanners, 
and two canvas tables 20 ft. long and wide, divided into ten sections 
each. The bullion is .603 fine in gold and .378 in silver. The motive 
power is water, brought through 7 miles of ditch and flume and a 2,000 
ft. pipe-line, reducing from 18 in. to 15 in., and bridged across the Sac- 
ramento River, working under a 220 ft. pressure on an 8 ft. Knight 
wheel. M. Maryanski, of Middle Creek, Superintendent. 

Pluto Mine (Quartz). — See Iron Mask. 

Potosi Claim (Quartz). — This is 12 miles S.W. from Redding, and 
comprises 3,000 by 600 ft. The 15 in. vein courses N. and S., with a 
westerly dip; the walls are a syenitic granite; the quartz high grade. 
Hon. John P. Jones, of Gold Hill, Nevada, owner. 

Pugh & Lindsay Mine (Quartz). — This claim, 6,000 by 600 ft., is 3 
miles W. from Shasta City, on Clear Creek, and has three parallel veins, 
coursing E. and W., with a dip of 55° N., and a fourth vein with a N.E. 
and S.W. course, all in quartz porphyry, and averaging 18 in. to 3 ft. 
in width. Developments consist of a shaft 60 ft. deep on one of the veins, 
a tunnel 60 ft. in length on another, and a tunnel 40 ft. long on a third 
vein. The quartz carries 0.5 to 1 per cent of sulphurets. The reduction 
works comprise a Kendall rocker mill, with a duty of 6 tons per twenty- 
four hours when using No. 9 or 10 screens, and rocking twenty-eight 
times per minute. Pugh, Lindsay et al., of Shasta, owners. 



GOLD — SHASTA COUNTY. 255 

Rattler (Minnesota) Mine (Quartz). — See our Xth Report,. p. 635. It 
is 3-J miles W. of Copely, and comprises two full claims, besides 160 
acres of timber land. The course of the 5 ft. vein is E. and N., dipping 
80° N., between trap and slate walls. There are four tunnels; the upper, 
or No. 1, runs 280 ft. on the vein, which has been stoped both above and 
below it; No. 2, 105 ft. below, runs 35 ft., showing a 5 ft. vein in the 
breast; No. 3, 174 ft. below No. 1, has been driven 125 ft., connecting at 
the breast through an incline with No. 4, or main tunnel, which is 1,200 
ft. long and shows at 1,100 ft. a ferruginous cross-ledge carrying gold, 
and is 240 ft. below tunnel No. 1. The main tunnel is being driven 
ahead to cut the ore shoot that was stoped below No. 1 tunnel. The ore 
carries about 0.5 per cent of sulphides of iron and copper. The company 
controls three mountain streams that unite at the mine, giving a large 
water power. The plant consists of a small sawmill and a 10-stamp 
mill, with 850 lb. stamps, run by a 3 ft. Pelton wheel under 360 ft. 
pressure. The mill works with 6 in. drop, 90 per minute, using No. 40 
screens. Parmelee Ore Concentrating Company, of Union Stock Yards, 
Chicago, 111., owners. 

Red Cloud Mine (Quartz). — This claim, 3,000 by 600 ft., is 4 miles 
N.W. from Igo. It is an E. and W. vein, 8 in. wide, dipping slightly to 
the N., in granite walls. The quartz carries a large percentage of sul- 
phurets. The ore is sorted and shipped, the first-class ore bringing over 
$300 per ton. Developed by a cross-cut tunnel 50 ft. long and turned 
50 ft. on the vein, giving about 50 ft. of backs. The freight charges on 
ore are $4 to the railroad and $9 to San Francisco. The gold is worth 
from $12 to $15 per ounce. Hubbard & Kingsbury, of Igo, owners. 

Red Hill Mine (Hydraulic). — It is half a mile N.E. from Ono, and 
comprises 60 acres. This gravel belt extends in a S.W. direction, and 
can be traced for many miles; the underlying granite bedrock has a 
southerly pitch. The gravel bank averages 60 ft. in depth, carrying 
about 60 per cent of bowlders and cobbles, cemented near bedrock. It 
carries flat scale gold, worth $17 50 per ounce throughout, and is richest 
on the lower 10 ft. The bank has been subjected to heavy movements, 
as evidenced by slips and faults that have sheared big bowlders in two. 
Both east and west this gravel bed is overlaid with sandstone. The 
gravel bank is loosened by high explosive powder. The holes are drilled 
with a 7 ft. worm drill, operated by three men. It takes on an average 
twenty minutes to put down a 7 ft. hole, which is first "chambered" 
and then charged with seven sticks of powder. 

The source of the water supply is the Dry Creek Tunnel and Fluming 
Company's ditch. The mine uses 100 in. of water, under 50 ft. pressure, 
brought through 1^ miles of ditch, for which they pay from 3^ to 5 cents 
per inch, according to the season of the year. The water season lasts 
ten months. The sluices consist of six boxes, 2 ft. wide, set on a 6 in. 
grade to the box, paved with wooden blocks 6 in. thick. A clean-up is 
made every two weeks. For the retaining of the debris, which is dumped 
into Pan Gulch, there are five brush dams and a stone dam. The 
latter is 60 ft. long on top and 16 ft. on the bottom; 12^ ft. thick on 
bottom and 1\ ft. thick on top, and is below the others. About 500 in. 
of water could be obtained for four months in the year, and 100 in. for 
six months, by digging the necessary ditches. A " giant" with 4 in. 
nozzles and 450 ft. of 8 in. pipe is used. M. Gardiner, of Ono, owner. 



256 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

Remonia Gold Mining Company (Quartz). — This is 4 miles S.W. of 
Redding, comprising three claims, known as the Denver, the Colorado, 
and the D <k B. The course of the veins is N.E. and S.W., with a dip of 
60° W., between granite walls; the width of the veins average A\ ft., and 
are heavily sulphuretted. Developments on the Denver consist of a shaft 
45 ft. deep, and two smaller ones 16 and 10 ft. deep; there is a 30 ft. 
shaft on the D & B vein. 

Richmond Mine (Quartz). — It is 3| miles W. of Igo, and comprises 
a full claim on a 2-J ft. vein, coursing N.E. and S.W., and dipping 
nearly vertical in granite, with 6 to 8 in. width. There are three shafts, 
40, 60, and 80 ft. deep, with some drifting. The ore, which carries 
a large percentage of sulphurets containing silver and gold, is shipped. 
J. B. Wright, of Igo, owner. 

Sacramento Pliocene Mine (Drift). — This is in Oregon Gulch, in Sec. 
15, T. 31 N., R. 5 W., 5 miles S.W. from Redding, and comprises 1,200 
by 1,200 ft. The gravel deposit, 2 ft. thick and 600 ft. wide, lies on a 
slate bedrock overlaid with about 70 ft. of sandstone. This gravel is 
dark colored, tight, with large bowlders on the bottom; the gold is on 
and in the bedrock. The property is opened with a perpendicular 
shaft 6 by 6 ft., 42 ft. deep; from the bottom a drift has been driven E. 
125 ft. The mine is supplied with a 25 horse-power upright steam 
hoist, which has a 1-J in. Blake suction pump attached, running eight 
hours per day. The engine consumes one fourth of a cord of oak wood 
per day. Breasting and washing have not been commenced. Dr. L. A. 
McLane et al., of Sacramento, owners. 

Salt Creek Group of Mines (Quartz). — They are on Salt Creek, A.\ 
miles N.W. of Redding, and are the following claims: The Bonanza, 
Corinne, Jumbo, Gold Coin, and Phoenix. 

The Bonanza lies on the west side of the creek, parallel to and 400 ft. 
distant from the Corinne on the east side. A diorite dike lies between 
the two, and porphyry forms the opposite walls. These two veins have 
a N. and S. course and vertical dip. A shaft has been sunk 300 ft. on 
the ledge, which has an average width of 3 ft., with a gouge on both 
sides. A short tunnel of 30 ft. has also been run on the vein. 

The Corinne, a N. and S. vein, has been exposed by an open cut along 
the apex. A tunnel 135 ft. long from the west cuts a 4 ft. vein, 20 in. of 
which carries a large percentage of high-grade sulphurets. 

The Jumbo, an E. and W. vein pitching N., crosses the Bonanza and 
Corinne ledges. A 30 ft. shaft sunk on the vein, dipping W., passed 
through a pay shoot carrying very coarse free gold. A tunnel on the 
vein, to intercept the shaft, has been driven 40 ft. In the breast the 
vein is from 1\ to 2^ ft. wide. 

The Gold Coin, the first extension southerly of the Corinne, has a 4 
ft. vein, with two shallow shafts and 300 ft. of the outcrop stripped. 

The Phoenix, east of the Corinne and Bonanza, is a N. and S. vein, 
2\ ft. wide. The ore is disintegrated and carries coarse gold. Ten dis- 
tinct pay shoots have been determined in these veins, carrying a small 
percentage of high-grade sulphurets. E. P. Conner, of Redding, owner. 

Schuyler Mine (Drift and Hydraulic). — It is three fourths of a mile 
from Igo. The tunnel is 1,900 ft. in length. At 1,500 ft. in is an incline 
280 ft. long. The ground is self-draining; the bedrock pitching S.E. 
Ventilation is secured by three air shafts from 48 to 66 ft. in depth. 
The breasts are from 30 to 100 ft. wide and carried 6 ft. high, with 



GOLD — SHASTA COUNTY. 257 

single post and cap timbering, also partly rock filled. The hydraulic 
portion of the claim has a 55 ft. bank, worked with 75 ft. of water pres- 
sure, and uses twenty 2 ft. sluice-boxes set on a 5 in. grade, and paved 
with block riffles. There are two brush restraining dams and one stone 
dam on Dry Creek for the debris. Chinese Company, owners. 

Scorpion Mine (Quartz). — See Niagara. 

Shea Mine (Quartz). — See Niagara. 

Snow Mine (Quartz). — See Original Quartz Hill. 

South Vein Mine (Quartz). — See Deakin & Taylor Mine. 

Spanish Vein Mine (Quartz). — See Deakin & Taylor Mine. 

Spardy Mine (Quartz).— This claim, 1,500 by 600 ft., is on Flat Creek, 
2^ miles S.W. from Copely. The 7 ft. vein courses E. and W., dipping 
45° S., and is an extension of the Vanderver & Bullard, with syenite 
and porphyry walls. A cross-cut driven 450 ft. cuts the ledge, along 
which the drift has been run 500 ft.; the ground from there to the 
surface is mostly stoped. Barney Conroy, of Redding, owner. 

Spellman Mine (Quartz). — This claim, 3,000 by 600 ft., is 3 miles 
S.W. from Copely. The 2 ft. vein courses E. and W., dipping S., 
between syenite walls. Developments consist of two tunnels on the 
vein, from the bank of Spring Creek, about 300 ft. in length. The 
quartz carries about 1^ per cent of iron and copper sulphides of good 
grade. J. Spellman, Joe Mott, and D. Haskell, of Redding, owners. 

Spring Gulch Mine (Quartz). — This claim, 1,500 by 600 ft., is 1\ miles 
N. of Whiskytown. The vein, from 2 in. to 1 ft. wide, courses N. and S., 
with an easterly dip, in porphyry. Developments consist of three tun- 
nels on the vein, one below another; No. 1. 40 ft., No. 2, 50 ft., and No. 
3, 212 ft. long. An upraise from the lower tunnel is at present 40 ft. 
high. L. Riel and J. R. Woodward, of Stella, owners. 

Storm Mine (Quartz). — See Original Quartz Hill. 

Sugarloaf Mine (Quartz). — This is 4 miles W. of Redding, and com- 
prises 20 acres. The 5 in. vein courses a little S. of E., with a vertical 
dip, between slate and quartzite, to a heavier lode running N. and S. 
Developments consist of a shaft 22 ft., sunk on the smaller vein, with a 
small drift. The quartz is mostly specimen rock, carrying some tellu- 
ride with iron sulphurets, and is worked in a hand mortar. E. D. 
Hendrick et al., of Redding, owners. 

Summit Mine (Quartz). — See Niagara Mine. 

Sunny Hill Mine (Quartz). — This claim, 7 miles W. of Ono, is not 
being worked at present. The 4 ft. vein courses N. and S., with a 
vertical dip, between porphyry and slate walls. The ochery ore is 
sacked and shipped. The ore carries a large percentage of sulphurets. 
A 5-stamp mill and a 5 ft. Huntington roller mill, belonging to the 
property, are run by a 4 ft. turbine. The sulphurets are saved on 
blankets. The ore is hauled to the mill on sledges. Sharp Manufac- 
turing Company, of Ono, owners. 

Surprise Gold Mining and Milling Company (Quartz). — This claim, 
1,500 by 600 ft., is If miles N. from Shasta City. The 12 ft. vein courses 
N. 58° E., between porphyry walls. A double-compartment shaft, at 
present 50 ft. deep, has been started in the wall a few feet from the vein. 
The quartz carries 1-J per cent of high-grade sulphurets. The mine 
makes 150. gallons of water per hour. Surprise Gold Mining and Mill- 
ing Company, owners; J. Gilson, of San Francisco, Secretary. 

17m 



258 • REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

Texas Consolidated Mine (Quartz). — See oar Xth Report, p. 629. This 
is 8 miles N. of Redding, and comprises 519 acres. There are three veins 
being exploited; the main ledge, which has no outcrop, is about 8 ft. wide, 
and courses N. and S. ; another vein is 380 ft. E., and another 125 ft. W. 
These have a dip of about 80° E., with good slate walls, and with gouge 
on both sides. The mine is opened by five tunnels, No. 5 being 1,500 ft. 
long on the vein and 910 ft. below the surface. The ore in the breast 
carries 2\ per cent of sulphurets, besides some tellurides. The ore shoot 
is over 600 ft. in length. An aerial tramway conveys the ore from No. 5 
level over \\ miles to the 20-stamp mill, on. the Sacramento River. The 
mill contains 825 lb. stamps; a grizzly, with 1^ in. apertures between 
bars; a rockbreaker; Hendy self-feeders, working from the center stamp; 
steel shoes and dies, and both front and back plates inside the battery. 
The duty of each stamp is 2 tons per day. A small 18 in. apron-plate 
delivers the pulp through a trap to a double sluice-plate, 18 in. wide and 
20 ft. long; these have a grade of 1^ in. to the foot. Eight improved 
Triumph concentrators dispose of the concentrates, the tailings passing 
over a canvas plant of twenty sections, 24 ft. long, set on a grade of 7 in. 
for the entire length. The final tailings are reported as assaying 25 cents 
per ton. About 50 men are employed in the mine, and about 75 men 
through the entire works. The engine is of 50 horse-power, and 5 cords of 
wood are used per day. E. G. Hart, of Whitehouse, owner. 

Thompson Mine (Quartz). — This claim, 1,500 by 600 ft., is 2\ miles 
S.W. from Shasta City. The course of the 3 ft. vein is a little N. of W. 
and dips 50° N., near the contact of granite and porphyry. An in- 
cline shaft, sunk about 80 ft., is intersected by a tunnel run 125 ft. on 
the vein. The ore is sorted and shipped. See our Xlth Report, p. 40. 
— Thompson, of Shasta City, owner. 

Uncle Sam Gold Mine (Quartz). — See our Xth Report, p. 629. This 
is 7 miles W. from Kennett, and comprises seven claims, besides two 
sections of timber land; employing 67 men in the mine, and 80 men 
altogether. The vein courses N. 80° W. and dips 55° N., with a par- 
allel back vein about 100 ft. distant, both in porphyritic rock. The 
main vein shows a width of 6 in. to 10 ft; the back vein 2 in. to 6 ft. 
The quartz carries about 1\ per cent of iron and copper pyrites. The 
developments consist of several tunnels opening on the vein in different 
levels. No. 3 is the main working tunnel, from which the ore is con- 
veyed by mule and horse power, five and six cars of 1^ tons each at a 
load, over a 1,700 ft. tramway flanking the hillside, to a double incline 
track 475 ft. long leading to the mill. No. 3 is a cross-cut for 1,200 ft., 
where it breaks into the vein at right angles and turns east on the vein 
800 ft., and west 700 ft.; at the west end it shows 14 ft. of a vein, but is 
somewhat smaller at the east end. Three shoots have been developed 
on the main vein, pitching west, and one on the back vein. Three 
upraises connect No. 3 tunnel with the works above, which show a 
large amount of reserved ore well opened up. Between tunnels No. 3 
and No. 2 the distance on the slope of the upraise is 440 ft.; thence to 
No. 1, 100 ft.; thence to the surface, 230 ft. 

A compressor plant for three drills is operated by water power under 
250 ft. pressure, as is, part of the time, the 30-stamp mill and Hunt- 
ington roller mill with the four Triumph and ten Frue concentrators. 
The mill averages about 60 tons per twenty-four hours. A 60 horse- 
power engine runs the mill machinery part of the year. 



GOLD — SHASTA COUNTY. 259 

A peculiar drop of the stamps is found here, being arranged 5, 4, 3, 1, 
2, and feeding from No. 2 stamp, being placed a little farther from the 
end of the mortar than No. 5 at the opposite end. The number of drops 
is 92, with 5 in. drop and 6 to 7 in. discharge, using Nos. 40 and 45 slot 
burr screens; aprons have 1^ in. grade. 

A large canvas plant, consisting of two tables, 36 by 20 ft. and 24 by 
20 ft., with 2-J ft. sections, is covered with drilling instead of canvas, 
and is found to do the work as efficiently. These tables are set on a 
grade of 1^ in. to the foot. 

The company chlorinate their own concentrates, and have a small 
double-hearth furnace, with a capacity of 2,400 lbs. in twenty-four hours, 
using chlorine gas direct and saving the gold only. The elevation at 
the office of the works is 2,025 ft. English Company, London, owners; 
W. M. James, of Kennett, Superintendent. 

Utah and California Gold Mine (Quartz). — It is 7 miles N. of Red- 
ding, and comprises 400 acres. The vein, from 3 to 50 ft. in width, 
courses N. and S. and dips about 80° E., in porphyry walls. The ore 
carries a large percentage of sulphurets. The mine is developed through 
three tunnels — the Josephine, Emmeline, and Main tunnel. The Jose- 
phine is run on the vein and is 900 ft. long. The Emmeline, 70 ft. 
lower, is partially cross-cutting for 450 ft., then turned both north and 
south on the vein 700 ft. The Main tunnel is 1,100 ft. in length and 
450 ft. below the surface at the breast, with 500 ft. drifted on the vein. 
An upraise to connect the tunnels is at present all the active work being 
carried out. Up to date 14,000 tons of ore have been extracted and 
milled. The ore shoot is 700 ft. in length. On account of the impossi- 
bility of extracting anything near the full value of the ore by the present 
milling process, and the heavy expense connected with the shipping and 
working of the ores at outside points, no pay ore is at present being 
stoped. 

The company owns a 10-stamp steam mill, 1,400 ft. from the mine, on 
the Sacramento River, hauling the ore at a cost of 65 cents per ton. The 
mill is supplied with a No. 1 Blake crusher, Hendy self-feeders, and 
1,200 lb. stamps, supplied with chrome steel cams, shoes, and dies; the 
life of the shoes is 90 days, with a duty of 2-J tons per stamp per day 
when working at 90 drops per minute, with 3-§ to 5 in. drop, and 6 in. 
discharge, through a No. 35 slot-cut Russian iron screen. The bat- 
teries are provided with front and back inside plates, and 4 by 12 ft. 
aprons, set on a 1\ in. grade to the foot. The aprons, scraped daily, 
yield an equal amount of amalgam with the batteries. Cyanide of 
potassium solution and lye are used in the batteries and on the plates. 
Four Frue vanners save the sulphurets. The mill, when running, con- 
sumes 4 cords of wood per day (pine and oak), at a cost of $4 per cord. 
Timbers are delivered at 6 cents per running foot. The timbers in the 
mine do not last over three years. 

Artificial ventilation for the main tunnel is supplied by suction, a 
furnace on the outside drawing the vitiated air through 1,500 ft. of pipe. 
Water for use in the mill is pumped from the river. Miners' wages are 
$2 50 per day; millmen receive $4. See our Xth Report, p. 630. J. R. 
and M. H. Walker, of Salt Lake, owners. 

Vanderver & Bullard Mine (Quartz). — This claim, 3,000 by 600 ft., is 
2\ miles S.W. from Copely. The vein courses E. and W. and dips about 
45° S., between a syenite hanging-wall and porphyry foot-wall. The 



260 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

quartz carries 1 per cent of copper and iron sulphides. Developments 
consist of a cross-cut tunnel 150 ft. to the ledge, and then turned on the 
course of the vein for 305 ft., giving 100 ft. of backs. Above, on the 
slope of the hill, two smaller tunnels run to the vein. In connection 
with the mine is a 3^ ft. Huntington mill, not running, with No. 60 slot 
screen and a 10 ft. apron 30 in. wide, supplied with a cross riffle every 
14 in. Vanderver & Bullard, of Copely, owners. 

Washington Mine (Quartz). — See our Xth Report, p. 625. It is 4 miles 
W. of French Gulch, and comprises 82 acres of patented land. There 
are two systems of veins on the property, a N. and S. and an E. and W.; 
the walls are porphyry and slate. The N. and S. vein dips 45° E., 
with a width varying from 1 to 8 ft. on the contact; the ore is low grade, 
with occasional short shoots of higher-grade ore. The E. and W. veins, 
of which four are known, are from a few inches to several feet in width 
and about 60 ft. apart. Timbers cost 5 to 7 cents per foot, and lagging 
5 cents apiece. There is a 10-stamp mill with a capacity of 1 ton per 
stamp. See our Xlth Report, p. 635. W. G. Van Meter et al., of 
French Gulch, owners. 

West End Mine (Quartz). — This is 1 mile S. of Whisky town, and com- 
prises 1,500 by 600 ft. There are three veins on the claim; two course 
N. and S., while the third courses E. and W. The main N. and S. vein 
is 3 ft. wide, and the smaller one about 12 in., both between porphyry 
walls. The E. and W. vein is iron capped, about 8 ft. wide. They are 
sinking a double-compartment vertical shaft 4 by 8 ft. in the wall near 
the principal N. and S. vein, and is 60 ft. deep at present. Messrs. 
D. B. Hunt et al., of Stella, owners. 

West Point Mine (Quartz).— This claim, 1,500 by 600 ft., is 3^ miles 
from Shasta. The 20 in. vein courses E. and W. and dips 55° N., 
between a slate foot-wall and a porphyry hanging-wall. Developments 
are a 40 ft. shaft and a tunnel which will tap the vein at about 160 ft. 
The hanging-wall side of the vein requires solid timbering. The gold 
in this section sells for $18 per ounce. G. W. Boswell, of Shasta, owner. 

World's Fair Mine (Quartz).— This claim, 1,500 by 600 ft., is 2-J miles 
N.E. from Igo. The vein, from 3 to 9 ft. wide, courses N. 20° E., dip- 
ping slightly W., between slate and porphyry walls. Developed by a 
tunnel on the vein 130 ft. long, with 100 ft. of backs. The quartz car- 
ries a good percentage of sulphurets, largely iron. John Doeblein, of 
Redding, owner. 

Yellow Jacket Mine (Quartz). — This claim, 1,500 by 600 ft., is 3 miles 
N.E. from Copely. The vein courses nearly. E. and W., and dips nearly 
vertical. The walls are syenite and porphyry. The ore is high-grade 
quartz, carrying galena and iron pyrites. Developments to date consist 
of an open cut and 50 ft. of a cross-cut tunnel. W. Emerson and W. 
Slimmer, of Copely, owners. 

SIERRA COUNTY. 

The languishing of the mining industry during the past few years 
has been perhaps felt more severely in this county than anywhere else 
within the State, from the fact that only a small portion of its lands are 
suited for agricultural pursuits, and that the working of the large areas 
of auriferous gravels was hampered by the law. But aside from these 
facts, several of the oldest paying mines had reached a point where the 



GOLD — SIERRA COUNTY. 261 

cost of production left too small a margin for profit, and the once exten- 
sive works, with their large busy crews, were being managed on a greatly 
reduced scale. The revival of mining throughout the auriferous belt of 
California is likewise beginning to penetrate into the mountains and 
deep canons of the Sierra; foreign capital is investigating the possibil- 
ities of this section, and already some properties have changed hands 
and are being enlarged and placed on a firmer working basis. That 
there are still large possibilities for successful mining operations, nobody 
acquainted with the county and its mining record will dispute. 

Alaska Mine (Quartz). — This property was mentioned in our Vlth 
Report (Part II), p. 58. It is about one fourth of a mileN.E. of Pike City, 
and comprises four claims, making 52.88 acres; altitude, 3,800 ft. The 
vein courses N.E. with a vertical dip, between slate and porphyry walls, 
and has a width of 2-i ft. The quartz carries a small amount of low- 
grade iron sulphurets. The mine has lately been reopened and the 
intention is to run a deep drain tunnel to lessen the expense of pump- 
ing. The present drain tunnel intersects the shaft at a depth of 50 ft.; 
the new drain tunnel is started from Oregon Gulch and will cut the vein 
several hundred feet below the shaft, and will be the main working 
tunnel. Machine drills are to be used, and when completed the mill will 
be removed to its mouth. Alaska Mining Company, of San Francisco, 
owners; G. Lux, Secretary. 

Alturas Mine (Placer). — See our Xlth Report, p. 332. It is a tailings 
claim on Slate Creek, and extends 5-J miles N. from the La Porte and 
Port Wine crossing. The average depth of the gravel at present worked 
is 6 ft., though in places it is over 40 ft. A bedrock cut, one half mile 
long, has been blasted out, the course of the creek straightened, and 
extra fall obtained by tunneling through the projecting points; the 
whole having cost $20,000. A link-belt elevator is used to raise the 
gravel; water power, under 100 ft. pressure, acts on a Packer wheel, 
which is similar to a Pelton. Part of the channel contains rich virgin 
gravel. The gravel and tailings are washed through a series of boxes 
set on an 8 in. grade to the 12 ft. box, using cross and slat riffles. There 
are 25 men employed. 

Atom Gold Mine (Quartz). — This is 4 miles N.E. from Camptonville, 
in Lincoln township, and comprises two claims. The vein courses E. of 
N., standing nearly vertical, between slate and porphyritic walls, with 
a width varying from 1 in. to 2 ft. The quartz contains a few iron 
sulphurets and some coarse free gold. The method of working has 
been confined to washing off the outcrop through sluices and piling up 
the quartz for future arrastra reduction. For this purpose 400 ft. of 
sluices are employed, 16 in. wide, with Hungarian riffles; 20 to 50 in. of 
water from Sleigh ville Ravine is used under 70 ft. pressure; the season 
extends over five months. E. C. Cochrane et al., of Camptonville, Yuba 
County, owners. 

Bald Mountain Extension Mine (Drift). — See our VHIth and Xlth 
Reports, pp. 580 and 408. It is*2| miles E. of Forest City. The 
present workings are down channel, requiring the sinking of an incline 
130 ft. to a perpendicular depth of 30 ft., and the driving of a gangway 
on the course of the channel to cut the same, and so work this section 
up the stream. The water is cut off from the incline in the old works 
and hauled up in cars, holding 300 gallons each, to the main tunnel; 
they are loaded with the help of a Chinese pump worked by hand 



262 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

power. Six cars of water are taken out on a shift. Work will shortly 
be resumed on the upstream or northern portion of the channel, where 
a considerable body of gravel remains untouched. It appears that a 
part of the lava channel runs alongside of the gravel channel, and may 
have cut through it. 

At the head of the incline is a gasoline engine of 6 horse-power for 
hoisting. A tank of 24x24x8 ft. holds the wash water, and washing is 
done every time the tank fills. The dump holds several thousand 
carloads of 1 ton weight each; the present output is 60 cars per day, or 5 
cars to each breaster. The head boxes are cleaned weekly, the remainder 
of the 500 ft. of sluices twice a year. Twenty men find employment 
around the works. Bald Mountain Extension Drift Mining Company, 
owners; R. Forbes, of Downieville, Superintendent. 

Bigelow Mine (Quartz). — See our Xlth Report, p. 413. It is a south 
extension of one of the Sierra Buttes veins, located in Sec. 28, T. 20 N., 
R. 12 E. The vein courses" E. and W. and pitches very flat to the N. 
A feature of peculiar interest is the intersection of the ledge for a 
distance of 80 ft. by a lava dike. O. Bigelow, of Sierra City, owner. 

Brandy City Mine (Hydraulic). — This is in Brandy City, at an eleva- 
tion of 3,700 feet above sea-level. This channel has been extensively 
worked in former years. They are at present engaged in building flumes 
and dams in connection with their impounding works, for which pur- 
pose over 1\ miles of flume will have to be built to convey the debris to 
the pits where it will be retained. This flume will be 4 by 3^ ft., set on 
a 4 in. grade, and will deposit the debris in an old pit closed by a brush 
dam; the muddy water after settling passes through an old shaft and 
tunnel in the rim rock, into the North Yuba River. The present bank 
shows a height of 225 ft., with 50 ft. of lava cap, the gravel being 
largely composed of small quartz. Under the present contemplated 
workings only a part of this gravel can be worked. The present water 
supply is obtained from Cherokee Creek, and is delivered under 225 ft. 
pressure; they own a water right also on Hoosier Creek, but their flumes 
have been destroyed. The company own their own sawmill, which is 
engaged in sawing flume lumber, running night and day. The course 
of the Brandy City channel, which has been referred to by some parties 
as part of the Port Wine channel, is from W. to E., and has but little 
grade in the present pit. The bedrock is slate, and an outlet tunnel has 
been driven through to Canon Creek, for which purpose the company 
used a compressor and two Burleigh drills. The channel averages about 
500 ft. in width. The water is conveyed through a pipe reducing from 
22 in. to 15 in. and to 9 in., and delivered by three "giants," with 5-J in. 
nozzles. The company use rock pavement and block riffles in their 
flumes; the latter are 22 in. by 14-J in. and 12 in. thick, costing $12 per 
thousand, board measure. The gravel is said to contain platinum. All 
freight has to be brought from Camptonville by pack animals, costing 
1 cent per pound. Wages are $2 50 per day, and at present 25 men 
are being employed. Brandy City Hydraulic Mining Company, owners; 
J. Redington, of Camptonville, Yuba County, Superintendent. 

Bullion (Fessler) Mine (Quartz). — See our Xlth Report, p. 407. It is 
about 1 mile E. of Alleghany. The vein, supposed to be the same as the 
Plumbago, is being opened from the Minnesota side of the ridge; it has 
an E. and W. strike and a N. clip, with porphyry and serpentine walls. 
Developments consist of several tunnels along the outcrop of the vein. 



GOLD — SIERRA COUNTY. 268 

The quartz carries arsenical pyrites, and is reduced in a hand mortar. 
J. Fessler, of Alleghany, owner. 

Bunker Hill Mining Company (Drift). — This is 4 miles N.E. of Brandy 
City, on the Brandy City and Eureka ridge, and comprises 480 acres. 
Several tunnels have been run into the ridge by former companies, which 
are now partially caved. The present company is cleaning out one that 
starts into the ridge in an N. and S. course at an elevation of 4,450 ft. 
above sea-level, and it is now in 250 ft. At 100 ft. from the mouth 
gravel comes into the top of the drift and continues till within 50 ft. of 
the breast, when the bedrock again raises. This gravel is of a dark 
color, free, and prospects a little, the gold being of the coarse order and 
selling at $17 50 per ounce. Another tunnel, 40 ft. higher, cross-cuts to 
the gravel, but it is caved. At present one man is washing off the sur- 
face near Cherokee Creek below the tunnel, prospecting for evidences of 
a larger back channel, which is supposed to cross through this ground. 
On the slate bedrock quartz bowlders and coarse gold are found. Bunker 
Hill Mining Company, owners; H. A. Morse, of Downieville, Secretary. 

Cedar Gold Mine (Quartz). — It is on Kanaka Creek, in the Alleghany 
District, and comprises 1,500 by 600 ft., with an E. and W. vein, between 
slate walls, near the serpentine belt. The pay shoots are short and quite 
rich where they approach the serpentine. J. Fessler, of Alleghany, owner. 

Chips Mine (Quartz). — See our Xth and Xlth Reports, pp. 652 and 
402. 

Cleveland Mine (Quartz). — This property was described in our Xth 
and Xlth Reports, pp. 650 and 414. The drift is being extended and 
some prospect work being done. Cleveland Gold Mining Company, 
owners; J. Kain, of Sierra City, Secretary. 

Clipper Ship Mine (Drift). — This is about \\ miles S.E. from St. 
Louis. The channel runs N.E. and S.W., with from 2 to 12 ft. of 
gravel, the pay being confined to the lower half. The front part of the 
mine was worked as a hydraulic. A tunnel has been driven 1,000 ft. 
to strike the channel, and an upraise of 8 to 10 ft. it is thought will 
strike into the gravel. About 800 ft. of the channel has been worked. 
The tunnel is ventilated by a water-blast; an 11 in. pipe carries the air. 
Water is obtained from the Sierra Union Water Company, and costs 30 
cents per inch per twenty-four hours for hydraulic purposes, and 40 
cents per inch for twelve hours for washing the drift gravel in sluices. 
D. Conlan, of St. Louis, owner. 

Colombo Mine (Quartz). — See our Xth Report, p. 648. It is 4 miles 
W. of Sierra City. The property is being worked by tributors, who are 
drifting between tunnels No. 1 and No. 2 on a fair grade of ore. The 
ground is much broken and can be worked entirely with the pick; it 
carries considerable clay. J. A. Roeblin Sons, of Trenton, owners. 

Cortez Mine (Hydraulic). — See Sailor Boy. 

Craycroft Mine (Hydraulic). — This claim is on Alabama Hill, 8 miles 
by trail from Downieville, at an elevation of nearly 6,000 ft., and con- 
trols 11 acres. The channel runs N. and S., with a depth of bank of 25 
to 30 ft., and no lava capping. The water season lasts three months, 
taking water from the Hearst & Haggin ditch, issuing from the east 
branch of the Middle Fork. A hose with a 2-| in. nozzle is used, with 
80 ft. pressure. The sluice tunnel is 300 ft. long, through the rim rock; 
the flume is 24 in. wide and deep, and paved with rock. The channel 



264 



REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 



is from 200 to 300 ft. wide; 25 ft. from the bedrock is a layer of big 
bowlders forming an artificial bedrock, on which the best pay is found. 
The gold is both coarse and fine, and sells for $18 per ounce. Quick- 
silver is used in the flume. Twelve men are given work during the 
season. H. Scamman et al., of Downieville, owners. 

Depot Hill Mine (Placer). — It is 5 miles N. of Camptonville, on the 
Yuba County line, but the works are in Sierra County. The property 
comprises about 60 acres. The property was formerly worked as a 
hydraulic claim, the bank being 125 ft. high and all gravel, except a 
small soil capping. The gravel is small and contains trunks of petrified 
trees. The course of the channel is N. 28° E., and it is held to be part 
of the channel that comes from Brandy City through Grizzly and- 
Indian Hill Diggings, but the evidence in this direction is far from 
convincing. The bedrock has a very flat grade, on account of which a 
bedrock tunnel is being run up to the old pit, and has a length of 500 
ft.; it is at present well timbered throughout, and of such dimensions as 
to permit the placing of a 30 in. flume below the track when completed, 
the posts being 8 ft. high placed on sills 5 ft. apart. The water supply 
comes from the head of Willow Creek through half a mile of ditch, 
furnishing part of the year 250 in., and all the year 25 in. There are 
5,000 ft. of flume, 30 by 24 in., lined with block riffles and set to a 
grade of from 2 to 2 -J in. to the box. The head boxes are cleaned up as 
occasion demands, but the main flume is only cleaned up once a year. 
The gold is over .900 fine and about the size of wheat grains. Forty 
acres of the ground have been worked during the past twenty-seven 
years; 20 acres still remain. The work is confined to driving the tunnel 
ahead and cleaning up the bedrock; the latter being slate, slacks- down 
several inches when exposed to atmospheric influences, and can be 
repeatedly washed off. Small quartz stringers traverse the slate all 
over, and no doubt, as they carry sulphurets, help to enrich the bedrock. 
F. Joubert et al., of Camptonville, owners. 

Docile Mine (Quartz). — This is on the South Fork of Kanaka Creek, 
2 miles N.E. from Alleghany, and contains 1,200 by 400 ft. on a N. and 
S. vein, dipping to the E., in serpentine, with partial slate casings. The 
vein carries considerable mariposite. The walls are about 4 ft. apart, 
inclosing from 8 to 18 in. of quartz. The pay shoots are short, carrying 
a large percentage of arsenical pyrites rich in gold. The development 
consists of two tunnels, each cross-cutting the vein at a distance of about 
450 ft., and then following the vein. The lower tunnel has a length of 
1,000 ft. In and below the upper tunnel a short pay shoot developed 
quite a swell of very rich quartz, but on working down on it the foul air 
stopped operations. The mine is being worked on a lease. Docile Gold 
Mining Company, owners; F. Smith, of San Francisco, President; J. 
Freeborough, of Alleghany, lessee. 

Dreadnaught Mine (Quartz). — This is in Dreadnaught Ravine, 2 miles 
E. of Alleghany; it comprises 1,500 by 600 ft. on a N. and S. vein, 
dipping 72° W., and has a width of 2^ ft., between slate walls. The 
developments consist of two tunnels, about 40 ft. apart; the lower one is 
about 500 ft. long; the upper one, which reaches farther on the vein, 
shows a good-sized vein in the breast, while below it is pinched to a 
small seam. The quartz carries some sulphurets. A small Kendall 
1-stamp mill, run in summer by the water in the ravine, does the crush- 
ing. S. S. Crafts & Son, of Alleghany, owners. 



GOLD — SIERRA COUNTY. 



265 



-in 




Empire Mine (Quartz). — This property is in Sees. 25 and 26, T. 21 N., 
R. 11 E., in Gold Valley, 13 miles E. of Downieville, and is reached by 
pack trail. The vein courses N. 65° E. and dips 50° S.E.; the walls are 
partly slate and partly diabase. A heavy dike, striking E. and W., 
cuts the vein and throws it to the west. The. pay shoot, 8 ft. wide, 
commences near the surface on the south side of the crossing, and 
pitches to the south, carrying about 6 per cent of sulphurets. Numerous 
quartz seams make oil' on the hanging- wall side, and have been followed 
in some instances. 

The developments consist of a main tunnel on the vein 700 ft. long 
and 209 ft. below the outcrop. At 200 ft. from its mouth a shaft (No. 1 ) 
has been sunk 35 ft., and 100 ft. 
beyond this is a shaft (No. 2) 
52 ft. deep, which has been 
continued upward 161 ft. to the 
surface. Above the collar of 
the air shaft is an upper tun- 
nel 200 ft. in length. In the 
bottom of shaft No. 2, below 

the main tunnel, is a fine vein s*cr/OA/ or £mp//?£ /*we,s/£R*a co. 
5 ft. wide. The ore is hoisted by windlass, and the arrangements for 
ventilation are very inadequate. Large sums of money have been 
expended for the reduction of the ores; furnaces and a chlorination 
plant, besides a mill (Tustin pulverizer) and a cyanide plant, having 
been tried at different times, but without effective results. It is the 
intention to replace all these with a stamp mill. A great hindrance to 
the working of the mine is the high altitude, over 7,000 ft., with the 
long winters (six months) and deep snows. G. D. Gray et al., of San 
Francisco, owners. 

Excelsior Mine (Drift). — It is 1^ miles S.E. of St. Louis, and com- 
prises 48 acres. A bedrock tunnel, in hard blue slate, extends 1,400 
ft. back into the ridge, but will have to be continued at least 1,500 ft. to 
tap the Howland Flat and Port Wine channels; a 30 ft. upraise from 
the tunnel cut into an overflow of gravel 200 ft. wide. The gangways 
are over 400 ft. long, and come out to the surface on the face of the 
bank. The main gangway runs S. 42° E. up the middle of the claim; 
the drifts, run N.E. and S.W., are carried from 3^ to 4^ ft. high. The 
breasts, 100 ft. wide, are timbered with square sets and lagged. Four 
to five carloads, weighing a ton each, are breasted out per man. The 
gravel yields both coarse and fine gold, worth $19 50 per ounce. The 
water from the mine is gathered in an old cut, 120 ft. long by 20 ft. 
deep, and is used for washing once a day. The line of sluices is 60 ft. 
long and 14 in. wide; quicksilver is used in the 
last three boxes, and they are cleaned up after 
each washing. The lava and pipe- clay capping 
is from 200 to 300 ft., and the gravel 70 ft. deep. 
Excelsior Drift Mining Company, owners; W. N. 
Bissett, of St. Louis, Superintendent. 

Feather Fork (Thistle Shaft) Gold Gravel Com- 
pany (Drift). — The property has been described 
in our Xlth Report, pp. 330 and 419, and is 
situated on the Gibsonville Ridge, 2 miles S. W. 
from Gibsonville. The shaft is 450 ft. deep. Operations in the former 
workings have been suspended, and a new station started 20 ft. above, 




PL A IV OF THISTLE MINE MOBK/MSS. 



266 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

and a main gangway run diagonally to the channel, thence 500 ft. N. 
From this gangway five 60 ft. "runs" start. The present output is 
3,000 carloads of 1 ton each, which will be increased in the spring to 
8,000 carloads. Seventy men are employed. Feather Fork Gold Gravel 
Company, of Gibsonville, owners. 

Fessler Mine (Quartz). — See Bullion. 

Garibaldi Mine (Quartz). — See our Xlth Report, p. 405. 

Gibsonville Water and Nevada Mining Company (Hydraulic). — This 
is three fourths of a mile N.E. of Gibsonville, on the north branch of 
Slate Creek. The work was done on what was supposed to be the front 
channel of the Gibsonville Ridge. The bank is from 8 to 9 ft. deep, 
and carries quartz gravel. G. W. Cox, of Table Rock, agent. 

Glidden (Gold Lake) Mine (Quartz). — This is in Gold Valley, 1| 
miles N.E. from the Empire Mine, in T. 21 N., R. 11 E., and is closed 
down through litigation. 

Gold Bluff Mine (Quartz). — This property was described in our VIHth 
Report, p. 579, and is 1^ miles N.E. of Downieville. It recently changed 
hands, and the new owners have reconstructed the entire plant. The 
mill of 20-stamps has been placed on the level of tunnel No. 4, and on 
account of the lack of space between it and the river, the ore, after pass- 
ing through the Blake crusher, is hoisted by an elevator to the ore-bin, 
which has a capacity of 500 tons. The 20 stamps weigh 850 lbs. each, 
and drop 5 in. 80 times a minute, in the following order: 5, 1, 4, 2, 3, 
with a 6 in. discharge, through a No. 7 diagonal slot screen. The cams, 
tappets, and bosses are steel, as well as the shoes and dies. The plat- 
ing consists of a short battery plate; a 4 by 4 ft. apron, set on a If in. 
grade, leading to a quicksilver trap, followed by 6 ft. of plates set on a 
1^ in. grade. Below follow four Johnston concentrators, set at 110 
strokes, the belt revolving once in seven minutes. The water that passes 
over the upper end of the concentrator is passed through five boxes 
below, entering alternately top and bottom and depositing slime sul- 
phurets in each. The tailings from the concentrates are pumped up and 
passed over a pointed box (Spitzkasten) and a series of drop boxes, before 
dropping into the river. The water is applied under 275 ft. pressure, 
acting on a 5 ft. Dodd wheel for the elevator and the rockbreaker, a 6 
ft. Dodd for the mill, and a 3 ft. Dodd for the concentrators. The plates 
are cleaned up every other day, the battery once a month, and the inside 
battery plate every day. It is claimed that 86 per cent is saved in the 
battery and only 14 per cent on the plates; and 80 per cent of this latter 
comes from the battery apron-plate. The tailings are said to assay only 
a trace. The sulphurets are dried and stored with the intention of erect- 
ing a small chlorination plant later. The crushing capacity will like- 
wise be increased as soon as the developments of the mine progress. 
Gold Bluff Mining Company, owners; W. Kraft, of Downieville, Super- 
intendent. 

Golden King Mine (Quartz). — See our Xlth Report, p. 417. It is 1^ 
miles E. of Alleghany, and comprises two claims, 2,400 by 600 ft., situ- 
ated on both sides of Kanaka Creek. At date of visit, tunnel No. 1 had 
reached a length of 350 ft.; tunnel No. 2, 550 ft., and tunnel No. 3, on 
the south of the creek, 235 ft. Between No. 1 and No. 2 a perpendicular 
double-compartment shaft, 4 by 8 ft. in the clear, timbered and plank- 
lined, has been put down 114 ft. A steam hoisting works and a 4 in. 
Dow pump are in course of construction. The mine makes 2 in. of 



GOLD — SIERRA COUNTY. 267 

water. A mill site has been graded and a mill will be erected as soon 
as the hoisting works are completed. The engine is of 1 5 horse-power, 
with an upright boiler. Ventilation is secured by a water-blast in the 
shaft. Twenty-four men are employed. Golden King Mining Company, 
owners; L. H. Newton, of Alleghany, Superintendent. 

Good Hope Mine (Quartz). — See Oxford Mine. 

Hanley & Co.'s Gravel Claim (Drift). — The claim is in French Ravine 
District, about 3 miles from Alleghany, and comprises 140 acres of 
patented ground, containing an E. and W. channel, about 400 ft. wide, 
only 150 ft. of which (that adjoining the south rim) carries pay. The 
lava capping is 75 ft. deep; the gravel is 50 ft. deep, of the blue charac- 
ter, quartz and slate mixed, carrying 35 per cent of bowlders and cob- 
bles, which, on account of the scarcity of available water, are closely 
sorted out in the mine. 

The gold, scattered throughout the lower part of the gravel, is fine 
and flaky, selling for $18 75 per ounce. Four tunnels have been run at 
different levels, but only two were deep enough. The present working 
tunnel, 6 by 6 ft., has a course N. 25° W. It is run in serpentine the 
greater distance, but partly in lava and cement. At 1,800 ft. it reaches 
the channel. The gravel gangway extends up the channel 400 ft., and 
an estimated length of 4,000 ft. of channel lies beyond. The gravel 
breasts are carried 40 ft. wide; the drifts are 6 ft. high. In the main 
tunnel the posts are 6 ft., caps 4 ft. The ventilation in the mine is very 
imperfect, but this will be remedied as soon as the connection is com- 
pleted between the two tunnels. From 3 to 4 in. of water issues from 
the tunnel, and is retained in a reservoir 16 by 20 by 20 ft., for washing. 
The dump will carry 3,000 carloads; 20 carloads can be washed a day 
in summer time with 30 ft. pressure through a 2 in. nozzle. The gravel, 
being cemented, is washed through two strings of sluices with a 25 ft. 
drop and a bedrock flume between them; the tailings are impounded 
behind a brush dam, and after two years' slacking are run through a 
third string of sluices. The sluices are 16 in. wide and 14 in. high, 
and supplied with cross riffles, blocks, and rocks; the entire length of 
the sluices is over 600 ft. The head boxes are cleaned up every two 
weeks, the main sluices every three months. Quicksilver is used in the 
lower part of the sluices; the gold does not unite with it readily. W. 
F. Hanley et al., of Alleghany, owners. 

Happy Hollow Mine (Drift). — See Union Consolidated. 

Hawkeye and Bell Point Consolidated Gravel Mine (Drift). — It is 5 
miles N.E. from Minnesota. The channel courses N.E. and S.W. and is 
600 ft. wide, between rims, with from 6 to 18 ft. of gravel, which is 
white quartz; the pay streak extends 175 ft. across. The gravel is 
breasted 50 ft. wide on both sides of the gangway, and the drifts are 
carried from 3| to 4^ ft. high, timbered with single posts and caps. A 
breaster takes down 5 carloads per shift. The claim has a width of 800 
ft., and extends a mile on the course of the channel. The tunnel is run 
400 ft. up the channel, partly in bedrock; about 400 ft. in length of the 
channel has been worked. The dump holds 3,000 loads, and the gravel 
is washed from a reservoir 18 by 8 ft., through 120 ft. of sluices 14 in. 
wide; the boxes are cleaned weekly. The gold is fine and worth $18 60 
per ounce, and is obtained with the aid of quicksilver. Ventilation is 
effected through air gangways. Water is brought through 1-J miles of 
ditch from the head of Little Wolf Creek; the season lasts nine months 



268 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

in the year. In the spring of the year 10 in. of water issues from the 
tunnel. Martin Mehan et al., of Minnesota, owners. 

Italian Mine (Drift). — This is at the lower end of Indian Valley, and 
comprises 5 acres, being 1,000 ft. on the face of the bluff and back to 
the center of the ridge. The face is 150 ft. deep with 50 ft. of lava 
capping, 30 ft. of large rocks, and finally quartz gravel cemented on the 
bottom. The principal pay is next the slate bedrock. A drift has been 
run in 200 ft. and 10 ft. high. There are no big rocks in the gravel. 
The gold is worth $18 75 per ounce. 

Jackson's Claim (Placer). — This is on the S. side of the North Yuba, 
9 miles N.W. of Camptonville. The property consists of 1,500 by 600 ft. 
along the bank of the river, and a tailings claim up One Horse Ravine. 
The elevation of the North Yuba River at this point is 2,450 ft. The 
river bar carries about 25 ft. of gravel, which was partly worked in 
former times with large returns. The gold is shaped like wheat grains. 
The channel of the former river here has a N.E. and S.W. course, and is 
about 120 ft. wide; 200 ft. of the channel has been breasted out to a 
height of 4 ft., and timbered with posts and caps. The water season 
lasts about sixty days. E. T. Jackson, of Camptonville, owner. 

Kanaka Mine (Quartz). — See our Xlth Report, p. 404. L. Voss, of 
Downieville, owner. 

Keystone Gold Mine (Quartz). — See our Xth and Xlth Reports, pp. 
653 and 403. 

Lawlor Mine (Quartz). — See Mount Moriah. 

Lone Star Consolidated Gold Mining Conpany (Quartz). — The prop- 
erty was described in our Xlth Report, p. 405, and is situated in Gold 
Valley, in Sec. 25, T. 20 N., R. 11 E., about 13| miles E. of Downieville, 
at an altitude of nearly 7,000 ft. The vein courses N.W. A tunnel has 
been run 600 ft., cross-cutting a large low-grade quartz vein, and con- 
tinued beyond to the Lone Star vein, on which it is turned north; 
the depth gained is only 80 ft. The tunnel is being driven ahead by 
two men on contract. Lone Star Consolidated Gold Mining Company, 
owners; J. Weissbein, of Grass Valley, Secretary. 

Lucky Hill Mine (Drift). — This claim is 1^ miles S.W. from St. Louis 
and 3 miles from Scales Diggings, on the ridge between Slate Creek and 
Big Canon, and it comprises 640 acres. Two small prospect shafts were 
sunk, one of which reached the rim gravel. At present a bedrock tunnel 
is being driven in slate bedrock; it is 200 ft. long to date. C. Hendel 
et al., of La Porte, owners. 

Lucky Dog Gravel Mine (Drift). — This is 1-J miles W. of Forest City, 
and embraces three locations. A prospect drift running north is in 400 
ft., most of the way in bedrock, but the last 100 ft. in lava, with some 
sand beneath; the bedrock is dipping off to the west. J. Smith, of Forest 
City, Superintendent. 

Mammoth Springs Mine (Drift). — This claim is on a ridge between 
Chip's Flat and the Bald Mountain Extension. At a point facing the 
creek is an outbreak of gravel, with lava capping, and 40 ft. below this 
the lower level of the works starts north, but bends around to the west. 
This tunnel is run 2,000 ft. in bedrock, and upraises of 40 and 60 ft. 
have been made into barren gravel. About 50 ft. above, farther up the 
slope of the hill, corresponding to a point 1,200 ft. from the mouth of 
the tunnel, a second tunnel has been run N.W. about 1,450 ft., mostly 
in cement, but cutting bedrock 700 ft. from the mouth. From this tun- 



GOLD — SIERRA COUNTY. 269 

• 

nel a shaft 60 ft. deep, near the back end, has been sunk to the gravel 
below without finding pay. This tunnel is ventilated by a water-blast 
and air-boxes 8 by 10 in. Mammoth Springs Mining Company, own- 
ers; J. Spalding, of Forest City, Superintendent. 

Mercer and Salinas Mine (Quartz). — See our Xth and Xlth Reports, 
pp. 649 and 413. 

Mining Investment (Mountain Ledge) Company (Quartz). — The prop- 
erty was described in our Xth Report, p. 647, and is in Sec. 16, T. 20 N., 
R. 12 E., 3^ miles N.E. from Sierra City, and has been shut down some 
time through litigation; but 9 men have been put on lately to make an 
upraise from tunnel No. 3 to the pay shoot above, which pitches to the 
northwest. Mining Investment Company, owners; G. M. Pinney, of 
Sierra City, manager. 

Mount Fillmore Consolidated Mine (Quartz). — It is situated on the 
S. side of Mount Fillmore, 6 miles from Gibsonville. This is a new 
location. The property contains five claims, with only a little prospect 
work, which shows a porphyry dike with quartz, coursing a little W. of 
N. and showing a width of 60 ft. on the surface. The ore body carries 
a large amount of arsenical pyrites, in places over 30 per cent. C. B. 
Wingate et al., of Gibsonville, owners. 

Mount Moriah (Lawler) Mine (Quartz). — This property is in American 
Hill District, 7 miles N.E. of Minnesota, on Little Wolf Creek, at an 
altitude of 5,000 ft. There are three claims on the line of the lode, 
which courses N. and S. and dips 40° W. The property has recently 
changed hands, and is being put in a condition to be worked on an 
extensive scale. A portable sawmill has been erected, and three tun- 
nels commenced at the N. and S. ends of the claim, and one near the 
center. No. 1 is 208, No. 2, 250, and No. 3, 300 ft. long. A fourth 
tunnel is to be started near the south end of the claim, which will 
cut the vein 1,000 ft. deep, and will be used to deliver the ore direct 
to the mill, which will contain 40 stamps run by water taken from Wolf 
Creek, and delivered under 600 ft. pressure. The principal vein crops 
out near the apex of the ridge for a distance of three fourths of a mile; 
and a second vein crops out in places below. In driving No. 1 tunnel 
three veins were cut about 30 ft. apart, varying from 2 to 8 ft. in thick- 
ness. The walls are argillite, with a good gouge between. The quartz 
carries iron and arsenical pyrites, said to assay quite high. The finest 
kind of timber, including plenty of sugar pine, covers the ground. Twelve 
men were working, but more were to be added. D. R. Mcintosh et al., 
of San Francisco, owners. 

Mountain Ledge Mine (Quartz). — See Mining Investment Company. 

Oxford Mine (Quartz).— This property is in Sees. 22, 23, 26, 27, T. 20 N., 
R. 10 E., 1 mile N.E. of Downieville, and comprises 6,500 ft. in length 
on the vein, and a mill site extending down to the North Fork of the 
Yuba River. The principal vein of the claim is the Good Hope, which 
courses N.W. and dips 75° E., and is on the contact of the slate and 
serpentine, averaging 4 ft. in width; the serpentine forms the west wall. 
A good clay gouge is on both sides of the vein. The apex of the ledge on 
the top of the ridge is at an elevation of 4,475 ft.; the pitch of the hill 
is about 40°, while the main tunnel, starting from the east side of the 
claim, is at an elevation of 3,400 ft. This tunnel, cross-cutting the slate 
to the west, reaches the vein at 676 ft., and is continued across it 100 ft. 
to the serpentine. Prior to reaching the contact, or Good Hope vein, 



270 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

which is 4 ft. in width, several other strong veins were cut, but not pros- 
pected. A drift was turned and run 900 ft. on the Good Hope to the N.W., 
where a water crossing was cut. From this level to the surface, a distance 
of 900 ft., no stoping has been done. At an altitude of 3,825 ft. a former 
tunnel reached the vein and several thousand tons of quartz were ex- 
tracted; this tunnel was caved at the mouth. No timbering is required 
in the main tunnel, and ventilation is secured by a water-blast with 11 
in. and 5 in. air pipes. Ninety acres of timber land are included in the 
property, the whole being patented. H. H. Purdy et al., of Downieville, 
owners. 

Phoenix Gold Mine (Quartz). — See our Xth and Xlth Reports, pp. 653 
and 432. 

Pioneer Mine (Drift). — See our Xth Report, p. 412. It is in Sec. 13, 
T. 21 N., R. 9 E. The works have been greatly extended in the past 
season. Several tunnels have been driven on the channel, timbered 
with 7 ft. posts and 4 ft. caps. The breasts are carried 35 ft., and the 
breasting timbers are from 3-| to 5 ft. high. From the mouth of the 
tunnel to the incline is a distance of 1,063 ft.; a 12 horse-power gasoline 
engine is placed here to do the pumping and hoisting. The incline is 
140 ft. deep on the slope, equal to 35 ft. perpendicular. From the bottom 
of the incline to the first breast is 94 ft., and the main gangway is 
extended 200 ft. There are 35 men employed in the mine. A large 
portion of this mine would pay to hydraulic, which was the former 
method of working it. Pioneer Drift Mining Company, owners; C. S. 
Deitem, of Port Wine, Superintendent. 

Plumbago Gold Mining Company (Quartz). — It is half a mile N. of 
Minnesota, and consists of two claims, 3,000 by 600 ft. The course of the 
vein is N. 75° E., with a dip 45° N. The foot-wall is serpentine and the 
hanging-wall slate, with an average of 2 feet of vein matter between 
them. The ledge carries 2 per cent of sulphurets of high grade, mostly 
arsenical pyrites. The developments consist of two tunnels, 150 ft. apart 
perpendicularly. No. 1 is 700 ft. and No. 2 300 ft. long; both run to 
the ledge, and are connected by upraises. From the upper tunnel to the 
surface there are 170 ft. of backs. A 5 ft. Huntington mill, to be run 
by steam, is not in working order. Wood is abundant; with a small 
outlay water can be brought to the mine from Wolf Creek. Working. 
C. Hegarty, of Moore's Flat, owner. 

Rainbow Mine (Quartz). — This in Chip's Flat, and comprises 4,500 
by 600 ft. The vein courses E. and W. and pitches N., between slate 
and serpentine. The developments consist of a tunnel on the mill level 
on Kanaka Creek, 2,500 ft. long, cross-cutting to the ledge and passing 
through a stringer at 2,000 ft.; an upraise connects with an upper 
tunnel 2,000 ft. long. W. F. Hanley et al., of Alleghany, owners. 

Reece Ravine Diggings (Placer). — This is 3 miles S. from Poker Flat, 
and includes 100 acres, at an elevation of 5,000 ft. above sea-level. The 
course of the channel is N. and S. on the Gibsonville and Howland Flat 
channel. It requires the running of a bedrock tunnel. Snow water is 
used for washing. J. R. Alexander, of Table Rock, owner. 

Riffle Mine (Drift). — This is 2 miles S. of St. Louis, in Grass Valley, 
and comprises 1,000 ft. on the course of the channel. The bedrock tun- 
nel runs 2,000 ft. in slate; 200 ft. back from the breast is an upraise of 
12 ft. into gravel 40 ft. thick, carrying gold throughout, though best on 
the bedrock. About 1,500 ft. from the mouth of the tunnel an air shaft 



GOLD — SIERRA COUNTY. 271 

has been raised 140 ft., all in gravel. The course of the channel is N.E. 
and S.W. The gangways are timbered with 7 ft. posts, and the breasts 
are from 25 to 40 ft. wide, filled in 8 ft. back of gangways with bowlders. 
The gravel is quartz, carrying two distinct qualities of gold; the best 
sells for $18 50 per ounce. W. Prosser, of Port Wine, Superintendent. 

Rising Sun Mine (Quartz). — See our Xlth Report, p. 418. 

Rocky Peak Mining Company (Drift). — It is at Monterey, 4 miles 
N.E. of Brandy City, on the Brandy City and Eureka ridge, and com- 
prises 700 acres. It is thought that an old, deep river channel passes 
along the ridge, which, if correct, would seem to be a continuation of the 
Port Wine channel. It is to tap this channel that this company are 
running a bedrock tunnel at an elevation of 4,015 ft. above sea-level. 
The direction of the tunnel is N. 70° W., and it is started along a reef of 
hard silicious slates. At 180 ft. from the mouth it branches, running 
in clay and sands with hard slate rim. At the back of the tunnel 
"bogus gravel" (barren gravel) makes into the top of the drift. A 
water-blast with wooden air-boxes, 6 in. by 8 in., is run by the water 
issuing from the tunnel. There is a lava capping on the ridge of at 
least 240 ft. Near this tunnel the channel is thought to cross through 
the ridge from the Bunker Hill side of the ridge to the North Yuba side. 
The tunnel is timbered with 3 ft. 4 in. caps in the clear and 6 ft. posts, 
with 6 ft. spread. Rocky Peak Mining Company, owners; J. Arnott, of 
Camptonville, Superintendent. 

Ruby Gravel Mining Company (Drift). — This property was mentioned 
in our Xlth .Report, p. 406. It comprises 440 acres, situated on Rock 
Creek, into which the tailings dump. As there are three separate chan- 
nels, with a difference of over 100 ft. in their elevation, the working con- 
ditions in the mine are somewhat complex. They all have a general N. 
and S. course; the center, or lava channel, cuts down through the White 
Quartz or Bald Mountain channel from the east side, crossing again 
lower down from the west side. The lowest channel is blue gravel, and 
is known as the Deep Rock Creek channel, supposed to be a continuation 
of the one found in Raps Ravine, that passes through the Young American 
claim near Forest City. The matter of ventilation has received consid- 
erable attention. A water-blast, with 50 ft. fall, drives the air into a 
section of the main tunnel, 8 by 8 ft., which is closely boxed up, and 
from which an iron pipe 22 in. in diameter extends along the tunnel 
leading to an air pipe 24 in. square, diminishing to a 13 in. pipe. About 
2,200 ft. from the mouth the tunnel forks; also the air pipe. One branch 
furnishes ventilation to the northern section of the works, the other to 
the southern. Up to the fork the tunnel was driven with Burleigh 
drills, at a cost of $50,000. The timbers in the tunnel consist of 6^ ft. 
posts, 4 ft. 8 in. caps in the clear, with a 10 ft. spread, each set costing 
$1 50. The breasts are timbered with single posts and caps and lagged 
at the top. The present output is about 50 carloads, of 1 ton weight 
each, or 5 carloads per shift to the breaster. 

A quartz vein has been cut in the tunnel with a N.E. and a S.W. 
course and dipping W., and has been drifted on both ways; on the 
south drift a shaft was sunk 30 ft. The quartz, except on the pay 
shoot, which pitches to the north, has a dry, barren appearance; along 
the pay shoot it carries free gold and a considerable percentage of iron 
sulphurets. This point in the mine is 500 ft. below the surface. At 



272 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

present there are only 27 men at work. Ruby Gold Gravel Mining 
Company, owners; E. McCormack, of Forest City, Superintendent. 

Russell Hill Claim (Drift). — This is on Depot Hill, adjoining the 
Joubert Mine, 5 miles N. from Camptonville, and comprises fifteen 100 
ft. square claims. As the property is apparently the same as the rest 
of Depot Hill deposits, a 125 ft. bank is found with about 20 ft. of pipe- 
clay on top, and a very small grade to the bedrock; but unlike the 
other claims, the bedrock is hard and seamy, traversed by a dike, and 
the gravel, especially near the bedrock, is cemented. The gold near 
the center of the channel is fine, while along the "vein" it is coarse. 
The channel is about 150 ft. wide. A drift has been run on the bedrock 
200 ft., and 30 ft. breasts opened, carried 6 ft. high. The gold sells for 
$18 per ounce. The gravel is washed through 200 ft. of boxes lined with 
block riffles; quicksilver is used in the flume. Water is obtained from 
tributaries of Indian Creek through 2-| miles of ditch, the water season 
lasting about three and one half months. W. S. Russell et al., of Camp- 
tonville, owners. 

Sailor Boy Diggings (Hydraulic). — These are situated on the Brandy 
City channel close to Brandy City, and contain 1,000 ft. up and down 
the ridge. The channel is about 300 ft. wide, and its course here is N. 32°. 
The bank is 75 ft. high, with 30 ft. of capping. The gravel carries gold 
throughout, although richest near the bedrock, from 4 to 6 ft.; it is scaly 
and sells for $19 per ounce. The gravel also carries platinum. The 
elevation of the bedrock is 3,475 ft. On the bedrock there are extremely 
large bowlders. The water season is about ninety days. The water 
comes from Cherokee Creek, and is delivered to one "giant" with a 5 in. 
nozzle, through 300 ft. of 11 in. pipe, under 75 ft. pressure. There are 
2,200 ft. of flume in all, 4 by 3 ft., in cross-sections, and paved with 
rocks, and on a 6 in. grade. The tailings dump into Boise Ravine. 
The flumes are cleaned up at the end of season. The banks are loosened 
up in short drifts by the use of giant powder; in places on the bedrock 
a very hard cement is found. M. Carter, of Camptonville, lessee. 

Scotia and Alice Consolidated Mine (Quartz). — This is 3 miles S. of 
Forest City, in French Ravine, and consists of two claims, 300 by 600 
ft., joining at an angle. The Scotia is an E. and W. vein, and dips N.; 
the Alice dips W.; both lie flat in serpentine and have an average width 
of 1 ft. The quartz shows free gold and carries copper sulphurets. 
Developments on the Scotia comprise a 75 ft. incline shaft on the vein, 
and a tunnel 110 ft. long, reaching 8 ft. below the bottom of the shaft. 
The tunnel is to be continued to the Alice vein. W. H. Smith, of Alle- 
ghany, owner. 

Sierra Buttes Mine (Quartz). — The property has been described in 
our Vlth (Part II), VIHth, Xth, and Xlth Reports, pp. 56, 573, 642, 
and 402. At present the workings of the mine are confined to the upper 
levels with a small crew of men. Sierra Buttes Mining Company, 
owners; S. Thomas, of Sierra City, Superintendent. 

Snowden Gravel Mine (Drift). — This is in Chip's Flat. A new tunnel 
is being run to tap a channel 80 ft. wide, lying east of the Blue Lead, 
but at a higher elevation. The gravel is quartz; bedrock slate. O. 
Owens et al., of Alleghany, owners. 

South Fork Gold Mine (Drift). — This claim is in Forest City. A long 
tunnel has been driven on the S.E. side of the town, parallel with the 
creek, to cut a channel running N.W., but was diverted from its course 



GOLD — SIERRA COUNTY. 273 

to the east and the channel missed. Later the company worked their 
property through the tunnel of the Old Bald Mountain Extension, 
which is situated N.E. of town at the foot of Bald Mountain. The 
channel has been worked 600 ft. wide. The gold is coarse and is worth 
$19 per ounce. Each man breasts out 5 carloads on a shift. W. A. 
Morse et al., of Downieville, owners. 

Suffolk Gold Mine (Drift). — This is on the Howland Flat and Port 
Wine channel; the claim consists of 1,800 ft. along the channel. The 
course of the channel is north and its width 600 ft. The tunnel runs 
W. 700 ft., then N. 120 ft., then E. 300 ft., and finally N. 1,000 ft. The 
first 500 ft. is through the rim rock (slate); thence it follows the 
channel. Pay gravel is 40 ft. deep, and the breasts are carried 35 ft. 
wide on each side of the gangway. The timbers of the main tunnel 
consist of 7 ft. posts and 3 ft. 8 in. caps, with 11 ft. spread; in the gang- 
way the posts are 6^ ft. In the breast single posts and caps are used. 
An air shaft 322 ft. deep passes through sand, pipe-clay, and lava. The 
mine furnishes wash water; the reservoirs are 12 by 36 by 8 ft. and 16 
by 20 by 8 ft. Each man breasts out 4 carloads of gravel on a shift. 
Washing is performed every three hours, through 400 ft. of the main 
sluice line, lined with slat rifles, car wheels, and blocks. Head-boxes 
are cleaned up every three days. The tailings are dropped into Canon 
Creek. Forty men are employed. Feather Fork Gold Gravel Mining 
Company, owners; D. Moore, of Port Wine, Superintendent. 

Sunset Claim (Drift). — This is about one fourth of a mile below Good- 
year's Bar, on North Fork of Yuba River. An incline is sunk on the 
south bank 25 ft. deep, and a tunnel run under the bar 300 ft. to the 
east, partly in bedrock. The breasts are carried 6 ft. high; the pay is 
found on the bedrock. Thirty inches of water are handled with a 
Chinese pump run by an 8 ft. overshot wheel, 2| ft. breast, supplied 
with water from Goodyear's Creek by piping across the river. J. R. 
Williams et al., of Goodyear's Bar, owners. 

Taber Gold Mine (Drift). — It is one fourth of a mile S. of Gibson- 
ville, and contains 5,800 ft. on the back line and 1,600 ft. on the front 
of the Gibsonville ridge. A bedrock tunnel coursing N.W. on a \ in. 
grade to the rod has been driven from the Slate Creek side 1,300 ft. in 
lava and 1,150 ft. in a hard silicious slate; the channel is supposed to 
be 100 ft. beyond. An air shaft 400 ft. deep strikes the tunnel 2,100 ft. 
from the mouth, showing 170 ft. of bedrock, 30 ft. of barren gravel, 150 
ft. of pipe-clay, 9 ft. of blue gravel, and from there to the surface lava. 
Altitude at tunnel mouth (read by aneroid), 5,560 ft. The dimensions 
of the tunnel timbers are 6^ ft. posts and 3| ft. caps, with 6 ft. spread. 
H. Taber, of Gibsonville, owner. 

Tecumseh (Marguerite) Mine (Quartz). — See our Xlth Report, p. 403. 

Thistle Shaft (Drift).— See Feather Fork Mine. 

Tough and Hardy Gold Mine (Placer). — This is l-§ miles E. of Camp- 
tonville and 300 yds. from the Yuba County line. The property consists 
of three claims, 4,500 by 600 ft. In following along the bedrock a 
quartz ledge has been uncovered and cut through by a bedrock drain; 
it presents a ledge of about 4 ft. in width, with numerous side stringers 
making into it. The general course of the vein is N. 70° E., with a dip 
of about 50° W.; the w r alls are slate and diorite. Except along a shoot of 
about 150 ft. the quartz appears barren. In the shoot the quartz carries 
a good percentage of sulphurets of copper and iron. Only surface 
18m 



274 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

developments have been made, but arrangements to sink on the shoot 
are contemplated. W. B. Meek et al., of Camptonville, owners. 

True Fissure Mine (Quartz). — See our Xlth Report, p. 405. G. 
Reynolds et al., of San Francisco, owners. 

Union Consolidated (Happy Hollow) Mine (Drift). — This is usually 
designated as the Happy Hollow Mine, and lies 5 miles N.E. from La 
Porte, and comprises five claims (3,900 ft. in length) along the Port 
Wine channel. The main working tunnel runs 2,050 ft. in bedrock and 
700 ft. up the channel, and is connected with an air shaft 275 ft. deep. 
Tunnel timbers are 7 ft. posts and 3 ft. 8 in. caps, with 11 ft. spread. 
The gangways are 80 ft. apart, the gravel breast 35 ft. broad and carried 
5^ ft. high, timbered with single posts and caps. The gravel (blue 
quartz) is 10 ft. deep, with a covering of sand. Breasters average 4 
cars of 24 cu. ft. each. The amount of cobbles and bowlders is esti- 
mated at one fifth of the whole. Most of the channel has been worked, 
but a second channel is believed to cross the property. The gravel is 
washed through 800 ft. of sluices, 16 by 20 in., supplied with cross- 
riffles, car wheels, and blocks. They wash once a day with the water 
stored in a reservoir 24 by 16 by 12 ft., and clean up twice a week. The 
gold is fine, and worth $19 25 per ounce. The property is well supplied 
with spruce and fir timber. At present 10 men are employed in running 
a branch tunnel. Union Consolidated Drift Mining Company (Limited), 
owners; G. W. Miller, of Port Wine, Superintendent. 
P& Watts' Placer Mine (Drift). — It is situated between the North Yuba 
River and Big Humbug Creek, 9 miles N.E. from Camptonville, in Lin- 
coln township, and contains 92 acres of patented land and 30 acres held 
by possessory title. The channel courses N.W. and S.E., with an aver- 
age width of 250 ft., and a grade of about 55 ft. to the mile. The bed- 
rock is hard; partly slate, partly granitic. The altitude on the bedrock 
is 3,500 ft., on the top about 3,900 ft., giving about 400 ft. of gravel with 
soil capping. The gravel is regular river-wash, with a very large per- 
centage of cobbles and bowlders, which are mostly piled back into the 
mine in place of timber. The gold is found near to and in the bedrock, 
and is coarse. The present works consist of a main tunnel running up 
the channel for 1,100 ft. on the bedrock (1,000 ft. above present river 
level), with gangways and breasts, on the east side of the tunnel. On 
the west side of the main tunnel the bedrock seems to pitch off below 
the tunnel level toward the North Yuba River, and the ground on that 
side is untouched. The breasts, are carried from 20 to 50 ft. wide and 
from 3 to 5 ft. high, very little timber being used. The gravel, though 
free, stands well. Natural ventilation is secured through connection 
with an old tunnel. The channel has been excavated 700 by 150 ft. 
This channel is evidently the former river channel at a higher elevation. 
A large portion of it could be washed by hydraulicking, as Humbug 
Creek could be made to restrain the debris with little outlay. Each 
man on a shift breasts out 4 cars, containing 12 cu. ft. each. J. Watts, 
of Camptonville, owner. 

Wide Awake Mine (Drift). — This is situated on Alabama Hill, and 
comprises 320 acres, supposed to include 1 mile in length on the course 
of the channel, which is held to be N.W. and S.E. A bedrock tunnel 
has been run at an elevation of 5,645 ft., N. 70° W., for a distance of 
1,400 ft. At 1,000 ft. gravel prospecting 25 cents per ton was struck, 
when a more westerly course was followed. A branch was carried south 



GOLD — SISKIYOU COUNTY. 275 

and a short incline sunk into gravel, which was barren. At present a 
fresh start has been made to the west, now 100 ft. in, with the bedrock 
in the breast pitching down. A short prospect gravel drift to the north 
also pitches off fast. The gravel is blue and free. The depth of the 
gravel, as also the width of the channel, is unknown. The cropping of 
lava and pipe-clay is about 400 ft. The tunnels are timbered with 7 ft. 
posts and 3 ft. 8 in. caps, with 9 ft. spread. The breasts are carried 35 
ft. wide and 3^ to 4-J ft. high; they are timbered with single posts and 
caps. About 35 cars of gravel are taken out per day, which can be 
increased as soon as better ventilation is secured by completing connec- 
tions now under way. For washing, 300 ft. of boxes are used, besides 
a bedrock flume; slat riffles, car wheels, Hungarian riffles, and rocks 
are used to pave the bottoms. The boxes are cleaned every Sunday, the 
bedrock flume in the spring. Wash water is derived from the tunnel 
and collected in a reservoir 24 by 24 by 6 ft. The washing is done 
three times a day and once during the night. The gold is coarse; the 
largest piece found weighed 8 oz. On account of climate, six months' 
stores have to be laid in. Joseph Brand, of Downieville, Superintendent. 

William Tell Mine (Quartz). — See our Xth Report, p. 653. Caspar 
Joos et ah, of Sierra City, owners. 

Young America Mine (Drift). — This claim is at the south end of Forest 
City. The company owns 250 acres of ground, extending across the 
ridge down Wet Ravine, a tributary of Kanaka Creek. The channel 
has a N. and S. course, running across the direction of the present ridge, 
and has a width of 400 ft. The old works are caved and the present 
company are driving a tunnel through the slate bedrock from Oregon 
Gulch; up to date it has attained a length of 450 ft., and will have to 
be continued 1,200 ft. farther to reach the channel. The ground, which 
requires no timbering, costs $7 per foot to drive. Late developments on 
the opposite side of the ridge indicate the presence of a second channel 
in the company's ground. B. F. Dickinson et al., of Forest City, owners. 

Young America Mine (Quartz). — This property was described in our 
Xth and Xlth Reports, pp. 643 and 407, and is doing prospect work at 
present. Young America Consolidated Quartz Mining Company, owners; 
T. Brennan, of Sierra City, Superintendent. 

SISKIYOU COUNTY. 

Siskiyou is one of the most northerly counties of the State. In gen- 
eral resources, attractive to secure development and settlement, it com- 
pares very favorably with the other mining counties of the State. Aside 
from its gold mines, its natural resources include a vast area of available 
timber lands; mineral-water springs of superior quality; large areas of 
natural pasturage; fertile, alluvial valleys, suitable for cereal culture and 
general farming; still other valleys, of greater altitude, making ideal 
dairy farms, and localities well suited to the culture of the apple and the 
pear. In addition to these resources, which have been considerably 
developed, are possibilities in the way of coal, and building and litho- 
graphic stone, that are known but undeveloped. Largely mountainous, 
and surrounded in every direction by mountain barriers, the desirable 
section of the county is rendered readily accessible from both San Fran- 
cisco and Portland by the Oregon and California Railroad. The leading 
industry of the county is gold mining, quartz, and every description of 



276 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

placer known, and some not known, in the other mining counties of 
California. If we except river mining, which has had its greatest develop- 
ment on the Klamath River, the mining industry in the development of 
its possibilities is rather behind the rest of California. This is due to its 
long years of isolation from the rest of the State before the railroad 
came in, and not to any lack of richness in the lode and placer deposits. 
Capital has never gone into this section to any extent until recently, and 
the lack of newcomers has contributed to keep out improvements in 
methods and machinery. 

Dependent on their own labor and natural resources, mining has had 
rather more than the average of success as compared with better aided 
localities. There have been fewer great failures and the mines have a 
general reputation as fair producers. Better means of communication, 
a better knowledge of gold-bearing deposits, and better methods of work- 
ings, have in the last few years been advancing the extent in territory 
and yield of the mines. In quartz, the Salmon River country is com- 
ing to the front with a number of producing mines, one of which, the 
Gold Run, gives promise of becoming another Black Bear Mine. A new 
district, Hungry Creek, close to the Oregon line, has been discovered, 
and many promising quartz ledges prospected, some of which are develop- 
ing into profitable mines. The richest placer deposits in the county, 
those of Yreka Basin, mined in early days only on the edges compara- 
tively, are being reopened, with a return of the old yield to reward the 
judgment and risk of the men who are doing the work. A distinctly 
new deposit for California, an auriferous conglomerate, has been identi- 
fied, and its extent traced for several miles. (See special article and 
map in this volume.) As a whole, the mining industry is on an excel- 
lent basis, remunerative to the miners and contributing to the support 
and development of the other resources of the county. 

Ahlgrin's Claim (Hydraulic). — This is 5 miles below Sawyer's Bar, 
and comprises 40 acres. The bank is from 70 to 80 ft. deep on a for- 
mer bench of the river. The water is taken from the Little North Fork 
of North Fork of Salmon River, through 3^ miles of ditch, and delivered 
to the giant under 175 ft. pressure. A. Ahlgrin, of Sawyer's Bar, owner. 

Allgood & Casteel Mine (Placer). — It is on Salmon River, A.\ miles 
above Somes' Bar. It is worked by pick and shovel in a small way, as 
water is scarce. The gravel is 14 ft. deep. 

Allen Mine (Quartz). — It is in Quartz Valley District. E. Allen, of 
Oro Fino, owner. 

American Bar Mine (Placer). — This mine is on the south bank of the 
Klamath River, not far from the mouth of Shasta River. American Bar 
Mining Company, owners; J. C. Bayer, of Hornbrook, Superintendent. 

Ampback (Portuguese, Fagundez) Mine. — See our Xlth Report, p. 432. 

Andrews & Kettlewood Mine (Hydraulic). — This is near Hamburg 
Bar, half a mile from the South Fork of Klamath River. M. Andrews 
and W. Kettlewood, of Hamburg Bar, owners. 

Andrews Mine (Placer). — This is half a mile below the mouth of Scott 
River, on the north side of Klamath River. From 30 to 40 men are 
employed at this mine. M. Andrews and J. T. Miner, of Scott River, 
owners. 

Andrews & Miner No. 2 Mine (Placer). — This is about half a mile 
above Hamburg Bar, in the bed of Klamath River. Messrs. Andrews 
& Miner, of Hamburg Bar, owners. 






GOLD SISKIYOU COUNTY. 277 

Auberry Mine (Hydraulic). — This claim is at Cottage Grove, on the 
north side of Klamath River. R. Auberry, of Cottage Grove, owner. 

Ayles & Dunn Mine (Placer). — This is on the South Fork of Salmon 
River, about 7 miles above the " Forks.'' Geo. E. Fauch et al., of Black 
Bear, owners. 

BabcocJc (Santa Ana) Mine (Drift). — This mine is in Cottonwood Dis- 
trict. There are several shafts and tunnels, one of which is 300 ft. in 
length. H. C. Babcock, of Henley, owner. 

Bailey Mine (Drift). — It is 6 miles below Seiad,.on the north side of 
Klamath River. M. Bailey, of Seiad, owner. 

Baker Mine (Hydraulic). — It is on Indian Creek. Geo. Baker & Sons, 
of Fort Jones, owners. 

Banner Mine (Quartz). — This is in Quartz Valley District. The devel- 
opments consist of several hundred feet of tunneling. The vein varies 
from 1 to 4 ft. in width. H. J. Diggles, of Fort Jones, owner. 

Barnes Mine (Quartz). — It is in Cherry Creek District. There are 
three tunnels about 100 ft. in length. Barnes & Co., of Yreka, owners. 

Barry & Co.'s Claim (Placer). — This is 2 miles from Sawyer's Bar, and 
comprises 20 acres. It is a low river bar, and has to be worked with 
derricks. The face of the gravel bank is 14 ft. deep; the pay exclusively 
in the 6 to 7 ft. next to the bottom. Water is taken from the river. Barry 
& James, of Sawyer's Bar, owners. 

Beebee Bar Mine (Placer). — It is on the south side of Klamath River, 
opposite Lime Gulch. J. Cleland, of Yreka, owner. 

Beebee Bar Mine (Placer). — This mine is on Scott River, about 2-§ 
miles from Klamath. Chinese Company, owners. 

Bender Mine (Quartz). — This is on French Creek, a tributary of Scott 
River. It is stated that the developments consist of a 200 ft. tunnel and 
other workings, and that the vein shows an average width of 3 ft. F. C. 
Bender, of Callahan's Ranch, owner. 

Bennett Mine (Drift). — It is at Scott's Bar. W. Bennett, of Scott 
River, owner. 

Bennett Mine (Placer). — This mine is on the west side of Salmon 
River, about 1 mile below the " Forks." R. H. Bennett, of Forks of 
Salmon, owner. 

Berton & Litcham Mine (Placer). — This is about 4 miles below Oak 
Bar, on the north side of Klamath River. Berton & Litcham, of Oak 
Bar, owners. 

Big Ben Mine (Hydraulic). — This mine is in Quartz Valley. Port- 
land Company, owners; S. E. Adams, of Fort Jones, Superintendent. 

Big China Mine (Placer). — It is on the south side of Klamath River, 
opposite Empire Bar. Chinese Company, owners. 

Big He Mine (Quartz). — This claim is on Empire Creek. There is a 
180 ft. tunnel. The vein is said to average 4 ft. in width. Sunset Com- 
pany, owners; Herman Adams, of Henley, Superintendent. 

Big Ledge Mine (Quartz). — This property is in Quartz Valley District. 
The developments consist of a 30 ft. incline and a 100 ft. tunnel. The 
vein varies from 18 in. to 4 ft. H. J. Diggles, of Fort Jones, owner. 

Black Bear Mine (Quartz). — This is 7 miles south from Sawyer's Bar, 
and contains six claims. The company employs 45 men. The course 
of the veins is N.E. and S.W., dip about 35° E., varying in width from 
12 in. to 3 ft.; the walls are serpentine and slate. See our VIHth and 



278 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

Xth Reports, pp. 620 and 656. Hon. John Daggett, of San Francisco, 
owner; E. J. Murray, of Black Bear, Superintendent. 

Black Jack Mine (Drift). — This is about H miles W. of Hornbrook. 
The developments consist of several hundred feet of tunneling; the 
bed, of cemented blue gravel, is about 20 ft. in thickness, and is worked 
in a custom stamp-mill. W. H. Ritchie, of Henley, Superintendent. 

Blind Lode Mine (Quartz). — This is in Oro Fino District. There are 
several tunnels, varying from 100 to 600 ft. in length; the vein is said 
to vary from 6 in. to 12 ft. in width. H. J. Diggles, of Fort Jones, 
owner. 

Bloomer Mine (Hydraulic). — This is on the west side of Salmon 
River, about 5 miles below the Forks of Salmon. W. P. Bennett, of 
Forks of Salmon, owner. 

Blue Bird Mine (Quartz). — It is on Empire Creek. It has a 30 ft. 
shaft and other workings. J. Randals and B. Griffith, of Hornbrook, 
owners. 

Boles Mine (Placer). — This mine is about 4 miles above the mouth of 
Horse Creek. W. Robertson, of Scott River, owner. 

Bonanza Mine (Quartz). — It is in Grizzly, a tributary of Indian 
Creek. The developments consist of three tunnels, each of which is 
about 300 ft. in length. There is a 5-stamp mill at this mine. H. J. 
Diggles et al., of Fort Jones, owner. 

Bower sox Mine (Hydraulic). — It is one fourth of a mile above Somes' 
Bar, on Salmon River. The water is taken from Somes' Bar Creek by a 
ditch 1 mile long, 3 ft. wide by 2 ft. deep, on a grade of 2 in. per 12 ft. 
There are 1,000 ft. of 11 in. pipe, one No. 2 giant with 4 in. nozzle, under 
225 ft. head. The creek does not furnish enough water, and a reservoir 
is now under construction to help out the supply. The bank is 12 ft. 
high and all gravel. The sluices are 125 ft. long and 20 in. wide; the 
grade is 11 in. per box, using block riffles. W. H. Bowersox, of Somes' 
Bar, owner. 

Boye (A B C) Mine (Hydraulic and Drift). — This is 4 miles S. from 
Callahans, and comprises 40 acres on Forks Creek. The hydraulic bank 
carries 25 ft. of gravel. The drift mine is in the river-bed, with about 
300 ft. of tunnel and from 12 to 14 ft. breasts, 6 ft. high. On the 
bedrock are very heavy granite bowlders; the bedrock is serpentine and 
carries coarse, black gold, which is worth $18 50 per ounce. C. F. Boye, 
of Callahans, owner. 

Boyle Mine (Quartz). — This is 7 miles W. of Yreka, in Humbug 
District. The developments consist of numerous tunnels, some of which 
are several hundred feet in length. The vein is said to vary in width 
from a few inches to 3 ft. From 25 to 40 men are employed. The ore 
is worked in a 10-stamp and also in a roller mill. Haggin & Tevis, of 
New York, owners; — Boyle, of Yreka, Superintendent. 

Bozza Mine (Hydraulic). — This is 9^ miles below Happy Camp, on 
the south side of Klamath River. J. Bozza, of Happy Camp, owner. 

Brass Wire Mine (Hydraulic). — It is at Henley. W. H. Smith, of 
Henley, and A. Harvey, of Yreka, owners. 

Bret, Lacy & Barton Mine (Placer). — This mine is about 3 miles above 
the mouth of Horse Creek. Bret, Lacy & Barton, of Oak Bar, owners. 

Brick House Mine (Placer). — This is on the Forks of Hungry Creek. 
M. Romaine, of Coles, owner. 



GOLD — SISKIYOU COUNTY. 279 

Brown & Billhaps Mine (Quartz). — It is 4 miles from the mouth of 
McKenny Creek. They have a 100 ft. tunnel. The vein is 2 ft. wide. 
Geo. Brown and R. Billhaps, of Walker, owners. 

Brown Bear (Everleth) Mine (Quartz). — This is 6 miles S.E. from 
Sawyer's Bar, and comprises three claims. The vein courses N.E. and 
S.W. and dips about 45° N., between slate and porphyry walls, from 2 to 12 
ft. apart. The developments consist of 400 ft. of tunnel, 150 ft. being a 
cross-cut to the vein. An upraise is being made to the surface for ven- 
tilation. The quartz carries a good percentage of iron sulphurets. A 
4-stamp mill, run by water power, crushes the ore at the rate of 1^ tons 
per stamp per day, using No. 9 slot screens. The plates are only scraped 
once per month; 65 per cent of the amalgam is saved in the battery, 
which has two inside plates. The gold is .869 fine. F. Golden and T. 
Everleth, of Sawyer's Bar, owners. 

Brown, George, Mine (Placer). — It is on the East Fork of Salmon 
River. George Brown, of Cecilville, owner. 

Brunt, Schorb & Co.'s Mine (Drift). — This is on Scott River, about 
three fourths of a mile below Scott's Bar. The developments consist of 
more than 1,000 feet of tunneling. Brunt, Schorb et al., of Scott's Bar, 
owners. 

Buckeye Bar Mine (Placer). — This mine is about 12 miles below 
Empire Bar, on the south side of Klamath River. Chinese Company, 
owners. 

Bumble Bee Mine (Quartz). — This is on Bumble Bee Creek, a tribu- 
tary of Hungry Creek. There are two 60 ft. tunnels and a 60 ft winze; 
the vein is 2 to 4 ft. in width. T. Jones and Roberts Estate, of Henley, 
owners. 

Bunker Hill Mine (Hydraulic). — It is 13 miles below Happy Camp, 
on the south side of Klamath River. George Temple, of Happy Camp, 
owner. 

Burns J Mine (Hydraulic). — This is in Eddy's Gulch, and 3 miles from 
Sawyer's Bar. W. Burns, of Sawyer's Bar, owner. 

California Queen Mine (Quartz). — It is in Cottonwood District. H. 
Hazlit & Co., of Henley, owners. 

Campbell Mines (Hydraulic). — These are situated in Quartz Valley 
District, and comprise a group of locations at the western base of a 
mountain range which separates the Oro Fino from Quartz Valley. The 
mines are worked by hydraulic elevators, and about 30 men are employed. 
The R. H. Campbell Gold Mining Company, of London, Eng., owners; 
Chas. Roberts, of Etna, resident agent. 

Cannon Mine (Quartz). — This mine is on the South Fork of the 
Salmon River, about 6 miles above the. Forks of the Salmon. The 
developments consist of a 60 ft. tunnel and other workings; the vein is 
about 6 in. wide. J. Cannon, of Black Bear, owner. 

Carl & Shaw Mine (Quartz). — This is in White's Gulch, about 5 miles 
from Sawyer's Bar. Carl, Shaw et al., of Sawyer's Bar, owners. 

Cavin Mine (Placer). — It is on the South Fork of Hungry Creek. A. 
Cavin, of Coles, owner. 

Centennial Mine (Placer). — This is at the mouth of Dutch Creek, on 
the north side of the Klamath River. N. G. Gott et al., of Gottville, 
owners. 

Chapman's China Claim (Hydraulic). — This is 3 miles from Calla- 
hans, and comprises 20 acres of patented land. The claim is on the 



280 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

river, with a gravel bank from 50 to 75 ft. high. One " giant," with 2 in. 
nozzle and a string of 14 in. pipes, is used. The gold is cucumber-seed 
shaped, and partly black. Chinese Company, owners. 

Chronan Mine (Placer). — It is on the North Fork of Salmon River, 
about 5 miles below Sawyer's Bar. Chronan Bros., of Sawyer's Bar, 
owners. 

Clarey Mine (Placer). — This claim is in the Cottonwood District. S. 
Clarey, of Henley, owner. 

Cleland Mine (Quartz). — It is about 3 miles above the mouth of 
McKenny Creek. The developments consist of several tunnels about 
100 ft. in length, and a 60 ft. shaft. The vein varies from a few inches 
to 2 ft. in width. F. Cleland, of Yreka, owner. 

Clemper Mine (Placer). — This property is on Humbug Creek, 2 miles 
above the mouth of the Little Humbug. — Clemper, of Walker, owner. 

Cole & Barton Mines (Drift and Placer). — These claims are at Oak 
Bar, on the north side of Klamath River. H. Barton, of Oak Bar, 
owner. 

Columbia (Baldy) Mine (Quartz). — It is 6 miles E. from Scott's Bar. 
The vein courses E. of N., dips about 35° W., and is 2 ft. wide, between 
porphyry walls. A 10-stamp mill, run by water power, belongs to the 
property. R. Denemier, of San Francisco, owner. 

Conzetti Mine (Placer and Hydraulic). — This mine is on the South 
Fork of Salmon River, about 7 miles from Summerville. S. Conzetti, 
of Cecilville, owner. 

Coon Mine (Hydraulic). — This is 8 miles below Happy Camp, on the 
north side of Klamath River. Chinese Company, owners. 

Cory Mine (Quartz). — It is on French Creek, a tributary of Scott 
River. The developments consist of a 300 ft. tunnel; the vein is about 
2 ft. wide. L. H. Cory, of Callahans, owner. 

Crapo Mine No. 1 (Hydraulic). — This property is on both sides of 
Salmon River, and about 4 miles below the Forks of the Salmon. 
Chinese Company, owners. 

Crapo Mine No. 2 (Hydraulic). — It is on the west side of Salmon 
River, about 600 ft. above the river, and adjoins No. 1. Bennett & 
McLaughlin, of Forks of Salmon, owners. 

Crawford Mine (Drift). — This mine is at Scott's Bar. Crawford & 
Co., of Scott's Bar, owners. 

Crocker Mine (Quartz). — This is in Dead wood District. There are 
several hundred feet of tunnels. R. E. Crocker et al., of Fort Jones, 
owners. 

Crooker (Williams' Ferry) Mine (Placer). — This mine is on an island 
in the Klamath, about 3^ miles above American Bar. Crooker Bros., of 
Henley, owners. 

Cummings Mine (Quartz). — It is on Boulder Creek, 3^ miles S. of 
Callahans, and is 1,500 by 600 ft. The vein courses N. of E. and dips 
60° S., with a width of 2^ ft., between a granite hanging-wall and a ser- 
pentine foot-wall. The quartz carries considerable iron sulphurets. 
J. K. Cummings, of Callahans, owner. 

Davis Mine (Quartz). — This mine is in Deadwood District, and has a 
200 ft. tunnel. L. J. Davis, of Fort Jones, owner. 

Del Norte Mine (Hydraulic).— This claim is 1\ miles above Happy 
Camp, on the south side of Klamath River. Richardson & Camp, of 
Fort Jones, owners. 



GOLD — SISKIYOU COUNTY. 281 

Demming & Gardner Mine (Hydraulic). — This claim is in Oro Fino 
District. Demming & Gardner, of Oro Fino, owners. 

Dillon'' s Hill Mine (Hydraulic). — This is 3 miles below Cottage 
Grove, on the north side of Klamath River. Chinese Company, owners. 

Doolittle (Daggett) Mine (Hydraulic). — This claim is 10 miles below 
Happy Camp, at the mouth of Clear Creek, and on the north side of 
Klamath River. A. Doolittle, of Happy Camp, owner. 

Dougherty Bros.'' Claim (Hydraulic). — This is 12 mf T V. of Saw- 
yer's Bar, on the North Fork of Salmon River, and comprises 20 acres. 
The bank is 60 to 70 ft. high. One giant and a derrick run by water- 
wheel are used. Dougherty Bros., of Sawyer's Bar, owners. 

Duncan Mine (Drift). — This mine is about 5 miles above the mouth 
of Mill Creek. J. Duncan, of Scott River, owner. 

Duzel Mine (Placer). — This claim is on Humbug Creek, about 3 miles 
above the mouth of the Little Humbug. G. A. Duzel, of Walker, owner. 

EastlicJc Mine (Hydraulic). — This claim is in Oro Fino Mining Dis- 
trict. Eastlick Bros., of Oro Fino, owners. 

Eastlich & Lewis Mine (Quartz). — This is in Oro Fino District, and 
has a 150 ft. tunnel, Eastlick & Lewis, of Oro Fino, owners. 

Elk Creek Mine (Placer). — It is one mile below Happy Camp, on the 
south side of Klamath River. J. Camp, of Fort Jones, owner. 

Elliot Mine (Hydraulic). — This claim is about 25 miles below Happy 
Camp, on the north side of Klamath River. Elliot Bros., of Cottage 
Grove, owners. 

Empire Mine (Quartz). — This is in Empire Creek, 1 mile from Gott- 
ville P. O. The developments consist of two tunnels, 100 and 500 ft. 
long, and a 100 ft. winze. It is provided with a 5-stamp mill run by 
water power. 

Empire Bar Mine (Placer). — This property is at the mouth of Empire 
Creek, on the north side of Klamath River. Geo. J. McCann et al., of 
Gottville, owners. 

Erno Mine (Quartz). — This is in Quartz Valley. The developments 
consist of a 200 ft. tunnel and other workings; the vein is about 1 ft. 
wide. A. Erno, of Oro Fino, owner. 

Evening Star Mine (Quartz). — This is on Eddy's Gulch, 7 miles E. 
of Sawyer's Bar. The vein courses N. of E., with a northerly dip, 
between slate and porphyry walls, and is from 2 to 6 ft. wide. It is 
opened by tunnels, and has a 4-stamp mill. J. Daggett and J. S. Doe, 
of Sawyer's Bar, owners. 

Everill Mine (Drift). — This mine is about 1 mile below Oak Bar, on 
the north side of Klamath River. R. Everill, of Oak Bar, owner. 

Everill Mine (Drift). — This is about 4-J miles below Hamburg Bar, 
on the south side of Klamath River. F. Everill, of Hamburg Bar, 
owner. 

Excelsior Mine (Hydraulic). — This claim is on the North Fork of 
Salmon River, about 3^ miles above Sawyer's Bar. A ditch is being 
built to furnish water for working the mine. F. Corbin et al., of Saw- 
yer's Bar, owners. 

Fagundez Mines (Placer). — These claims are on Cherry Creek. They 
consist of two claims. See our Xlth Report, p. 432. A. Fernandez & 
Co., of Yreka, owners. 

Fagundez Mine (Quartz). — This is in Eddy's Gulch, about 2\ miles 
from Sawyer's Bar. The developments consist of several thousand feet 



282 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

of tunneling, and the vein averages about 10 in. in width. At this 
mine there is a 5-stamp mill, which is run by water power. R. Fagun- 
dez, of Etna, owner. 

Fairy Queen Mine (Quartz). — It is on the divide between Empire 
and Hungry creeks, and is opened by a 160 ft. tunnel. E. McGee, T. 
Jones et al., of Henley, owners. 

Filley & Woods Mine (Placer). — This is about 15 miles above the 
mouth of Thompson Creek. E. Filley and W. Woods, of Seiad, owners. 

Finley Mine (Hydraulic). — This mine is on the North Fork of Salmon 
River, about 1 mile from Sawyer's Bar. A ditch is being constructed 
to furnish water for working the mine. S. M. Finley & Sons, of Saw- 
yer's Bar, owners. 

Foley's Mine (Hydraulic). — This is 4 miles E. from Callahans, and 
comprises 20 acres. The bank is 50 ft. high. Water is conveyed 
through a pipe to a " giant, " with a 4 in. nozzle, under 300 ft. head. 
The tailings pass through 600 ft. of 2 ft. flume, paved with block riffles. 
The mine is just being opened. Hayes et al., of San Francisco, owners; 
— Spencer, of Callahans, Superintendent. 

Fort Byers Mine (Hydraulic). — This claim is on the north side of 
Salmon River, about 2| miles from the " Forks.'' A ditch is being con- 
structed to furnish water for working the mine. W. P. Bennett and E. 
McLaughlin, of Forks of Salmon, owners. 

Fort Gough Mine (Hydraulic). — This claim is about 5^ miles below 
Seiad P. O., on the north bank of Klamath River. James Camp, of 
Fort Jones, owner. 

Fortune Mine (Drift). — The mine is at Callahans, on Scott River. 
A. H. Denny and G. Wiker, of Callahans, owners. 

Franks & Moncton Mine (Quartz). — It is in White's Gulch, about 5 
miles from Sawyer's Bar. The developments consist of about a 1,000 ft. 
of shafts and tunneling, and the vein is about 2 ft. wide. The 5-stamp 
mill at this mine is run by water power. Franks & Moncton, of Saw- 
yer's Bar, owners. 

Frisby Mine (Placer). — It is on the South Fork of Hungry Creek. J. 
Frisby, of Coles, owner. 

Gayhart Mine (Placer). — This is about 2-J miles from the mouth of 
Horse Creek. J. Gayhart, of Oak Bar, owner. 

Gee Wah (Thomas Thomas') Mine (Drift). — It is on McAdams Creek. 
Gee Wah Company, of Etna, owners. 

Geeshan & Kellner Claim (Hydraulic). — This is 2 -J miles below Saw- 
yer's Bar, and comprises 20 acres on a former bench of the river, with 
a 25 ft. bank of gravel. Geeshan & Kellner, of Sawyer's Bar, owners. 

George Mine (Placer and Drift). — This claim is on the South Fork of 
Salmon River, about 8 miles above Cecilville. W. H. George, of Cecil- 
ville, owner. 

Gold Ball Mine (Quartz). — This is between the headwaters of Eddy's 
and White's gulches, 8 miles E. from Sawyer's Bar, and comprises 4,500 
by 600 ft. The vein courses N. of E. and dips 45° N., with a width 
varying from 2 to 8 ft., between slate and porphyry walls. The quartz 
carries a small percentage of sulphurets. The mine is developed through 
tunnels, and the ore is crushed in an old style 16-stamp mill. A. Ball 
et al., of Sawyer's Bar, owners. 

Golden Eagle Mine (Quartz). — This mine is on Eagle Creek. There 
are several hundred feet of tunnels and inclines. There is a 5-stamp 
mill at the mine. F. D. Fraser, of Fort Jones, owner. 



GOLD SISKIYOU COUNTY. . 283 

Golden & Everleth Mine (Quartz). — This is 6 miles E. of Sawyer's 
Bar, and comprises 1,500 by 600 ft. The vein runs N. of E. and dips 
about 40° N., between slate and porphyry walls. The mine is developed 
through tunnels, and a 4-stamp mill reduces the ore. Everleth et al., 
of Sawyer's Bar, owners. 

Golden Nugget Mine (Hydraulic). — This is 1 mile N. of Sawyer's Bar, 
and comprises 136 acres. The bank, all gravel, is 500 ft. high, and is 
worked by a " giant" with 4 in. nozzle, under at least 100 ft. head. 
The ground consists of an old river bar and benches, the gravel pros- 
pecting throughout. Water is obtained from Eddy's Gulch, and lasts 
six months. The gold is coarse, cucumber-seed shaped, and sells for 
$18 per ounce. Thirty boxes are used, set on a 5 in. grade. S. L. 
Finley, of Sawyer's Bar, owner. 

Gold Lead Mine (Hydraulic). — This claim is on Scott River, about 
1-J miles below Scott's Bar. H. Andrews, owner. 

Gold Note Mine (Placer). — This mine is on the north side of Klamath 
River, about 2 miles above American Bar. 

Gold Run Mine (Quartz). — It is 10 miles from Forks of Salmon, 
between the forks of Knownothing Creek. See our Xlth Report, p. 429. 
Hansen & Dannenbrinck, of Forks of Salmon, owners. 

Gordon Mine (Hydraulic). — This claim is about 7 miles above Happy 
Camp, on the south side of Klamath River. C. Gordon, of Happy Camp, 
owner. 

Grant Mine (Hydraulic). — This is on the west side of Salmon River, 
about 12 miles below Forks of Salmon. H. Grant, of Forks of Salmon, 
owner. 

Grattan Mine (Quartz). — This is 12 miles S. from Sawyer's Bar, and 
comprises 1,500 by 600 ft. The vein courses N. and S. and dips 45° E., 
between slate and porphyry walls. The only development is a tunnel 
on the vein. R. H. Campbell and L. Wagner, of Sawyer's Bar, owners. 

Greenhorn Blue Gravel Mine (Drift). — This is one fourth of a mile S.W. 
of Yreka, and comprises 60 acres, 2,904 ft. along the channel, supposed 
to be the continuation of the Greenhorn Gulch channel, and whose 
course is N.W.. and S.E. The gravel is partly blue, but gray in the 
upper strata and not cemented; carrying considerable clay and an 
average amount of cobbles and bowlders. The best pay is contained in 
the 3 ft. next to bedrock; as also a foot or two in the bedrock. The 
mine is opened by a single-compartment shaft 110 ft. deep, from which 
a series of branching gangways lead up to the breasts. On the north 
side of the breasts a shaft is being raised to the surface, which is to be 
used as the working shaft when completed. The mine required thorough 
timbering with 4^ ft. posts, 6 ft. caps, and lagging overhead. The 
bowlders and cobbles are all thrown back. About 2 ft. of the bedrock 
is taken up in drifting and breasting. About 350 ft. of the channel has 
been worked for 120 ft. in width. A small steam engine of about 10 
horse-power runs two Knowles pumps and the hoisting works. The dirt 
is washed at the mouth of the shaft through a short line of sluices, using 
Hungarian slat riffles. The engine consumes 1 cord of wood per day, 
costing $3 per cord. Timber is delivered unpeeled at the mine for 4 
cents per running foot, and lagging 3 cents apiece. The water is 
derived from Greenhorn Gulch through the Ed son ditch, and also from 
the mine itself. There is sufficient water for washing purposes throughout 
the year; in winter there is enough to wash bedrock and rewash tailings. 



284 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

The gold sells for $17 40 per ounce. A. Lee, of Yreka, owner; A. E. 
Raynes and T. D. Austin, of Yreka, lessees. 

Grider Mine (Hydraulic). — This mine is about 10 miles below 
Hamburg Bar, on the south side of Klamath River. J. Titus, of San 
Francisco, owner; W. Grider, of Seiad, Superintendent. 

Griffith Mine (Placer). — This mine is on Hungry Creek. J. Griffith, 
of Henley, owner. 

Hanson Diggings (Placer). — This claim is on Salmon River, 4 miles 
above Somes' Bar. It is said to contain very rich ground, but water is 
scarce; about 75 in. is collected from. Dry Creek, and the gravel is 
shoveled into the sluices. The mine has lately been sold, and the present 
owner intends to bring water from Tom Payne Creek by hanging a pipe 
under a wire cable across the river, which would give him 200 ft. of 
pressure and water sufficient to supply a giant. The claim contains 20 
acres; the gravel is 14 ft. deep. W. H. Bowerson, of Somes' Bar, owner. 

Harrigan Mine (Placer). — This is about half a mile above Hamburg 
Bar, on the south side of Klamath River. M. Harrigan et al., of Ham- 
burg Bar, owners. 

Harris Mine (Hydraulic). — This is on the North Fork of Salmon 
River, and about 5 miles above Sawyer's Bar. A ditch is being con- 
structed to furnish water. Harris Bros., of Etna, owner. 

Hart Mine (Placer). — This mine is on Wildcat Creek. C. Hart, of 
Callahans, owner. 

Hayes Mine (Hydraulic). — This property is on Wildcat Creek, a 
tributary of Scott River. G. H. Hayes, of Callahans, owner. 

Heald Mine (Hydraulic). — This claim is situated about 6 miles below 
Cottage Grove, on the north side of Klamath River. Oakland Com- 
pany, owners; C. Lord, of Orleans Bar, Superintendent. 

Heard & Henry Mine (Placer). — This is in Smith's Gulch Creek, a 
tributary of the South Fork of Scott River. J. Heard and Jos. Henry, 
of Callahans, owners. 

Hegler Mine (Quartz). — This mine is about 6 miles W. of Yreka. The 
developments consist of three tunnels, varying from 300 to 400 ft. in 
length, which are connected by upraises. There are several veins from 
10 in. to 2 ft. in thickness. The ore is worked in a 10-stamp mill, run 
by steam power. Hegler Bros., of Yreka, owners. 

Henry Mine (Hydraulic). — This mine is on Beaver Creek. T. Henry, 
of Coles, owner. 

Hibernia Mine (Quartz). — This is on Eddy's Gulch, 2^ miles S.E. 
from Sawyer's Bar, and comprises 1,500 by 600 feet. The 18 in. vein 
courses KE. and dips 40° N., between slate and porphyry walls. The 
developments consist of a shaft 60 ft. deep and a tunnel run on the 
vein 200 ft. J. Sallee & Co., of Shasta City, Shasta County, owners; L. 
Monahan, of Sawyer's Bar, Superintendent. 

Hichey Bros.' Claim (Hydraulic).— This is 1\ miles from Sawyer's 
Bar, and comprises 60 acres. The bench has a 100 ft. bank with 40 ft. 
of gravel. The water is derived from a neighboring gulch, and the 
season lasts three months. One "giant" is worked under 200 ft. pres- 
sure. Hickey Bros., of Sawyer's Bar, owners. 

H. M. Mine (Hydraulic).— This mine is on the South Fork of Scott 
River. Geo. Murray, of Scott River, owner. 

Hoboken Mine (Quartz).— It is on Cherry Creek. The developments 
consist of three tunnels, 100, 500 and 700 ft. long. H. J..Diggles, of Fort 
Jones, owner. 



GOLD SISKIYOU COUNTY. 285 

Hubbard Mine (Placer). — This claim is on the north side of Klamath 
River, about 12^ miles below Empire Bar. J. Hubbard, of Oak Bar, 
owner. 

Hull's Gulch Claim (Hydraulic). — See our Xlth Report, p. 436. R. H. 
Campbell Gold Mining Company (Limited), owners. 

Humbug Creek Prospect Workings. — On Humbug Creek there are numer- 
ous small mines and "prospect" workings, which are worked intermit- 
tently. 

Hungry Hill (Gold Run) Mine (Quartz). — This mine is on Know- 
nothing Creek, a tributary of Salmon River. The developments consist 
of numerous shafts and tunnels; the vein averages about 2 ft. wide. A. 
Dennenbrienk, of Gilta, owner. 

Hunter & Dowey Mine (Quartz). — It is between the North Fork of 
Salmon River and White's Gulch, and about 5 miles from Sawyer's Bar. 
H. Hunter and L. Dowey, of Sawyer's Bar, owners. 

Indian Girl Mine (Quartz). — This claim is about 9 miles from Horn- 
brook, on the north bank of Klamath River. The vein is exposed by an 
open cut 200 ft. long and 10 ft. deep. J. Prince, of Henley, owner. 

Ironsides Mine (Quartz). — This is in Cherry Creek District, and is 
developed by tunnels 80 and 150 ft. long and shafts from 30 to 80 ft. in 
depth; the vein averages 15 in. wide. James Ironsides et al., of Yreka, 
owners. 

Jackson Mine (Placer). — It is on Little Humbug Creek, about 3 miles 
from its mouth. B. B. Jackson, of Walker, owner. 

Jennie Mine (Quartz). — This is in Riverside District. There are two 
60 ft. tunnels. A. Haines and Geo. Hosseck, of Walker, owners. 

Jensen, Geo., Mine (Placer). — This mine is about 3 miles above the 
mouth of McKenny Creek. Geo. Jensen et al., of Oak Bar, owners. 

Jerry Lane Mine (Placer). — This property is 10^ miles below Happy 
Camp, on the north side of Klamath River. Jerry Lane, of Happy 
Camp, owner. 

Jillson Blue Gravel Mine (Hydraulic). — This claim is in Cottonwood 
District, about 20 miles N. of Yreka. See "Auriferous Conglomerate" 
in this volume. C. B. Jillson et al., of Henley, owners. 

Johnson Mine (Placer). — This mine is 6 miles above the mouth of 
Horse Creek. — Johnson, of Oak Bar, owner. 

Johnson Mine (Quartz). — This is in the Oro Fino District. The 
developments consist of several hundred feet of tunneling, and the vein 
shows a thickness of from 4 in. to 3 ft. Johnson Estate, owner; J. 
Moxley and Chas. Jenner, of Etna, agents. 

Jumbo Gold Mine (Quartz). — This is 6 miles from Sawyer's Bar, 
between the headwaters of Eddy's and White's gulches, and comprises 
6,000 by 600 ft. The vein courses N.E. and dips 45° N., between ~ slate 
and porphyry walls, with a width varying from 3 to 8 ft. The quartz 
is low grade, with a small percentage of sulphurets. There is a 10-stamp 
mill on the property. The mine is being developed through tunnels. 
Dr. A. C. Helm and H. J. Eldridge, of Sawyer's Bar, owners. 

Junction Bar Mine (Placer). — This is at the mouth of Scott River. 
Lang & Co,, owners. 

Keaton Mine (Placer). — This mine is on Hungry Creek. T. J. Keaton, 
of Henley, owner. 

Kettlewood & Tibbets Mine (Placer). — This claim is about 3^ miles 
above the mouth of Seiad Creek. W. Kettlewood and F. Tibbets, of 
Seiad, owners. 



286 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

Klein's Claim (Hydraulic and Drift). — This is in the vicinity of 
Sawyer's Bar, and comprises about three fourths of a mile of the river. 
The bank is 60 ft. in height; the drifting is carried out on a lower bar 
and extends 150 ft. Water is obtained from Jessup's Gulch, and lasts 
five months in the year. A derrick and one giant are used. W. E. 
Klein, of Sawyer's Bar, owner. 

Knownothing Mine (Quartz). — This mine is on Knownothing Creek, a 
tributary of Salmon River. The developments consist of three tun- 
nels, the longest of which is about 1,000 ft. in length. The vein varies 
in thickness from a few inches to 3 ft. W. P. Bennett and L. Bevan, of 
Forks of Salmon, owners. 

Lain Mine (Hydraulic). — This is 3^ miles below Hamburg Bar, on 
the south side of Klamath River. Lain Bros., of Hamburg Bar, owners. 

Lange Mine (Hydraulic). — This mine is on Barkehouse Creek. Nelson 
Lange, of Barkehouse, owner. 

Lango Mine (Quartz). — This claim is on Barkehouse Creek, about 16 
miles W. of Yreka. The developments consist of numerous tunnels and 
shafts; the vein is about 1 ft. wide. There is a 5-stamp mill run by 
water power. J. S. Cleland, of Yreka, owner. 

Last Chance Mine (Drift). — This is one fourth of a mile north of 
Callahans, and comprises 20 acres of patented land. The work is carried 
on in the bed of the river; the gravel is about 50 ft. deep. A shaft had 
been sunk and 50 ft. drifted on the bedrock, when the water broke in. 
The gold on the bedrock is coarse. The gravel contains gold throughout, 
and pays $4 a day to the man. Denny, Flak et al., of Callahans, 
owners. 

Last Chance (Lindsey) Mine (Quartz). — This mine is in Oro Fino 
District. The developments consist of a 300 ft. tunnel and other work- 
ings; the vein is said to be 6 to 18 -in. in width. R. S. Lindsey, of Oro 
Fino, owner. 

Lee Mine (Hydraulic). — This claim is at the mouth of Seiad Creek, on 
the north bank of Klamath River. Chinese Company, owners. 

Lee Moy Mine (Placer). — This is on the south side of Klamath River. 
Lee Moy & Co., of Gottville, owners. 

Leonard Mine (Placer). — This consists of two claims situated about 6 
miles below Oak Bar, in the bed of the Klamath River. W. Leonard, 
of Oak Bar, owner. 

Liberty Mine (Quartz). — It is in Eddy's Gulch, about 5 miles from 
Sawyer's Bar. J. S. Hughes et al., of Sawyer's Bar, owners. 

Lime Gulch Mine (Placer). — This claim is on the north side of Klam- 
ath River, at the mouth of Lime Gulch. Chinese Company, owners. 

Little Humbug Mine (Placer). — This is at the mouth of Little Hum- 
bug Creek. B. B. Jackson, of Walker, owner. 

Live Yankee Mine (Quartz). — See our Xlth Report, p. 432. 

Low Mine (Placer). — It is on the south side of Klamath River, about 
6 miles above American Bar. W. Low, of Henley, owner. 

Lowden Mine (Hydraulic). — This claim is about 3 miles below Ham- 
burg Bar, on the south bank of the Klamath River. J. S. Lowden, of 
Hamburg Bar, owner. 

Lowden Bros.' Mine (Placer). — This claim is on Seiad Creek, about 3 
miles above its mouth. 

Lucky Baldwin Mine (Drift). — This is near Callahans, and is a river 
claim of 1,500 ft. in length and 450 ft. wide. The gravel bank is about 
50 ft. deep. A. H. Bar and P. Holden, of Callahans, owners. 



GOLD SISKIYOU COUNTY. 287 

Lucky Bob Mine (Hydraulic). — This mine is at Empire Bar, on the 
north bank of the Klamath, and about 100 ft. above the river. M. 
Freshour, of Gottville, owner. 

Luke Shaw Mine (Drift). — This property is about 4 miles S. of 
Hooperville, on Indian Creek. There is said to be a drainage tunnel 
at this mine which is more than a mile in length. Chinese Company, 
owners. 

Mabel Mine (Quartz). — This is 7 miles E. from Scott's Bar, and com- 
prises one claim. The vein courses E. of N., with a dip of 35° W., 
between porphyry walls 2 ft. apart. W. A. Chamberlain, of Yreka, 
owner. 

Moloney Mine (Hydraulic). — This mine is on the North Fork of 
Salmon River, about 3 miles below Sawyer's Bar. 

Maplesden Mine (Hydraulic). — This claim is 3^ miles below Hamburg 
Bar, on the north side of Klamath River. W. Maplesden, of Hamburg 
Bar, owner. 

Maplesden Mine (Drift). — This is at Hamburg Bar, on the south side 
of Klamath River. Maplesden & Sons, of Hamburg Bar, owners. 

Martin Andrews Mine (Drift). — This is at Scott's Bar, on Scott River. 
W. Bennett, of Scott's Bar, owner. 

Mathevjson Mine (Quartz). — This is in Cherry Creek District. The 
developments consist of an 80 ft. and a 150 ft. tunnel, and shafts from 
30 to 80 ft. in depth; the vein shows an average width of about 15 in. 
James Ironsides et al., of Yreka, owners. 

McCauley Mine (Drift). — This claim is on Scott River, about 3^ miles 
above its mouth. The developments consist of a 200 ft. tunnel. James 
McCauley & Son, of Scott's Bar, owners. 

McCoy Mine (Placer). — This mine is on Hungry Creek, and is owned 
by M. Romaine, of Coles. 

McCrey & Maplesden Mine (Hydraulic). — This mine is about one 
fourth of a mile above Hamburg Bar, on the south side of Klamath 
River. R. McCrey and B. F. Maplesden, of Hamburg Bar, owners. 

McGuffy & Falkenstein Mine (Drift). — This mine is at Scott's Bar. G. 
McGuffy and Lewis Falkenstein, of Scott's Bar, owners. 

McMahon's Claim (Drift). — This is a river claim, one fourth of a mile 
from Callahans, with 300 ft. front, running back 200 ft. into the ridge. 
There is a tunnel 750 ft. long, with 12 ft. of a gravel breast; the gravel 
is 25 ft. high. The bedrock is swelling serpentine. From 8 to 10 tons 
of gravel, said to be of high grade, are taken out per day. J. W. 
McMahon, of Callahans, owner. 

McNeal Mine (Hydraulic). — This claim is on the east side of Salmon 
River, and about 4^ miles below Forks of Salmon. George McNeal, of 
Forks of Salmon, owner. 

McNeaVs Bar Mine (Hydraulic). — It is at Forks of Salmon, and on 
the south side of the river. W. P. Bennett, of Forks of Salmon, owner. 

Metropolitan Mine (Quartz). — This mine is in White's Gulch, about 4 
miles from Sawyer's Bar. It is stated that the developments consist of 
a 200 ft. tunnel; also that there are two veins in this mine, both of 
which are about 4 ft. in thickness. A. Parker and others, of Etna, 
owners. 

Midwinter Mine (Quartz). — It is on the south side of Klamath River, 
about 8 miles from Hornbrook. The developments consist of a 60 ft. 
tunnel and other workings. There are three other tunnels situated not 



288 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

far from this, which are owned by the company. W. B. Edmondson 
& Co., of Henley, owners. 

Milich Mine (Hydraulic). — This property is on the east side of 
Salmon River, about \\ miles below Forks of Salmon. P. Milich, of 
Forks of Salmon, owner. 

Milligan's Bar Mine (Hydraulic). — This claim is about 17 miles below 
Happy Camp, on the north side of Klamath River. B. Goodwin, of 
Happy Camp, owner. 

Missouri Bar Mine (Placer). — This mine is on the South Fork of the 
Salmon River, about 2 miles above the "Forks." W. P. Bennett, of 
Forks of Salmon, owner. 

Montez Mine (Hydraulic). — This is on Salmon River, about 5 miles 
from its mouth. Clark et al., of Somes' Bar, owners. 

Montezuma Mine (Hydraulic). — This is half a mile S. from Callahans, 
and comprises 40 acres. The claim is a part of a river bed, with a 20 
ft. bank of gravel, on the South Fork of Scott River. The gold is both 
coarse and fine; the former lies near the bedrock. The gold sells for 
$17 50 per ounce. Twenty-two men work in the claim. Chinese 
Company, owners. 

Montezuma Hill Mine (Hydraulic). — This claim is 14 miles below 
Happy Camp, on the north side of Klamath River. H. Gasquet, of Del 
Norte, owner. 

Moore & Descher Claim (Drift). — This is 3 miles below Sawyer's Bar, 
and comprises 20 acres. The property is on a former bench of the 
river, the bank being 100 ft. high, with 12 ft. of gravel. The develop- 
ments consist of a 150 ft. tunnel, with 40 ft. of gravel breasts carried 
6 ft. high, timbered with post and cap. Twelve carloads of gravel, of 
1,500 lbs., are extracted per day. The gold is worth $17 50 per ounce. 
G. A. Moore and J. Descher, of Sawyer's Bar, owners. 

Mountain Belle Mine (Quartz). — It is 1 mile up from the junction of 
Eliza Fork with North Fork of Humbug Creek. See our Xlth Report, 
p. 444. Cartwright & Phillips, of Yreka, owners. 

Mountain Lion and Ohio Mines (Quartz). — These mines are about 5 
miles from Hornbrook, on the north side of Klamath River. There are 
two 50 ft. tunnels and various open cuts. W. A. Jacobs and J. Thomp- 
son, of Ashland, Oregon, owners. 

Mount Sterling Mine (Placer). — This is on Mount Sterling, and about 
18 miles W. of Coles. P. Flett, of Coles, owner. 

Muck-a-Muck Mine (Hydraulic). — This claim is about 5 miles above 
Happy Camp, on the north side of Klamath River. Mrs. M. Reeve, of 
Happy Camp, owner. 

Myers Mine (Placer). — This is about half a mile below Hamburg Bar,, 
and on the south side of Klamath River. W. F. Myers, of Hamburg 
Bar, owner. 

Myers & Smith Claim (Drift). — This is half a mile from Sawyer's 
Bar, on the north side of Salmon River, and comprises 40 acres of 
patented land. The ground, which is a high bar, is nearly worked out. 
Myers & Smith, of Sawyer's Bar, owners. 

Nave & Green Mine (Placer). — This mine is on Hungry Creek. J. C. 
Nave and W. Green, of Henley, owners. 

Neft & Sons Mine (Placer). — This claim is about 3^ miles above the 
mouth of Horse Creek. Neft & Sons, of Oak Bar, owners. 

Nelson Mine (Quartz). — See our Xlth Report, p. 446. 



GOLD — SISKIYOU COUNTY. 289 

New York Mine (Quartz). — This is at Hooperville, on Indian Creek. 
The developments consist of a 600 ft. tunnel and other workings; the 
vein is from 1 to 8 ft. wide. E. W. Miller, of Fort Jones, owner. 

Nicklet Mine (Quartz).— This mine is on Rattlesnake Creek. The 
developments consist of 500 ft. of tunneling; the vein averages 8 in. in 
width. C. Nicklet, of Sawyer's Bar, owner. 

Nigger Hill Mine (Hydraulic). — This claim is on the South Fork of 
Salmon River, about 2\ miles above Forks of Salmon. W. P. Bennett, 
of Forks of Salmon, owner. 

Nolan Mine (Placer). — This mine is on the South Fork of Scott River. 
E. Nolan, of Callahans, owner. 

Nolan's Bar Mine (Hydraulic). — This mine is about half a mile below 
Cottage Grove, on the south side of the Klamath. H. Thomas, of Cot- 
tage Grove, owner. 

North Star Mine (Quartz). — See Boyle Mine. 

Nuggett Bar Mine (Placer). — It is on the South Fork of Salmon River, 
about 8 miles above Forks of Salmon. Alex. Parker & Son, of Etna, 
owner. 

Oak Grove Mine (Drift). — This is on McAdam Creek. J. A. Lincoln and 
M. Finley, of Fort Jones, owners. 

Ock Mine (Hydraulic). — This claim commences about 2^ miles below 
Happy Camp, and extends up the northern bank of the river for a dis- 
tance of about 3 miles. Chinese Company, owners. 

Old Buckeye Bar Mine (Placer). — This mine is on McKenny Creek. 
A. Jackson, of Walker, owner. 

Old Fort Jones Mine (Placer). — It is on the north side of Klamath 
River, about a quarter of a mile below Empire Bar. Chinese Company, 
owners. 

Old Kanaka Mine (Hydraulic). — This claim is on Virginia Bar, on the 
north side of the Klamath. Geo. Simmons, of Hawkinsville, owner. 

Olive Mine (Quartz). — This is at Hooperville, on Indian Creek. The 
developments consist of two 300 ft. tunnels. J. W. Smith, of Fort 
Jones, owner. 

Olsen Claim (Hydraulic). — This is on the North Fork of Salmon 
River, 9 miles below Sawyer's Bar, and comprises 20 acres. The bank 
is 70 to 80 ft. high, carrying 15 ft. of gravel. The water is derived from 
a neighboring gulch; the season is short. One giant and a 2 ft. flume 
are used. Fred Olsen, of Sawyer's Bar, owner. 

Oregon Bar Mine (Placer). — This mine is on the north bank of 
Klamath River, about half a mile above the mouth of Shasta River. 

Oregonian Mine (Quartz). — This is 3 miles N.E. from Sawyer's Bar, 
in Rattlesnake Gulch, and comprises four claims. The vein courses E. 
and W., dips 40° N., and is from 6 to 8 in. wide, between granite walls. 
Henry H. Hunter, of Sawyer's Bar, owner. 

Osceola Mining Company (Quartz). — This is 7 miles E. of Sawyer's 
Bar, and comprises 3,000 by 600 ft. The vein courses N.E., but has not 
been struck yet in the tunnel. There is a 5-stamp mill on the property. 

Patterson Mine (Hydraulic). — This claim is on Beaver Creek. Pat- 
terson Bros., of Coles, owners. 

Peters' Mine (Quartz). — This is in White's Gulch, about 6 miles from 
Sawyer's Bar. Peters Bros., of Sawyer's Bar, owners. 

Phillips & Cartwright Mine ( Quartz )r — This mine is 8 miles W. of 
Yreka. The developments consist of three tunnels, varying from 200 to 
19m 



290 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

300 ft. in length, and a 300 ft. incline. Phillips & Cartwright, of Yreka, 
owners. 

Phillips Mine (Placer). — This is about 4 miles above the mouth of 
Seiad Creek. B. Phillips & Son, of Seiad, owners. 

Phil Mott Mine (Placer). — This mine is about half a mile below 
Empire Bar, on the north side of Klamath River. Chinese Company, 
owners. 

Pierson, Jack, Mine (Placer). — This claim is on Little Humbug Creek, 
about 1 mile above its mouth. J. Pierson, of Walker, owner. 

Pierson Mine (Placer). — This is on Humbug Creek. H. White, of 
Walker, owner. 

Pitts Mine (Quartz). — This property is in the Oro Fino District. The 
developments consist of a 200 ft. tunnel; the vein varies from 2 in. to 
1 ft. in width. J. Pitts, of Oro Fino, owner. 

Pollard Claim (Drift). — It is a short distance from Callahans, on the 
South Fork of Scott River, with 900 ft. face and running back into the 
hill. The working tunnel is between 600 and 700 ft. long; breasts 100 
ft. long and 6 ft. high. The channel has the same course as the river, 
and is 12 ft. wide. Next to the bedrock the gravel is cemented and con- 
tains coarse black gold. Jacob Pollard, of Callahans, owner. 

Pool Mine (Quartz). — This is on Hungry Creek. There is a 180 ft. 
tunnel. C. B. Poole et al., of Henley, owners. 

Portuguese Bar Mine (Hydraulic). — This mine is about 5 miles below 
Seiad, on the north bank of the Klamath. Jas. Camp, of Fort Jones, 
owner. 

Preckel Mine (Hydraulic). — This claim is on Sawmill Creek, about 
one fourth of a mile from Scott's Bar. H. Preckel, of Scott's Bar, 
owner. 

Prince Consort Mine (Quartz). — This is in Cottonwood District. Devel- 
opments consist of a 180 ft. tunnel. Herman Adams, of Henley, agent. 

Providence Mine (Quartz). — This mine is situated in the Oro Fino 
District. The developments consist of a 300 ft. tunnel; the vein has an 
average width of 16 in. Carson & Cradle, of Oro Fino, owners. 

Quartz Hill Mine (Hydraulic and Quartz). — This is in Scott's Bar 
District, about 14 miles W. of Yreka, at an elevation of 400 ft. above 
the river. The surface paid well to hydraulic, while beneath large 
bodies of quartz have been exposed, that are being worked. There is a 
10-stamp mill on the property, run by steam and water power. See our 
Xlth Report, p. 447. Quartz Hill Mining Company, of San Francisco, 
owners; — Humphries, of Scott River, Superintendent. 

Quigley Mine (Placer). — This is situated on Beaver Creek, about 5 
miles from its mouth. W. Quigley, of Walker, owner. 

Ramus Mine (Placer). — This mine is on Scott River, about half a 
mile above its mouth. J. Ramus, of Scott River, owner. 

Red Hill Mine (Hydraulic). — This is at Gilta, between the South 
Fork of Salmon River and Knownothing Creek, and comprises 160 acres. 
The pit has a 30 ft. bank 200 ft. long, with 12 ft. of gravel next the 
bedrock, with soil capping. It comprises both a bench and a back 
channel. Water is obtained from Knownothing Creek, through 3 miles 
of ditch, carrying 1,500 in. of water, which is delivered through several 
thousand feet of 15 in. and 11 in. pipe to two giants, using 4^ in. nozzles, 
under a pressure of from 250 to 300 ft. The best pay is in the 3 ft. of 
gravel next to the bedrock. The dump is 100 ft. down into the river. 



GOLD — SISKIYOU COUNTY. 291 

There are two flumes, consisting of 90 and 80 boxes 3 ft. wide, set on a 
grade of 4-| and 6 in., which are cleaned up once a month, the gold 
being worth $17 75 per ounce. The company own a sawmill; timber is 
plentiful. Parker Bros., of Etna, owners. 

Reeves, J., Mine (Hydraulic). — This mine is about 8 miles above 
Happy Camp, on both sides of the Klamath River. See our Xlth 
Report, p. 443. Joe Reeves, of Happy Camp, owner. 

Reider Mine (Quartz). — This mine is on the south side of Klamath 
River, about 8 miles from Hornbrook. The developments consist of an 
open cut 200 ft. long and 10 ft. deep. J. Prince et al., of Henley, 
owners. 

Reliable Mine (Quartz). — It is in the Hungry Creek District. There 
are two tunnels 30 and 175 ft. long. J. L. Coyle, of Hornbrook, owner. 

Rider & Fabricius Mine (Placer). — This is on Hungry Creek. Rider & 
Fabricius, of Walker, owners. 

Rhinebold Mine (Placer). — This mine is situated on the East Fork of 
Salmon River. J. J. Rhinebold, of Cecilville, owner. 

Roberts Mine (Quartz). — This claim is in Eddy's Gulch, about 5 miles 
from Sawyer's Bar. E. Roberts, of Sawyer's Bar, owner. 

Robinson Mine (Placer). — This is about 6 miles above the mouth of 
Scott River. J. Robinson, of Scott River, owner. 

Robinson Mine (Placer). — This mine is about 4 miles above the mouth 
of Horse Creek. W. Boles, of Oak Bar, owner. 

Santa Teresa Mine (Quartz). — This mine is on Hungry Creek, and 
has a 10-stamp mill. Staples, Moore & Co., San Francisco, owners. 

Sauerkraut Mine (Hydraulic). — This property is on the east side of 
Salmon River, about 5 miles below Forks of Salmon. Chinese Com- 
pany, owners. 

Saxild Mine (Placer). — It is 3 miles above the mouth of Dutch Creek. 
J. Saxild, of Gottville, owner. 

Schroeder Mine (Quartz). — This mine is in Deadwood Creek, about 7 
miles W. of Yreka. It embraces a group of five or six locations. The 
developments consist of several tunnels and stopes, in all several thou- 
sand feet of work. At this mine there are said to be several veins, 
which vary from 3 to 20 ft. in width. Thirty-five men are employed. 
There is a 10-stamp mill and two Frue concentrators. J. H. C. Schroeder, 
of Yreka, owner. 

ScotVs Mountain (Crawford) Mine (Placer). — This mine is on the East 
Fork of Scott River. R. Crawford, of Callahans, owner. 

Sheffield Mine (Hydraulic). — This mine is on the North Fork of 
Salmon River, about 2 miles below Sawyer's Bar. E. Sheffield of 
Sawyer's Bar, owner. 

Sheffield Mine (Quartz). — This mine is situated upon the ridge between 
Eddy's Gulch and White's Gulch, about 4 miles E. of Sawyer's Bar. 
The developments consist of several thousand feet of tunneling. There 
are two veins, one a blanket ledge about 8 ft. in width, and another vein, 
which is 2 ft. wide. There is an 8-stamp mill at this mine, which is 
run by water power. Sheffield Estate, owners; E. Sheffield, of Sawyer's 
Bar, agent. 

Shell Mine (Placer). — This is in Quartz Valley District. W. Shell, of 
Fort Jones, owner. 

Shiner Mine (Hydraulic). — This claim is about 8 miles below Seiad, 
on the north side of Klamath River. Shiner Bros., of Seiad, owners. 



292 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

Short Mine (Quartz). — It is on Trail Creek, a tributary to East Fork 
of Salmon River. It is said that developments consist of a 100 ft. shaft 
and a 140 ft. tunnel; vein shows an average width of about 18 inches. 
W. Walters & Co., of Callahans, owners. 

Short Mine (Placer). — This mine is on Trail Creek, a tributary of the 
East Fork of Salmon River. W. F. Short, of Callahans, owner. 

Shumway Mine (Placer). — This is on the North Fork of Salmon River, 
near Forks of Salmon. Shumway Bros., of Forks of Salmon, owners. 

Side Hill Mine (Hydraulic). — This mine is on the South Fork of 
Scott River. Chinese Company, owners. 

Sightman Mine (Hydraulic). — This claim is on the South Fork of 
Salmon River, about 20 miles above the Salmon. George Sightman, of 
Cecilville, owner. 

Skunk Hill Mine (Hydraulic). — This is about 1^ miles from Scott's 
Bar. Reynolds & Jacobs, of Scott River, owners. 

Smith's Claim (Drift). — This is in the immediate vicinity of Calla- 
hans, and comprises 300 ft. of the river front, running 200 ft. back. 
The gravel is about 25 ft. thick and prospects well. H. Smith, of Calla- 
hans, owner. 

Smith Mine (Quartz). — It is on French Creek, a tributary of Scott 
River. It is stated that the developments consist of a 50 ft. shaft and 
other workings, and that the vein shows an average width of about 2 ft. 
At this mine there is a 5-stamp mill, run by water power. J. Smith, of 
Callahans, owner. 

Smith Mine (Quartz). — This mine is on the south side of Klamath 
River, about 4 miles above American Bar. The developments consist 
of several hundred feet of tunnels and stopes. There is a 5-stamp mill 
at this mine, run by water power. J. E. Smith et al., of Henley, owners. 

Smith Mine (Drift). — This claim is about 6-| miles above Happy 
Camp, on the north side of Klamath. M. Smith, of Happy Camp, 
owner. 

Smith <k Harvey Mine (Placer). — This mine is in Cottonwood District. 
W. Smith and A. Harvey, of Yreka, owners. 

Smith & Marion Mine (Quartz). — This is in White's Gulch, and about 
4 miles from Sawyer's Bar. It is stated that the developments consist 
of a 300 ft. tunnel; the vein is about 3 ft. wide. Smith & Marion, of 
Sawyer's Bar, owners. 

Sniktaw Mines (Placer). — These mines are situated in Quartz Valley 
District. Fort Jones Mining Company, of Fort Jones, owners; N. H. 
Smith, President. 

Spangler Mine (Placer). — This mine is on Klamath River, at the mouth 
of Humbug Creek. C. Spangler, of Yreka, agent. 

Spencer Mine (Quartz). — See our Xlth Report, p. 445. 

Squaw Gulch Mine (Hydraulic). — This claim is on Squaw Gulch Creek, 
a tributary of Scott River. Jean Bolongeot, of Callahans, owner. 

Steamboat Mine (Drift). — This mine is on McAdams Creek. Geo. Smith 
and Jo Stevens, of Etna, owners. 

Stearns Mine (Hydraulic). — This mine is on Jackson Creek, a tribu- 
tary of the South Fork of Scott River. W. H. Stearns, of Callahans, 
owner. 

Steel Mine (Quartz). — This mine is in the Quartz Valley District. 
There is a 150 ft. tunnel on an 8 to 18 in. vein. Sargent Bros., of Oro 
Fino, owners. 



GOLD SISKIYOU COUNTY. 293 

Sterling Mine (Quartz). — See our Xlth Report, p. 446. 

Stewart Mine (Hydraulic). — This claim is on Indian Creek. J. Stew- 
art and J. Moore, of Fort Jones, owners. 

Stillwell Mine (Placer). — This is 4 miles above the mouth of Horse 
Creek. — Johnson, of Oak Bar, owner. 

Stockton Mine (Drift). — This mine is in Quartz Valley Mining Dis- 
trict. The developments consist of a tunnel several thousand feet in 
length and numerous drifts. Stockton Gravel Mining Company, own- 
ers; H. Radbruch, of Fort Jones, agent. 

Store Mine (Quartz). — This mine is in Quartz Valley District. There 
is a 100 ft. incline and a 300 ft. tunnel; the vein varies from 6 to 3 ft. 
in width. H. J. Diggles, of Fort Jones, owner. 

Sugar Hill Mine (Drift). — This is on Fox Creek, a tributary of the 
South Fork of Scott River. The developments consist of several hundred 
feet of tunneling. Geo. W. Smith, of Callahans, owner. 

Summer mile Mine (Hydraulic). — This claim is on the South Fork of 
Salmon River, 26 miles above Forks of Salmon. Fred Smith & Co., of 
Cecilville, owners. 

Taylor & Maplesden Mine (Drift). — This is at Hamburg Bar, on the 
south side of the Klamath. A. Taylor and B. F. Maplesden, of Ham- 
burg Bar, owners. 

Tea Bar Mine (Hydraulic). — This mine is about 5 miles below Cot- 
tage Grove, on the south side of Klamath River. 

Thomas & Dupre Mine (Quartz). — This mine is in Hungry Creek. 
The developments consist of a 30 ft. shaft and a tunnel more than 100 
ft. in length. Thomas & Dupre, of Henley, owners. 

Thompson Mine (Hydraulic). — This mine is on Hungry Creek. — 
Thompson, of Coles, owner. 

Tiger Mine (Hydraulic). — See our Xlth Report, p. 437. 

Uncle Sam Mine (Quartz). — This is 7 miles E. from Sawyer's Bar, 
and comprises 4,500 by 600 ft. The 5 ft. vein courses N. of E. and dips 
50° N., between slate and porphyry walls. There is an 8-stamp mill on 
the ground. E. Sheffield et al., of Sawyer's Bar, owners. 

U. S. (Buckhorn Boys') Claim (Placer). — This is 2-J miles below Saw- 
yer's Bar, and is a river claim 1,200 ft. long by 200 ft. wide. The four 
owners are turning the river at this point. G. A. Moore et al., of 
Sawyer's Bar, owners. 

Van Vector, Perrier & Evans Mine (Placer). — This mine is on Beaver 
Creek. Van Vector, Perrier & Evans, of Coles, owners. 

Volcano Mine (Quartz). — This claim is in Quartz Valley Mining 
District. The developments consist of an 80 ft. tunnel. The vein 
shows an average width of about 1 ft. Sargent Bros., of Oro Fino, 
owners. 

Walker Bar Mine (Hydraulic). — This claim is about 14 miles below 
Happy Camp, on the north side of the Klamath. Chinese Company, 
owners. 

Walker Bar Mine (Placer). — This is about 7 miles below Hamburg 
Bar, on the south side of Klamath River. Chinese Company, owners. 

Weston Mine (Placer). — This property is about 18 miles from the mouth 
of Thompson Creek. — Weston, of Seiad, owner. 

White Mine (Placer). — This is on Humbug Creek. Sam White, of 
Walker, owner. 



294 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

White & Rider Mines (Hydraulic). — These are on Little Humbug 
Creek, about 2\ miles from its mouth. S. White and E. Rider, of 
Walker, owners. 

Wilken Mine (Hydraulic). — This mine is on the East Fork of Scott 
River. G. Wilken, of Callahans, owner. 

Willard & Hickman Mine (Hydraulic). — This claim is one fourth of a 
mile below Hamburg Bar, on the south side of Klamath River. C. 
Willard and J. Hickman, owners. 

Willey Mine (Hydraulic). — This mine is on Beaver Creek. J. D. 
Willey, of Coles, owner. 

Willheim. Mine (Placer). — It is on Wildcat Creek, a tributary of Scott 
River. — Willheim, of Callahans, owner. 

Williams Mine (Hydraulic). — This claim is on the west side of Salmon 
River, about 6 miles below Forks of Salmon. L. Williams et al., of 
Forks of Salmon, owners. 

Willie Mine (Placer). — This mine is on McAdams Creek. Willie Com- 
pany, of Etna, owners. 

Windeler Mine (Hydraulic). — This claim is on the South Fork of 
Salmon River, and about 1^ miles above Sawyer's Bar. J. C. Windeler, 
of Sawyer's Bar, owner. 

Wingate Mine (Hydraulic). — This mine is about 9 miles below Happy 
Valley, on the north side of Klamath River. H. Gasquet, of Gasquet, 
Del Norte County, owner. 

Wood Mine (Hydraulic). — This claim is at the mouth of Thompson 
Creek, about 7 miles below Seiad, and on the north bank of Klamath 
River. J. Wood, of Seiad, owner. 

Wood, Geo., Mine (Hydraulic). — This claim is about 5 miles above 
Happy Camp, on the south side of Klamath River. J. Camp, of Fort 
Jones, owner. 

Wright & Fletcher Mine (Hydraulic). — This is in Oro Fino District. 
Wright & Fletcher, of Oro Fino, owners. 

STANISLAUS COUNTY. 

The agricultural interests are paramount, and to this end the works 
of the Turlock and Modesto Irrigation Districts are being hastened 
toward completion. In the eastern foothills, however, some gold mining 
is carried on. On the western side of the county borings have been 
made to prospect petroleum-yielding formations, and in the Mount 
Diablo range there are deposits of quicksilver, manganese, and coal, 
which will in time prove valuable. 

Ferguson Mines (Drift). — These mines are principally situated on 
land of the La Grange Hydraulic Ditch and Mining Company, and give 
employment to 6 men. 

La Grange Mining Company's Mines (Hydraulic and Drift). — They 
are situated on the Tuolumne River, at La Grange. During the winter 
of 1893-94 about 50 men were employed at these mines, and it is said 
that the privilege of working the company's ground could be secured in 
consideration of the miners selling their gold to the company, and buy- 
ing their supplies at the company's store. See our Xth Report, p. 681. 



GOLD — TEHAMA AND TULARE COUNTIES. 295 

TEHAMA COUNTY. 

Tehama County is situated at the northern end of the Sacramento 
Valley, and comprises valley, foothill, and mountain lands, nearly in 
equal proportions. 

Owing to its geographical position, this county usually enjoys a larger 
rainfall than any other county in the Central Valley of California. The 
valleys and foothills are devoted to agriculture, fruit-growing, and stock- 
raising. In the mountainous portions of the county the mineral 
deposits which have hitherto been developed are not numerous, but there 
is an immense body of chromic iron, for which there appears to be an 
increasing demand. There are also other minerals which have not as 
yet been turned to practical account. 

In this county there are numerous mineral springs, whose remedial 
virtues are greatly extolled, the most noted being Tuscan Springs, in the 
foothills of the Sierra. 

In 1889, a ledge of gold-bearing rock was discovered by H. Ragland, 
on the North Fork of Elder Creek, and about 1-J miles N.W. of the 
property of the Tehama Consolidated Chrome Deposit Company. Shal- 
low workings developed only low-grade ore, although high assays were 
said to have been obtained from samples. 

TULARE COUNTY. 

Although chiefly interested in agriculture, the county has gold-mining 
interests that have not been fully developed, as well as quarries of 
undoubted excellence and economic value. There has been a revival in 
the mining interest in that section of country of which the White River 
Mining District forms a part, while the foothills furnish building-stone 
at a point offering many natural advantages. As this county requires 
irrigation, which depends largely on subterranean sources, and these 
currents have been subjects of former investigation by the Bureau, we 
would refer to our Xlth Report. 

Adams Flat Mines (Placer). — These mines are about 5 miles S. of Auck- 
land P. 0., and are usually worked about three months in early spring. 
A. B. Brown and B. Willis, of Auckland, owners. 

Ante-up Mine (Quartz). — It is in Pius Canon, White River Mining Dis- 
trict. In a 12 ft. shaft the vein shows a width of 6 in.; the walls are 
granitic. Chas. Newby, of White River, owner. 

Bald Mountain Mine (Quartz).— This is on Bald Mountain, in White 
River Mining District. The developments consist of two tunnels, 1,600 
and 490 ft. long, and two shafts nearly 200 ft. deep. The vein is 4 to 6 
ft. wide, with a 2 ft. pay streak; the walls are granitic. It is furnished 
with a steam hoist. The ore was formerly worked in a 10-stamp custom 
mill. J. D. Flaugher, of White River, owner. 

Barton Mine (Quartz).— It is in Sec. 21, T. 15 S., R. 25 E., and on 
Rattlesnake Creek. The developments are a 350 and a 220 ft. tunnel. 
There is a 50 ft. upraise from the latter. The 3 ft. ledge dips 75° E., in 
a granitic rock impregnated with quartz and carrying free gold. The 
country rock is principally syenite, in places schistose, and passes 
apparently into mica slate. The ore is worked in a 3^ ft. Huntington 
mill. The tailings contain a black sand, which is said to have shown 



296 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

a high value by assay. See our Xlth Report, p. 491. H. D. Barton, of 
Auckland, owner. 

Black Prince Mine (Quartz). — It is situated in Redwood Canon, about 
10 miles S.E. of Camp Badger, in the Finger Rock Mining District. 
The developments are a 50 ft. shaft and a 100 ft. tunnel. The vein is 
nearly 5 ft. wide. E. Walters, of Camp Badger, owner. 

Blue Bird Mine (Quartz). — This mine is in Finger Rock Mining Dis- 
trict, about 12 miles from Camp Badger. The developments consist of 
tunnels 65 to 120 ft. in length. Kirkland Bros., of Auckland, owners. 

Blue Mountain Mine (Quartz). — The claim is on the western slope of 
Blue Mountain, in White River Mining District. The vein, 14 in. wide, 
is nearly vertical, and courses N.E. and carries free gold with sulphu- 
rets. J. C. McDonald, of White River, owner. 

Clara Gibbons Mine (Quartz). — This is in Chileno Gulch, in White 
River Mining District. Developed by a 24 ft. shaft and open cuts. The 
vein varies in thickness from a few inches to about 2 ft., and dips about 
45° S.E. The quartz shows galena and iron pyrites. The walls are 
granitic. C. H. Gibbons and A. Bowen, of White River, owners. 

Domingo Mine (Quartz). — This claim is in the Finger Rock Mining 
District. E. Walters, of Camp Badger, owner. 

Eastern Extension of the Isian Peak Mine (Quartz). — This is situated 
in the White River Mining District. M. G. Ford, of White River, owner. 

Eclipse Mine No. 2 (Quartz). — It is in White River Mining District. 
The developments consist of a 250 ft. tunnel and a 130 ft. winze, also 
extensive stopes. The vein, 8 to 18 in. wide, dips about 60° W. of N. 
The hanging-wall is granite and the foot-wall a granitic schist, passing 
into mica slate. White River Mining Company, of London, England, 
owners; B. Allen & Co., of White River, lessees. 

Ely Mine (Quartz;.— This claim is in Sec. 27, T. 24 S., R. 29 E., 
White River Mining District. There is a 110 ft. shaft, on a 4 to 10 in. 
vein. Ross Keller, of White River, owner. 

Eschscholtzia Mine (Quartz). — It is on Lime Creek. There are two 
short tunnels on a 10 in. vein. 

Golden Treasure Mine (Quartz). — This is in Chileno Gulch, in White 
River Mining District. Developed by two open cuts. The vein is about 
1 ft. wide and dips 20° S.E. The walls are granitic. J. Jacombs, of 
White River, owner. 

Good Enough Mine (Quartz). — This claim is on the north bank of 
White River, in White River Mining District. The developments 
consist of a 110 ft. shaft, with stopes. R. Keller, of White River, owner. 

Gray Eagle Mine (Quartz). — This claim is in the Finger Rock Mining 
District. There is an 80 ft. tunnel and a 60 ft. shaft. 

Hard Tack Mine (Quartz).— It is in White River Mining District. 
The shaft is 30 ft. deep on a 6 in. vein. Norman Brown, of White 
River, owner. 

Hard Times Mine (Quartz).— This is in Chileno Gulch, White River 
Mining District. Developed by a 70 ft. tunnel and an open cut. The 
vein is 3 to 6 in. wide, and dips 30° S. J. Jacombs et al., of White 
River, owners. 

Harvest Home Mine (Quartz). — It is in White River Mining District. 
There are two shafts, 40 and 60 ft. deep, and a tunnel 40 ft. long. The 
vein is 6 to 18 in. wide. C. Wilbern, of White River, owner. 



GOLD — TULARE COUNTY. 297 

Hidden Treasure Mine (Quartz). — It is in White River Mining Dis- 
trict. The vein is 1 to 6 in. wide, and dips 30° S.E. T. F. Owens et al., 
of White River, owners. 

Homestake Mine (Quartz). — This claim is in White River Mining Dis- 
trict. The developments consist of a 300 ft. and a 125 ft. tunnel, con- 
nected by a 46 ft. upraise. The vein is 3 to 12 in. wide, and dips 80°. 
At this mine there is a 5-stamp mill. D. W. Grover and W. H. Duke, 
of White River, owners. 

Isian Peak Mine (Quartz). — This claim is near Grizzly Gulch, in 
White River Mining District. There is a 25 ft. shaft; the vein is 6 to 
12 in. wide. G. Dover, of White River, owner. 

Keys Mine (Quartz). — This claim is on the South Fork of Tule River, 
in White River Mining District. Developments consist of three shafts, 
100, 60, and 25 ft. deep, with sundry levels and stopes. H. A. Harris, 
of White River, owner. 

Last Chance (Redfield) Mine (Quartz). — This is on Bald Mountain, 
in White River Mining District. The developments consist of a 300 ft. 
tunnel and a 100 ft. shaft, with stopes. The vein is about 4 ft. in width, 
with granitic walls. J. D. Flaugher, of White River, Superintendent. 

Lucky Cuss Mine (Quartz). — This claim is in White River Mining 
District. Developed by a 100 ft. tunnel; the vein varies from a few 
inches to 3 ft. in width. B. Allen, of White River, owner. 

Mammoth Mine (Quartz). — This claim is on the Middle Fork of Tule 
River, about 40 miles E. of Lindsay, on the S. P. R. R. There is a 30 
ft. tunnel; the vein is said to be 4 ft. in width. J. Goldstein, of Lindsay, 
owner. 

Mineral King Mines. — These mines are situated in the high Sierra, at 
a distance of about 60 miles by road in a northeasterly direction from 
Visalia. See our VHIth Report, p. 646. 

Old Soldier Mine (Quartz). — This mine is situated in Drum Valley, 
and is said to yield garnets, topazolite, epidote, and tourmaline. 

Otter Mine (Quartz). — This mine is in Coarse Gold Gulch, in White 
River Mining District. There is a 100 ft. and a 60 ft. shaft, which are 
now partly filled with water. J. W. Beaver et al., of White River, 
owners. 

Page Mine (Quartz). — This claim is 7 miles N.E. of Visalia, in Sec. 
17, T. 18 S., R. 26 E. There are two small prospect shafts on a vein 
several feet in width, which appears to be formed by silicious infiltra- 
tions impregnating the country rock. The vein can be traced for several 
miles and dips 80° S.E. J. E. Prothers, of Visalia, owner. 

Pincher and Bulger Mine (Quartz). — It is on Lime Creek, a tributary 
of the Kaweah River. The developments consist of a 70 ft. incline 
and a 150 ft. tunnel. The vein averages 3 ft. wide. J. Edwards and 
D. R. Stevens, of Visalia, owners. 

Redfield Mine. — See Last Chance Mine. 

Richelieu Mine ( Quartz ) . — In White River Mining District. Developed 
by a 90 ft. shaft and a 100 ft. tunnel. The vein is about 2 ft. wide and 
dips 80° N. in granite. J. D. Flaugher, of White River, owner. 

Sarah Tucker Mine (Quartz). — It is in White River Mining District. 
A short tunnel shows a vein 8 in. to 2 ft. wide. C. Briggs, of White 
River, owner. 

Simmons Mine (Quartz). — This is an eastern extension of Bald 
Mountain Mine. The ledge now shows a width of about 3 ft. in the 



298 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

bottom of a 50 ft. shaft. J. E. Dunlap and W. Davis, of White River, 
owners. 

Standi Mine (Quartz). — It is on Bald Mountain, in White River 
Mining District. Opened by a 500 ft. tunnel, with stopes. The main 
vein is 6 to 18 in. wide, and dips 80° N. The quartz carries some 
sulphurets. There are two other veins in .this mine, the course of which 
does not coincide with that of the main lode. J. D. Flaugher, of White 
River, Superintendent. 

Sunset Mine (Quartz). — In White River Mining District. The vein 
is 7 to 18 in. wide, in micaceous slate walls. T. J. Mayfield, of White 
River, owner. 

Vulture Mine (Quartz). — This claim is in White River Mining Dis- 
trict, and is an eastern extension of the Grizzly. The developments 
consist of a 340 ft. and an 80 ft. shaft; also various drifts and stopes. 
The width of the vein varies from 6 in. to 4 ft. The ore shows sul- 
phurets and free gold. A. R. Sorrells, of White River, owner. 

Way-up Claim (Placer). — It is on Ten-Mile Creek, in Finger Rock 
Mining District, about 20 miles N.E. from Camp Badger. E. S. Balam, 
of Camp Badger, owner. 

W. Hart Mine (Quartz). — In Finger Rock Mining District, and is a 
southern extension of the Gray Eagle. W. Hart, of Camp Badger, 
owner. 

White River Mining District. — The country rock is principally syenite, 
with one or more streaks of crystalline limestone. These streaks have 
a northeasterly and southwesterly trend. Accompanying the limestone 
are copper-bearing rocks. The auriferous veins traversing the syenite 
are fissure veins, and the prevailing dip is southwesterly. In the 
western portion of the district a micaceous slate forms what is locally 
known as the " slate range," and some mines are situated thereon. 

TUOLUMNE COUNTY. 

In Tuolumne County a decided impetus has been given to the mining 
industry, both by new discoveries in mines already in operation, and by 
reopening properties which have long been idle. Heretofore more atten- 
tion was given to "pocket mining" than to mines which yield a com- 
paratively low grade of quartz, and require mills; but the list of properties 
supplied with mills is largely augmented, and accessions are constantly 
being made. Numerous transfers of mining properties are being recorded, 
and Tuolumne advances with its neighbors. 

Ah Mow Mine. — It is 1 mile N.W. of Columbia, on the " white gravel 
leads." In the summer of 1893, 12 Chinese were working a large pit 
having a superficial area of nearly 10,000 ft. and a depth of 80 ft. The 
gravel was hoisted in large frame boxes by a huge derrick at the top of 
the pit. Most of the material of this lead is white quartz. The once 
nearly or quite horizontal bed has been lifted and faulted until now it 
has a steep pitch like a vein. The edges of the faulted deposit are 
turned upward at the center, the gravel dipping both ways from the 
fault plane. The deposit is overlaid with white volcanic ash (tufa), the 
stratification of which shows the folding and faulting of the beds more 
plainly than the layer of gravel. 

Alabama Mine (Quartz). — It is \\ miles W. of Jamestown, on the 
"Mother Lode." See our Xth Report, pp. 53 and 741. A brush fire 
communicated with the hoisting works in 1893 and destroyed them. 



GOLD — TUOLUMNE COUNTY. 299 

Alameda Mine (Quartz). — One mile N.W. of Jamestown, on the 
" Mother Lode." M. B. Harriman, of Sonora, owner. 

Alta Mine (Quartz). — See our Xth Report, p. 757. 

App & Heslep Mine (Quartz). — It is on Quartz Mountain, 1 mile S.E. 
of Jamestown. See our VHIth Report, p. 660. In 1893 the water was 
taken out of the shaft with a view of resuming operations. Martin, 
Ballard & Neville, of Jamestown, owners. 

Argentum Mine (Quartz). — It is located in the American Camp 
District, 10 miles N.E. of Sonora. The developments show two veins, 
separated by 4 ft. of dike rock; both outside walls are black slate. The 
quartz contains iron and lead sulphurets and occasionally zinc-blende. 
J. B. Pownall, of Columbia, owner. 

Belcher Consolidated Mine (Quartz). — It is 1^ miles N.W. from Grove- 
land. See our VHIth Report, p. 672. Belcher Consolidated Mining 
Company (Limited), of London, England, lessees. 

Belle View (Hyde) Mine (Quartz). — See our Xth and Xlth Reports, pp. 
755 and 501. It is 6 miles N.E. of Sonora, and for a number of years 
lay dormant, but in 1889 work was resumed and has been successfully 
prosecuted ever since. Belle View Mining and Agricultural Company, 
owners. 

Big Oak Flat Region consists of a granitic area almost if not com- 
pletely surrounded by slates and schists and other metamorphic rocks. 
In this region are several large quartz veins, on which are the Cosmop- 
olite and Mississippi mines. The vein system is somewhat intricate, as 
they strike in various directions, and frequently intersect. Nearly all 
the veins cross the granite, reaching into the slates. Gold is found in 
all the veins, but usually in small amounts, and the " tellurides " are 
found in the Conrad vein, on the. east side of Big Oak Flat. The 
Mississippi vein lies near the west border of the granite. It is a large, 
well-defined vein, but low grade. 

Black Oak Mine (Quartz). — It is three fourths of a mile S.W. of 
Soulsbyville. The property also includes the Live Oak Mine. See our 
VHIth, Xth, and Xlth Reports, pp. 665, 744, and 500. Since then the 
shaft has reached a depth of 600 ft. and new levels were run. The 
quartz carries considerable iron, zinc, lead, and copper sulphurets, and 
magnetic iron pyrites (pyrrhotite). Scott, Dowe & Co., of Soulsbyville, 
owners. 

Bonanza Mine (Quartz). — This property, at Sonora, has won the 
reputation of being the most prolific producer of " pocket gold " in the 
world. Descriptions and other information concerning it may be found 
in our VHIth, IXth, Xth, and Xlth Reports, pp. 652, 736, and 511. 
Since our last publication the workings have reached a depth of 1,300 
ft. on the incline. The pockets have ranged from $4,000 to $300,000, 
usually being between $20,000 and $50,000. The Bonanza vein, as it 
may be called, is a dike "of light greenish-gray rock of felsitic texture, 
containing frequently chloritic scales. In width it varies from 8 to 16 
ft. It strikes N. 30° E., dips 20° to 25° E., and is the youngest dike in 
the region, cutting all older dikes. The slates, which are intruded by 
the dike, strike N. 30° W., and dip 65° to 70° N.E. Though the Bonanza 
dike traverses older dikes and several varieties of metamorphic rocks 
and limestone, the gold is only found associated with a pyritous slaty 
zone, 4 to 12 ft. in width. On the west side of this is an argillite with 
slaty cleavage, but having comparatively massive structure. On the 



300 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

east side is a dense quartzose rock, locally called trap, though in fact a 
metamorphic sedimentary rock. Within the belt of pyritous black slate 
occur four seams not over 3 in. in width at any place, and usually but 
a small fraction of an inch. One of these fissures separates the pyritous 
slate from the more massive slate on the west side. The others are 
within the black slate itself. The strike of these seams varies but little, 
being practically parallel and conforming to the strike of the slates. 
Occasionally in the west crevice, quartz may be found in the form of a 
little vein, and again a thin sheet of decomposed rock of undoubted 
eruptive origin. These small fissures are called " crossings." 

A second series of seams strike into the dike from the hanging-wall 
side, cutting slates and other rocks in both strike and dip. These seams 
all pitch southwestward, and are known as " gold seams." 

The dike includes, in the upper portion of the mine, three veins of 
quartz, one of which lies on the hanging-wall or upper side, one on the 
bottom, and the third about the middle. The sheets of quartz conform 
to the strike and dip of the dike. In thickness they vary from an inch 
or two to 2 ft. In the lower workings the quartz appears to have been 
concentrated in the central portion of the dike, separated from the slates 
above and below by 4 to 10 ft. of dike rock. No gold is found in this 
lower portion of the mine. The slates are, moreover, greatly disturbed 
by the intrusion of large dikes of diorite, which here almost exclude the 
slates. 

The Bonanza dike is a plane of movement as well as of displacement, 
the hanging-wall having moved upward and to the west relatively to 
the foot-wall. This diagonal movement is almost exactly 16 ft. in either 
direction. The "crossings" and "gold seams" are found in the slates of 
the foot-wall as well as on the hanging-wall, showing them to be older 
than the dikes. 

As previously stated, all the gold found in this mine was discovered 
within the narrow belt of black pyritous slate either on the hanging- 
wall or foot-wall side at contact with the quartz, or in the central 
quartz vein midway between the walls. Gold is only found, even in 
the places mentioned, where a " crossing " and a " gold seam " inter- 
sect on the plane of the quartz veins. The "crossings" and "gold 
seams " each continue through the dike, though in a somewhat erratic 
manner. Another and most remarkable thing is that the pockets of 
gold were found at alternate crossings or seams. It was found, during 
the years of operation of this mine, that these pockets of gold were dis- 
tributed with almost mechanical regularity. Bonanza Mining Com- 
pany, of Sonora, owners. 

Buchanan Mine (Quartz). — It is on the summit of a high ridge on 
the northern side of the Middle Fork of Tuolumne River, about 10 
miles E. of Sonora. It is on the " east lode." See our VHIth, Xth, 
andXIth Reports, pp. 666, 752, and 494. In 1893 a drift to connect 
with old workings was being driven. Davis & Barron, of San Fran- 
cisco, owners. 

Canondale Mine (Placer). — It is in Columbia. Diego Lorenzo & 
Co., of Columbia, owners. 

Carlotta Mine (Quartz).— This is half a mile N.W. of Summersville. 
See our Xlth Report, p. 499. 

Chaparral Mine (Quartz). — It adjoins the Buchanan Mine, 10 miles 
east of Sonora. See our Xlth Report, p. 496. 



GOLD — TUOLUMNE COUNTY. 301 

Colin & Basovitch Mine (Placer). — This is 2 miles E. of Columbia. 
In this vicinity are several shallow placer claims, which are worked by 
the ground-sluice method, and some deep pits, from which the gravel is 
hoisted by water-power derricks, dumped in large puddling bins, where 
it is disintegrated by powerful streams from " giants," and the gravel 
then passed into sluices. Colin & Basovitch, of Columbia, owners. 

Colin & Graham Mine (Quartz). — It is 2-J miles S.E. of Columbia, 
near Sawmill Flat. The mine is being reopened. It is equipped with 
a hoist and a 4-stamp mill. The vein is from 1 in. to 3 ft. in width. 
The walls are mica schist, with frequently an intrusive mass of felsitic 
rock, much decomposed. The shoots of quartz are extremely irregular, 
but the rock is of good grade. Colin, Graham & Co., of Columbia, 
owners. 

Columbus Mine (Quartz). — This is in Cherokee, 7 miles N.E. of Sonora. 
It occurs on a " swell " in the vein, caused by the deposition of a large 
lens of quartz on the hanging-wall side of the main fissure. It has 
walls of hornblende granite. After an idleness of twenty-five years, the 
mine is now being reopened. This mine and those near it all belong to 
the " east lode " series. The foot-wall vein is massive, and is separated 
by 12 ft. of broken rock and quartz from the hanging-wall vein. Capt. 
Johns, of San Francisco, lessee. 

Confidence Mine (Quartz). — It is 4^ miles N.N.E. of Soulsbyville. 
See our Xlth Report, p. 503. R. Chute, of San Francisco, owner. 

Conrad Mine (Quartz). — See Big Oak Flat region. A. Conrad, owner. 

Consolidated Eureka Mines (Quartz). — This property, in Summers- 
ville, comprises the Eureka and Dead Horse claims. The latter is in 
operation. These mines, which are in the "east lode," are described in 
our VHIth, Xth, and Xlth Reports, pp. 664, 750, and 498. A notable 
fact concerning this mine is that the best quartz is found in contact with 
a granite dike, which at places accompanies the vein. The country rock 
is mica schist and mica slate. The granite dike seldom continues in 
contact with the vein for more than 60 ft. The walls are plainly 
striated, the grooves pitching S.E., which is also the direction of the 
pitch of the pay shoot. A dike of diabase occurs near the Eureka Mine, 
a short distance N.W. of the Dead Horse. It is said that a rich pay 
shoot was found in close proximity to this dike. Alvinza Hayward, of 
San Francisco, owner. 

Consuella Mine (Quartz). — This is on the south side of the North 
Fork of Tuolumne River, a mile S.E. of Summersville, and is on the 
"east lode." Formerly well equipped, it has now been idle for years. 
The vein is from 1 to 16 ft. in width; average, 5 ft. There a're two pay 
shoots, one of which is 80 ft. long; the other is known to be 40 ft. in 
length, and it may be longer. D. B. Warfield, of Oakdale, owner. 

Cosmopolite Mine (Quartz). — It is half a mile S.E. of Big Oak Flat. 
The vein strikes N. 10° E. and dips 45° W; it has been extensively 
worked in its upper portion. The mine is working now under a lease. 
The east and west ends of the vein are in slates, and the middle portion 
in the granite of Big Oak Flat basin. A granitic dike accompanies the 
vein in that portion having slate walls. Poole, Reid & Co., of Grove- 
land, lessees. 

Darrow Mine (Quartz). — It is 5 miles W. of Sonora. It is a " pocket" 
vein, occurring in diabase. A small number of men are employed. 
Darrow & Co., of Sonora, owners. 



302 REPORT OF STATE MINERALOGIST. 

Dead Horse Mine (Quartz). — See Consolidated Eureka. 

Dutch Mine (Quartz). — See our Xth Report, p. 51. Working in 1893. 

Eureka Mine (Quartz). — It is near Sonora, on the Jamestown road. 
The vein is 4 ft. wide, in slate, which changes to chloritic schist about 
20 ft. below the surface. Fitzgerald & Co., of Jamestown, owners. 

Eureka Mine (Quartz). — See Consolidated Eureka. 

Florence Mine (Quartz). — This is 5 miles W. of Sonora, and about 4,000 
ft. E. of the " Mother Lode." It is a recent discovery, and consists of 
quartz seams in a mineralized dike of felsitic rock, the upper portion 
being much decomposed and containing free gold. The hanging-wall 
rock of the dike is diabase, through which a 120 ft. tunnel was driven 
toward the vein. The foot-wall side has a slaty structure, but is proba- 
bly altered diabase, too much decomposed to determine. Bromley & 
Orlando, of Sonora, owners. 

Ford Mine (Quartz). — See Page. 

Garfield and Virginia Mines (Quartz). — These are 12 miles E. of Sonora, 
near the Buchanan Mine, on the north side of the Main Fork of Tuol- 
umne River. The group is on the " east lode," and are well situated for 
economical mining and milling. Garfield- Virginia Mining Company, of 
Sonora, owners. 

Garrett Mine (Quartz). — See Page Mine. 

Gem Mine (Quartz). — It is on the " Mother Lode," 1^ miles N.W. of 
Jamestown. See our Vlllth and Xth Reports, pp. 663 and 742. 

Gem Mine (Quartz). — Itis3milesN.W. of Columbia. Ithas alO-stamp 
mill and hoisting works, run by water under a high head. . 

Golden Gate Mine (Quartz). — It is 1 mile S.E. of Sonora. See our Xth 
and Xlth Reports, pp. 738 and 511. Since the last report the develop- 
ments have been carried nearly 200 ft. deeper. A very complete canvas 
plant for saving the slimes escaping the vanning machines has been 
erected, and resulted in a very large saving of material, which would other- 
wise have been lost. The vein varies from a small seam to 20 ft. in width, 
occurring entirely in diorite. The quartz and auriferous sulphurets have 
been deposited in a zone of crushed rock along the sides of a plane of fault- 
ing. In some places the vein or fissure exhibits a branching tendency, 
but the main crevice is usually well defined. The diorite has a slaty, 
schistose, or splintery structure on either side of the fissure. The mine 
is strongly timbered. No "colors"' can be obtained by panning, as the 
gold is contained almost exclusively in the sulphurets. Golden Gate 
Mining Company, of Sonora, owners. 

Grizzly Mine (Quartz). — It is about 1-| miles S.E. of Summersville, 
on the "eas't lode." John Leachman, of San Francisco, owner. 

Grizzly Mine (Quartz). — This is 1 mile N. of Priest's Hotel, on the 
Yosemite road, and \\ miles N.W. from Big Oak Flat. It is a "pocket 
mine," and in operation. James & Harper, of Big Oak Flat, owners. 

Henrietta Mine (Quartz). — It is 4 miles N.E. of Summersville, on the 
North Fork of the Tuolumne River. The vein is 4 to 5 ft. wide. The 
developments consist of a 50 ft. shaft and a 130 ft. cross-cut tunnel. 
The quartz contains a heavy percentage of iron and lead sulphurets. 
C. F. Haslam, owner. 

Heslep Mine (Quartz). — See App Mine. 

Holmes Mine (Quartz). — See Miller Mine. 

Hunter (Todd & Hunter) Mine (Quartz). — It is 10 miles E. of Sonora 
and half a mile N.W. of the Buchanan, on the "east lode." It is 



GOLD— TUOLUMNE COUNTY. 303 

equipped with hoisting and milling machinery. J. P. Sullivan, of San 
Francisco, owner. 

Hyde Mine (Quartz). — See Belle View Mine. 

Isabella Mine (Quartz). — It is 1-J miles N.W. of Jamestown, on the 
" Mother Lode." 

Kanaka Mine (Quartz). — It is 6 miles E. of Groveland, on the "east 
lode." See our VHIth Report, p. 669. In 1893 a new level was being 
opened in the lowest workings. Most of the quartz milled at that time 
was being stoped from the upper levels. A deep cross-cut tunnel to 
drain and still further develop the property was under consideration. 
Louis Cassaretto, of Groveland, owner. 

Keltz Mine (Quartz). — It is 10 miles N. of Soulsbyville, near Eliza- 
beth Peak, on the South Fork of the Stanislaus. This mine is on the 
" east lode," and is one of the most important on that belt. See our Xth 
and Xlth Reports, pp. 755 and 504. The description of the Hite Mine 
covers the geological characteristics of this mine. Since the issuance of 
the last report 10 stamps have been added to the mill, making 20 stamps 
in all, with a capacity of 35 tons daily. The vein is from 1 to 10 ft. 
wide. Leechman Prospecting Company, of San Francisco, owners. 

Knox & Boyle Mine (Quartz). — See our Xth Report, p. 51. Working 
in 1893. 

Kr.iss-Cross Mine (Quartz). — It is 1 mile N. of Priest's Hotel, on the 
Yosemite stage road, and 2 miles N.W. of Big Oak Flat. A shaft 50 ft. 
deep has exposed two veins, one of 22 in. and one of 14 in. in width, 
separated by a foot of barren slaty material. It is a new prospect, 
located in 1893. Hughes & Brown, of Chinese Camp, owners. 

Lady Washington Mine (Quartz). — This is half a mile S. of Sum- 
mersville, and is on the southeast extension of the Consolidated Eureka 
Mines. See our Xth and Xlth Reports, pp. 752 and 498. A large 
amount of development shows this to be a promising mine. It was said 
that operations were to be resumed in the fall of 1893. Geologically it 
is quite similar to the Dead Horse, which it joins. F. H. Hill, of Sum- 
mersville, lessee. 

Laura and North Star Mines (Quartz). — They are on the ''east lode," 
between Cherokee and Summersville. See our Xlth Report, p. 498. 
After an idleness of several years operations were resumed on these 
mines in the summer of 1893. 

Live Oak Mine (Quartz). — See Black Oak Mine. 

Long